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Full text of "Conversations with Khahtsahlano, 1932-1954"

CONVERSATIONS WITH 

KHAHTSAHLANO 

1932 - 1954 



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COMPILED BY 

THE CITY ARCHIVIST 

VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA 




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CONVERSATIONS 
WITH 

KHAHTSAHLANO 

1932-1954 



Conversations with August Jack 

Khahtsahlano, born at Snauq, 

False Creek Indian Reserve, circa 1877, 

son of Khaytulk and 

grandson of Chief Khahtsahlanogh 






Compiled by 

Major J. S. Matthews, V.D. 

City Archivist 

City Hall 

Vancouver 

Typing and Index 

by 

Mrs. Alera Way 

1955 



April 26th, 195b. 

"CONVERSATIONS WITH 

KHAHTSAHLIIToT 

1932-1954 

Mat thews. 

Dear Dr. Lamb: 

There will be sent to you today or tomorrow, 
Canadian Pacific Express, prepaid, one of the five bound and 
indexed typescript copies of this compilation. It is number- 
leas verbatim records, typed the day they — the conversations — 
took place ovdr the years 1932 to 1954. 

August Jack Khahtsahlano, born 1877, six feet 
tall, is the son of Khay-tulk, and grandson of Khatsajilanogh , 
a chief of the Squamish tribe of Indians, and from whose name 
the suburb of Kitsilano is called. His wife is Swanamia in 
Indian, Mary Ann in Snglish; both are living and have chil- 
dren; their home is on the Capilano Indian Reserve; his 
father's home was on the False Creek Indian Reserve; his 
grandfather's home on the First Narrows, Stanley Park. All 
three men were fine Indians. For ceremonial purposes they 
wore masks; two of these are in the City Archives. The 
name Khahtsahlano is not used by the Indian department, but 
it is recorded at Victoria, by deed poll, long years before 
the "Change of Name Act" was passed, and is the name by which 
he is commonly referred to, both in speech and in the press. 

August does not read nor write, but can draw 
in line or paint in colour, and has done some quite good 
work in oils. He is the most reliable historian of Indian 
life in these parts, before the whiteman came, whom we 
have. He has been very observant, does not exaggerate; a 
strong supporter of the Catholic Church; can make an im- 
pressive speech, and, upon occasion, can entertain with 
dancing, etc. He is an entirely different character to 
those Indian entertainers who are "show men"; who are 
said to make up Indian tradition and lore to suit their 
audience, and as they rattle along. August is dependable. 

Commencing about 1932 we had frequent con- 
versations. Invariably I put down what he said in his own 
words the day he said it, and frequently read back to him 
what I had typed, and he corrected or added. His recollec- 
tions go back to about 1881, about five years before Vancou- 
ver was named, and when the only habitations on its site 
were a few whitewashed dwellings facing a crescent bee.cn 
about 100 yarcLs long. At that time potlachs, attended by 
as many as 2,000 Indians, were sometimes held in Stanley 
Park. As a boy he listened to his elders relate of warfare 



- 2 - 

with bow and arrow. Today he is frequently a guest at 
formal dinners, and sometimes speaks, where dinner dress 
is worn by the other guests. Therefore he is a living 
link from what I call the "stone age" to what he calls the 
"Relief Age" (Unemployment and Relief). 

Therefore I thought it proper to record the 
spoken words of an Indian who had witnessed, and partici- 
pated in, the transition in these parts from the dug-out 
canoe to the electric trolley bus, and place one copy in 
Victoria and one in Ottawa, in case misadventure should be- 
fall the others in Vancouver. 

Most sincerely, 



"J. S. Matthews" 



Dr. W. Kaye Lamb, 

Public Archives of Canada 

Vancouver. 



"These records are not copyright but are my 
possessions. Nothing to do with City 
Archives." JSM. 



DEPUTY MINISTER'S OFFICE 




PUBLIC ARCHIVES 
OF CANADA 



Ottawa 2, May 2n<jL, 1955. 



Major J. S. Matthews, 
City Archivist, 
City Hall, 
Vancouver 10, B. C. 

Dear Major Matthews: 

The copy of Conversations with Khahtsahlano 
arrived safely on Friday, and I hasten to acknowledge the 
gift, and to tell you how pleased and interested I was to 
see the volume. Its compilation was a remarkable enterprise, 
and I know sufficient about you and about the Indians to 
appreciate the care with which the work was done, and the 
infinite patience and human understanding that it required. 
The completed work must give you a vast amount of satisfaction. 

Your letter of April 26 explains the background 
of the book so completely and satisfactorily that I think I 
shall have it tipped into the volume, for the information of 
those who have occasion to use it. 

Thank you for sending me the invitation to 
the anniversary dinner held on April 4th . It is pleasant 
to be remembered. I am sure that you had a thoroughly 
interesting and enjoyable evening. 

With best wishes, 

Yours sincerely, 



kX. 



,c 



WKL/sw 



—J 

Wm. Kaye Lamb. 
Dominion Archivist. 



INDEX OF PIONEERS 

AND THEIR CONVERSATIONS 



Ball, F. J. C. 2 

Khahtsahlano , August Jack 3. 201 

Tate. C. M. 155, 294 

Paull, Andrew 182 

Stogan, Chief 105 

Walker, Mrs. James 195 

Wilkie, Otway 202, 292 

Botterell, T. 207 

Sentell, £. B. 219 

Parker, P. C. 231 

Morton, Mrs. Ruth 232 

Murray, John 235 

Nye, Alfred J. 235 

McCraney, Mr. and Mrs. H. P. 236 

Rowling, Henry S. 236 

Bowlings, Harry 3. 238 

McDonald , Duncan 239 

Cary, George 240, 246 

Isaacs, Diok 240, 268 

Hill-Tout, Prof. Chas. 219, 225, 241 

Bower, Mrs. Ruby M. 243, 252 

Benbow, Mrs. H. A. 244 

Charlton, Ormond Lee 248 

Trotter, Quintin James 248 

Crakanthorp, Mrs. Alice 249 

Franks, Jim 253 

Grafton, William A. 258 

Innes, John 261, 269 

Harris, Mr. and Mrs. Frank 263 

Home, A. P. 264 

Kenryn, Ronald 265 

Hackle, William 270 

Matheson, D. A. 272 

Williams, Madeline 272 

Dlante , Frank 275 

Mitchell, A. H. 279 

Raley, G. H. 281 

Ridley, H. E. 283 

Simaon, Calrin 284, 286 

Smith, D. R. 285 

TTltes, E. .E. 290 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

8A Portrait of August Jack. 

8B Portrait of Swanamia. 

8C Indian villages and landmarks, Burrard Inlet and English Bay. 

8D Indian villages and landmarks, Burrard Inlet and Howe Sound. 

24A Indian village names, sketches by Haatsilano, 1932. 

24B Chip-kaay-m, fighting bear. 

24C Whoi-whoi, Ahka-chua, and Chaythoos, painting by August Jack. 

24D Diagrams by August Jack, Tay-hay, Whoi-whoi, Khay-tulk's grave. 

24E Construction of ranch house at Whoi-whoi. (Lumberman's Arch). 

24F Stanley Park trail. Watercolour by Hamilton. 

24G Survey of First Narrows by R.E. 1863. 

24H Chaythoos clearing. Site of opening and dedication of Park. 

40A Prospect Point, and wreck of "Beaver". 

40B Sahunz or Sung. 

40C Skull. Indian surgery. 

40D Inside habitation, Nootka. 

56A False Creek Indian Reserve (Snauq), two photos, 1891. 

56B Indian midden. Stanley Park Road. (Whoi-whoi). 

56C Spratt's Oilery, Coal Harbour, 1884. 

56D Building a ranch house, Alert Bay. 

72A Potlatch at Alert Bay. 

72B Potlatch at Alert Bay. 

72C Indian woman cooking salmon. 

72D August Jack, photo, in plain clothes. 

72E Fire. How Indians made fire. 

72F Baptismal certificates, 1869, 1879. 

72G August Jack changes name from English to Squamish. 

72H Re deed changing name and re his father Khay-tulk. 

104C Jerry's Cove, map of. 

104D First Narrows as Capt. Vancouver saw it, and Octopus Rock. 

104A Second Beach. 

120B Religious flag, Roman Catholic. 

I20A Description of meaning. 

104B Cedar bark rope, hand made. 

120C Preparing moose skin. 

I20D Salmon Temple. 

120E Indian stone bowl. 

120F Entrance to False Creek as Narvaez saw it, 1791. 

120G "Santa Saturnina", 1791, sketch by August Jack. 

120H Another sketch by August Jack of "Santa Saturnina". 

136A Point Atkinson, sketch by August Jack. 

136B Kitsilano Indian Reserve, 1907, shore of. 

136C Felling a tree, Indian method, stone tools. 

136D Chaythoos and Supplejack's grave. Painting by August Jack. 

1 36E Chaythoos, Stanley Park, map of - by August Jack. 

136F Ar-mat.se. Indian girl in cedar dress. 

136G "Faithful Jim". 

136H Lost Lagoon, 1868, forest scene. 

I52A Indian Mission, North Vancouver, 1889, with church and canoes. 

I52B Indian canoes, foot of Richards Street, circa 1890. 

152C Mask. Great-grandfather Khahtsahlanogh's. 

I52D Mask. Khaktsahlano's grandfather. 

152E Mask. Khay-tulk's. 

152F Mask. Khay-tulk's. 

152G Potlatch at Quamichan. 

152H Potlatch at Quamichan. 

216A Indians going to London to see the King. 

216B Genealogy of Ki-ap-a-la-no. 

216C Indian grave in tree. 

216D Corpus Christi ceremony, North Vancouver. 

224E Corpus Christi ceremony, North Vancouver. 

224F Kitsilano Beach, 1861. Willis. 

224G Seymour Creek, Indian Reserve. 

224H Canoes. Types of Indian canoes. 

280A Paddles. Types of Indian paddles. 

280B Tents (kliskwis). 

280C Esquimalt fish drying racks. 



• 



AUGUST JACK KHAHTSAHLANO, T 946 




Son of Khaytulk, or "Supple Jack" of Chaythoos, and grandson of Chief Khahtsahlanogh 
(no European name) in whose honour the suburb of Kitsilano, Vancouver, is named. On 
12th February, 1879, he was baptized by Rev. Father N. Gregane, as "Auguste fils de 
Shinaotset and deMenatlot, Squamishs, baptise I'age d'environ 16 mois le 12, Fevrier, 
1879." August stated 16th July, 1946: "Auguste!! that's me. When I little boy they 
call me "Menatlot", (pronounced men-at-el-ot). But priest make mistake. My father 
Khay-tulk, he die day I was born. Qwy-what, my mother, marry Chinoatset (usually 
spelled Chinalset, i.e., "Jericho Charlie", a very good man), whose first wife was 
Menatelot." The original baptismal certificate is in City Archives, deposited by August. 
August was born at the vanished Indian village of Shaug (False Creek Indian Reserve) 
in a lodge directly below the present Burrard Bridge. At this Squamish village, in the 
big long lodge of Toe-who-quam-kee and by Squamish rite, in the presence of a large 
assemblage of his tribe and visiting Indians from Musqueam, Nanaimo, Sechelt and 
Ustlawn (North Vancouver) the patronymic of his grandfather, "Khaht-sah-lah-nogh", 
was conferred upon him with ceremony by a Squamish patriarch, and that of Kaytulk, 
their father, upon his brother, Willie. They were both young men, and August, having 
acquired wealth by working in a nearby sawmill, returned the compliment by giving 
a potlatch, at which he distributed to the assembled guests, men, women, and children, 
over one hundred blankets, and other valuables, and also provided a feast. It took 
place before about 1900. See "Early Vancouver", Vol. 4, page 10, Matthews. On 
29 Aug. 1938, by deed poll, deposited at Division of Vital Statistics, Victoria, and also 
City Archives, Vancouver, Mr. Khahtsahlano renounced the surname of Jack, by which 
he had been known, and assumed the name of August Jack Khahtsahlano. North 
American Productions Ltd. photo. Presented Dec. 1947, by Mrs. Masie Armytage- 
Moore, Vancouver. It appeared as a full front page illustration in the Indian monthly 
newspaper, "Native Voice", Vol. 1, No. 5, April, 1947. August is a wise man, a 
courteous gentleman, and a natural historian. 
PORT. 954.N.432 CITY ARCHIVES/JSM. 



8A 



SWANAMIA, 
MRS. AUGUST JACK KHAHTSALHLANO, 



1943 




The only remaining Squamish woman in Vancouver who wears a shawl. She is demure 
and shy. After years of trying, we finally got a portrait. She had been invited to 
Kitsilano High School to unveil a portrait in oils of her husband, and without her 
knowledge, we got a portrait, 1943, and imposed it upon one of the group of giant 
trees, known as the "Seven Sisters" in Stanley Park. When she saw what we had done, 
she sweetly smiled. 



8B 




.'**** 7 



8C 



INDIAN VILLAGES AND LAND MARKS 
BURRARD INLET AND HOWE SOUND 



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8D 



Vol. 3. p. 1 

A large framed photo, richly colored, of August Jack 
Khahtaahlano — only surviving grandchild of Khahtsahlanogh, 
the Indian chief from whom Kitsilano takes its name, has been 
added to the historical treasures of the City Archives, recent- 
ly established at the City Hall by the City Council. The gift 
is made with commendable public spirit by Mr. Richard J. 
Steffens, of the Steffens-Colmer Studio, from his large coll- 
ection of portraits of celebrities of Vancouver. 

Early in the nineteenth century, Chief Khahtsahlanogh — he 
had no iinglish name, nor must he be confused with the legendary 
Khaatsa-lah-nogh — together with his brother, Chief Chlp-kay-am, 
migrated to English Bay from the place of their birth, Took- 
tpaak-mlk, an Indian village some miles up the Squamish River. 
Chief Chip-kay-am went to False Creek, where he established 
Snauq, the first Indian settlement there, on a tiny clearing, 
framed in towering forest, on the shore. It consisted of a 
number of lumlam (Indian houses) and a big potlatch house, and 
stood on the exact site over which the Burrard Bridge now crosses. 

Chief Khahtsahlanogh, the brother, went to Chay-thoos, (high 
bank), a grassy clearing where the Capilano water pipes enter 
Stanley Park just inside Prospect Point. He died and was 
burled there some sixty-odd years ago. 

Khaytulk, his son, known to early pioneers as Supplejack, 
also lived at Chaythoos; he died in 1877, and, with much cere- 
mony, was buried there, lying in a small canoe, covered with 
red blankets, placed inside a primitive mausoleum, a small shack 
with windows, raised on posts. (See <V. A. Grafton, "Early Van- 
couver", Vol. 3, p. 362-68.) It was at this picturesque spot, 
beside 3upplejack*a grave, that the civic procession of Lord 
Stanley, officials, and citizens, after formal progress through 
the city streets, halted for the speech-making at the formal 
dedication of Stanley Park in October, 1889. Khaytulk's wife, 
Q,whay-wat, was buried, about 1906, in the old Indian graveyard 
beside the southern approach (Cedar Street and First Avenue) of 
the Burrard Bridge. 

August Jack Khahtaahlano was born at Snauq under the 
Burrard Bridge, and, as a child, watched Vancouver burn, in 
1886, from that spot. He now resides at Capilano River, North 
Vancouver, with his wife Swanamia, a demure Indian lady of 
distinctive personality, and the only one who still clings to 
the old custom of wearing a shawl. They have one sotf and one 
daughter. Mr. Khahtsahlano has a logging business of his own. 
The photograph is unique in that it is the first ever taken of 
him. 



For "Grafton" story mentioned above see page 261. 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 45. 

Statement made to F.J.C. Ball, Indian Agent, at request of 
Major J.S. Matthews, by August Jack (or Supplejack) at Mr. 
Ball's office, 837 Hastings Street, and taken down as nar- 
rated. 

July 7th. 1932 . 

CHIEF CHIP- KAAY- AM "August Jaek says Chief Chip-kay-m, or 
(Chief George of Chief George, was first chief to make a 
Snauq) home at Hat-aa-lah-no, he and his 

brother-in-law, Chief Andrews' father. 
They built canoes there and dried smelts and made traps on 
the sandbar (Granville Island) for flounders, perch, etc. 
They built a big house there, a great potlatch house. Be- 
fore that, the Musqueam Indians occasionally went there to 
fish, but never established residence of any kind. Chief 
(George) Chip-kay-m came from the far end of Squamish River 
to settle where the Kitsilano Reserve is now. They lived 
there all the time except when up Squamish drying salmon in 
summer. Chief George had one daughter who married John 
Beatty, a white man. She had one daughter. Chief George 
had no son." 

"August Jack's grandfather and Chief 
George were brothers, and August Jack»s people lived in 
Stanley Park. August Jack's grandfather's name was Haat- 
sa-lah-no, he had no English name as his brother George had. 
Haat-sa-lah-no had a son named Supplejack, who married Sally 
from Tkhopsim (Yekwaupsum) Reserve, Squamish River, and 
August Ja*k is there son. Other children were Louisa, 
Willie Jack, Cecile, Agnes, August. 

CHIEF LAH-WA. "Chief Lah-wa came from Capilano where 

he was chief. Lah-wa was drowned off 
Brockton Point. He left no sons. Chief Joe Capilano was 
put on as chief after Lah- wa's death, but was not a near 
relative. The tribe intermarried and they were all distant- 
ly related to each other, but were not cousins, or even 
second cousins. Lah-wa's predecessor was called Chief 
Capilano. After his death Lah-wa, who was Capilano 's son- 
in-law (?) (see Geneology of Capilano) became chief. Cap- 
ilano's name was Joe, and after he was made chief he took 
the name of Capilano Joe." 

(Signed) Fredk.J.C.Ball. 
Indian Agent. 



10 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 40. 

Conversation with August Jack, son of Hay-tulk (Supplejack), 

grandson of Chief Haatsa-lah-nough, of Chaythoos, Stanley 

Park. 

July 7, 1932. 

"1 don't know my great grandfather's 
name. It was not Haatsa-la-nough, hut he had at least two 
sons,' for one was my grandfather and the other his brother 
Chief Chip-kaay-am, called Chief George. My mother told 
me my grandfather Haatsalanough's hair was quite black when 
he died. She remarked especially upon it at his advanced 
age. He was ninety or more when he died. He had lived 
at Tooktakama i , up the Squamish River. He was barn there." 

CHIP-KAY-AM "Haatsalahnough and his brother Chip- 

kaay-am came down from Squamish. Chip- 
kaay-am was the first man to settle and build a village at 
Snauq (Kitsllano Indian Reserve), where he and his brother- 
in-law, Hay-not-em, the father of chief Andrews, built a 
great potlatch house. Chlp-kaay-am was known as a good 

kind man (See Rev. C.M. Tate) and a 
SNAUft devout Christian. He was known as 

KITSJLANO INDIAN Chief George by the whitemen and lived at 
RESERVE Snauq all the time except when they were 

up the Squamish in the summer time dry- 
ing salmon. He died without son or sons but had one daughter, 
who married a white man, John Beaty and thsy had one daughter — 
living in Vancouver now. I do not know when it was that 
Kaatsalanough first settled at Chaythoos, or when his brother 
Chip-kaay-am settled at Snauq, but they were both young men 
when they settled, and they were old ones when they died. 
Chip-kaay-am was buried at Snauq in the graveyard close to 
the Burrard Street bridge at Cedar Street and First Avenue, 
so that it must have been a long time ago. His wife, my 
grandmother died before I was born." (About 1877. Chip- 
Kaay-an, or Chip-Kaay-m, was chief of the Snauq band.) 

"Haatsalahnough went to Chaythoos, 'high 
bank' in Stanley Park, Just east of Prospect Point, a little 
clear space where the water pipe line enters Stanley Park. 
He died and was buried at Chaythoos. His house was close 
to a little creek at Chaythoos. I must have been about 

three years old when he died. That 
CHAYTHOOS would be about 1878, or thereabouts. 

There is no truth in the story that he 
came from Point Roberts. These young fellows get hold of 
all sorts of funny stories. That is a legend of another 
Haatsalahnough. " 

"When Haatsalahnough went to Snauq— he 



li 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 40. August Jack (cont'd), 

lived at Chaythoos — it was probably to catch fish on the 
big aand bar on which Granville Island in False Creek now 
stands. The big bar waa twenty or more acres in extent, 
dry at low tide, and the Indians had from time immemorial 
had a fish corral there; two converging fences of brush in 
the water made from hurdles of twisted vine maple fastened 
to sharpened stakes driven in the mud to guide the flounders 
and smelts into the narrow part where they were trapped." 
(Note: Paull says the fine nets were made from the fibres 
of the stinging nettle.) 

SUPPLEJACK "My f ether was Hay-tilk (or Hay-tulk 

according to Paull, and Hra-tilt accord- 
ing to Tate) or 'Supple Jack'; that's how I get the name 
August Jack. It should be Supplejack. He died when I was 
Just old enough to cut wood—about six years old. He had 
two houses, one at Snauq and one at Chaythoos. We moved 
from one to the other, from Kitsilano to Stanley Park and 
then back again as it suited us. He died when he was about 
seventy at Chaythoos, and they put his body in a little house 
of glass (See W.A. Grafton, Vol. 3) with red blanketa on top; 
the way they used to do — they don't do it now — and buried him 
there at Chaythoos. Then, when they cut the driveway around 
Stanley Park our house wes in the way and we moved over to 
Snauq. Pather»s remains were exhumed and taken to Squamish 
for reinterment." 

QJTHAT-TAT "My mother, Qjrtiay-wat, or Sally, was born 

at Yekwaupaum, Squamish river, and died at 
Snauq about 1906, and ia now buried at Yekwaupsum graves. 
After my father died she remarried." 

JERICHO CHARLIE "My stepfather waa Jericho Charlie. He 

used to work for Jerry Rogers out at 
Jericho. He had a big canoe — would oarry a ton or more— and 
I remember how he used to go from the old Heatings Sawmill to 
Jericho with it loaded with hay and oats for the horses and 
oxen working at Jerry Rogers logging camp there." 

SWANAMIA "My wife 'a name is Swanamia. She is the 

only one left now who wears a shawl. All 
tne rest of the Indian woman have now taken to coats. Her 
English name Is Mary Ann. Our children are Wilfred William 
and Louiae, (note: Indian Affairs office saya, Mary Ann 51. 
August Jack 54, Wilfred iilllam, adopted son, 22, and Louisa 
12 years, all in 193*). I had three sisters and a brother. 
Louisa, the eldest child, then Cecile, Agnes, Willie, all 
dead, and myself the youngest. I am 56. They left no 
children. I am the only one left. I had no schooling, 



12 



"Early Vancouyer", Vol. 2, p. 41. August Jack (cont'd). 

cannot raad or write. I wish I could, but Mother waa a 
widow and I had to look after her until ahe married Jericho 
Charlie." 

"I have heard my at ep father, Jericho 
Charlie, tell about the first whiteman the Indiana ever saw. 
(Note: aee narrative October 86th, 1932). Jericho Charlie 
waa a very old man, about seventy I should think, when he 
fell off the Kitsilano (C.P.R.) treatle bridge about thirty 
yeara ago, so that his memory would take him back to about 
1840. He used to tell yarns and I listened. (See narra- 
tive October 26th, 1932). The old people used to talk a great 
deal about the coming of the whiteman, but I did not pay the 
attention I ahould have. Of one thing I am quite sure, - that 
there were white men up at Squamiah before Mr. Vancouver came 
to English Bay." 

"After my father died we moved to Snauq, 
and it waa from there that I saw Vancouver burn in June 1686. 
Afterwards, aa a boy, I used to go over and search in the ruins 
for naila. When we went to Gastown we went by canoe down by 

the Hoyal City Planing Milla at the aouth 
GASTOWN end of Carrall Street and across over to 

Burrard Inlet on a sort of wagon trail. 
There waa no trail which I know of from Smamchuze, at the foot 
of Howe Street acrosa through the forest to Gastown. that 
would be the use of struggling through the bush when it was so 
easy to paddle." (Hote: Generally speaking, the Indian 
would never walk if he could go by canoe.) 

•The name I go by ia August Jack, that is, 
August, son of Supplejack. But, according to the whitemana 
usage, I ahould be August Haataalanough; anyway I have as- 
sumed that name. Sometimes I sign my name Kitsilano, some- 
times Haataalano." 

"The Squamiah Indiana could not underatand 
the language of the Sechelts, but could make themselves under- 
stood, but not converse properly. Then again the Indiana up 
at Powell River spoke another language to the Sechelts. Ths 
name by which the Squamish knew the Capilano River waa Homult- 
cheson. It waa the whiteman who gave it the name Capilano. 
The 'Old Chief was Capilano, then came his son, Chief Lah-wa, 
drowned in the First Narrows. Chief Lah-wa's sister was 
Chief Ton's wife, and ahe wanted Joe to be Chief. Joe's 
wife waa some relation to Chief Lah-wa. (See Genealogy of 
Capilano) At fir at Joe got the cognomen of Capilano Joe, 
then Joe Capilano. Chief Matthias Capilano is Chief Joe's 
son, but he is officially called Matthias Joe. 



13 



"Barly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 41. August Jack (cont'd). 

"The Indiana moved away from Snauq. in 
1911. • (The laat Indian departed April 11th, 1913, in the 
aorning. "Old man Jim", wife and son.) "The remaina of 
thoae buried in the graveyard on the reserve cloae to First 
Avenue about the foot of Fir or Cedar Street were exhumed and 
taken for reburial at Squamish. The orchard went to ruin, 
the fencea fell down, and the houses were destroyed. A few 
hop* survived and continued to grow until the building of the 
Burrard Bridge covered them up. I received a formal invita- 
tion to be present at the opening of the great bridge aa a 
guest of the city." 



14 



"Barly Vancouver", Yol. 2, p. 38. 

Statement made by August Jack, or August Kitsilano, grandaon 
of Chief Haataalahnough of Chaythoos and Squamiah. It is a 
haatlly drawn up paper, typewritten by Major Matthews aa 
August Kitailano talked. 

8th Auguat. 1932. 

SUPPLEJACK "This ia the way it ia. Haatsa-lah- 

nough waa born at Toktakamik (or Tuk- 
tpak-mik), Squamiah River. He waa dead in Stanley Park here 
{died in Stanley Park), bury him Squamiah. My father was 
Supplejack, his Indian name was Hay-tilk. (Tate saya, «l 
knew a Hra-tilt'; Paull says »Hey-tulk'j and he was died in 
the Stanley Park, and they had him in a— you know— it is not 
burled; that is, the way, you know, how they used to do. 
They make little houae, all glass around it. And after that 
they move him to Squamiah, bury him. oh, that was, may be, 
the time they were making that road, Stanley Park, and they 
move him. They have little house. My father was Inside, 
lying in a canoe. They have glaas all around and red 
blankets on top, on the top of houae." 

Haataa-lah-nough did not move to Snauq; 
Just his brother Chlp-kaay-am. Haatsa-lah-nough, he died 
before we move to Snauq. Chip-kaay-am waa the first one to 
go to Snauq to live. Ha brother-in-law Hay-not-tem go 
with him. I could not say how long ago, long time ago. 
Chip-kaay-am was buried in graveyard at Snauq. Haatsa-lah- 
nough was the chief at Tookparkamike. Chlp-kaayam come from 
Squamiah and go to Snauq. My father, his brother, go to 
Stanley Park, Just below Whoi-Whoi (Lumbermans Arch) to 
Chayaloos, means high bank, like that (gesticulates with 
hand high above head) west of where the atream comes out of 
the little lake you call Beaver Lake. You know where ttat 
pipe line erosaes to Capilano; you see that clear place, that 
ia the place." 

"My mother was Sally, Indian name 
Qwhay-wat, born at Tek-waup-sum Reserve, Squamiah. She came 
with my father from Squamiah. She died in Snauq, False 
Creek, about twenty-six years ago, and is burled at Squamish; 
buried at Tekwaupsum graves. Kaataalahnough's wife died 
before I waa born; don't know her name. I remember my 
mother telling me about my grandfather very well. He was 
pretty husky, big, strong, stout man, but pretty old. Haat- 
aalanough died when I was about three years old, and that is 
what my mother was telling me about my grandfather." 

CAPILANO I aaked August Jack if •Capilano" was 

the title of the chief of the Squamish 
tribe, and 'Haataalahnough' the vice chief of the Squamish 



15 



"Sarly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 38. August Jack (cont'd). 

tribe before the white sen case (See Hill-Tout, page 476, Eth- 
nological Surrey of Canada, B.A.A.S. Bradford meeting, 1900, 
who says he waa, alao aee Andrew Paull, secretary Squamish 
Indian Oouneil, who, 1932, aays thia la incorrect). August 
Kltailano replied: 

"Ho. They did not make one man the big 
chief ower a number of leaner onea. All were equal, and ruled 
in their own reserves only. Tou aee, coming down Squamiah 
Biwer there are four reaerrea. lech one had ita own chief; 
all equal. They did not make any one bigger than the other. 
So, when Haataalabnough mowed to Stanley Park he did not 
give up hie poaition aa chief at Took-taak-mek. They simply 
mowed back and forth, dried some smelts, aalmon, clama, ber- 
ries, and when the winter oame on went beck to Squamiah." 

"My father Hay-tilk (Supplejack) had a 
brother. His whitemans name wss Peter — his Indian name 
Kee-olat (or Kee-olch). He ia dead, buried at Musqueam. 
His wife waa from Musqueam, and he stayed there all the time. 
I don't know her name. They had children — all dead excepting 
**0* Alex is the oldeat, Lucy ia the youngest. Aler lives 
at Musqueam. Lucy la ataying at Horth Vancouver Mission — 
not married. Alex must be about 48 now." 

"My brothers and sistera were Louisa, the 
oldeat, ahe died at Snauq, buried at Poquiosin Reserve,, She 
married Mr. Bards, whlteman, and has two children now living; 
s daughter who married a whlteman who Uvea over by Magee 
Boad; a son is st North Vancouver, Dave Burda." 

"Cecile ia next. All her children are 
dead. She married Joe Isaacs, Indian. She is dead. Willie 
Jack, my brother, was next. He died. He had a big family. 
but all died." * 

"When my father died, my mother some years 
afterwarda, married Jericho Charlie— hia Indian name Chin-nal- 
sut. I have a half brother, their son. Dominic. He has 
children." 

"I am the youngest and only one living. 
My children are «mma, Cells tine, Vllfred, Irene and Louisa- 
all same mother. My wife's name ia Marrianne (or Marrlon), 
her Indian name Swanamla. She is the only one now who wears 
a ahawl; all the other Indian women were coeta now. My first 
wife died; no children." 

_,_ . „ ., (aigned) August Jack Kitailano. 

fitness: J.S. Matthews. 



16 



•Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 39. August Jack (cont'd). 



NOTE: This statement was read over to August — ha 
cannot read or writ*— and he appx6ved of it and signed 
his name in ink. I guided hia hand and pen. 

August distinctly pronounces Kltailano as"Haataalano," 
not "Khaatsa". Hill-Tout aaya "Khaat", Tate says, •No, 
"Heats"*. Every indication is that Hill-Tout put in 
one too many "Kb". 



Letter, No. 4806, from F.J.C. Ball, Indian Agent, 882 Metro- 
politan Building, Vancouver. 

August 18th. 1938. 

"I regret that we Here no record of birth, death 
or marriage of the father of August Jack, but, according 
to our records there are no surviving children other 
than August Jack, whose age is shown on our books as 54 
(fifty-four), but there is no baptismal certificate on 
file". 

HOTS: The certificate is in City Archives. J.S.M. 



17 



10 



THE DtDHK FOOD SPEPLY BBTORB THE WHIT^ hs r.kin. 
("Early Vancouver •, Vol. 2, p. 37.) 



October 26. 1982 . 

APG03T ETTSILANO "Whitemana food change everything" said 

August Kite llano in a conversation while we 
•at at lunch in a down town restaurant. "Indiana had plenty 
food long ago, but I could not do without tea and sugar now, 
them daya Indian not want tea and sugar, know nothing about it. 
Lota seat, bear, deer, bearer; cut neat up in strip* and dry — 
no part wasted, not even the guts. Clean out the guts, fill 
him up with something good, make sausage, Just like whitemana. 
Only head wasted; throw head way. Then salmon — plenty salmon, 
aturgeon, flounder, trout, lots all sorts fish; some sun dry, 
some smoke dry. Indian know which best wood for smoke dry. 
Lots crab and clam on beach." 

"Then berries. Indian woman know how to 
dry berries, dry lots berries; Just like raisins. Dry them 
first, then press in pancakes, make them up in blocks like pan- 
cakes, about three pounds to block. (Here he made a sign of 
piling them up in piles). (Bar. CM. Tate Bays 'big flat 
compressed cakes') Stack cakea in high pile in house; when 
want cook, break piece off. Elderberry put in sack, you 
know Indian aack; put sack in creek so clean water run over 
them and keep them fresh. By and bye gat sack out of creek, 
take some berry out, put saek back again. Oh, lots of 
berries till berries come again." 

"Then vegetables and roots. Indian 
woman gather vegetable* and roots. Woman dig roots with 
aharp stick, down deep, sometimes four feet; follow root 
with stick, break off. Some very nice for eating, some 
(fern root) make white flour powder, some dry for winter. 
Oh, lots of food those daya. I think may be three thousand, 
perhaps more, Indians live around Vancouver those days." 

"Bat whitemana food change everything. 
Everywhere whitemana goes he change food, China, other place, 
he always change food where he goes." 

"I waa born at Snauq, the old Indian 
village under the Burrard bridge. Whan I little boy I 
listen old people talk. Old people aay Indians see firat 
whitemana up near Squamiah. When they see first ship they 
think it an island with three dead trees, might be schooner, 
might be sloop; two masts and bowsprit, sails tied up. 



18 



11 



"Barly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 37. Indian Food Supply 
(cont'd). 

Indian braTea In about twenty eanoaa come down S anemias 
river, go aea. Gat nearer, aee awn on ialand, nan bare 
black elothea with high bat coning to point at top. Think 
noat likely black uniform and great coat turned up dollar 
like prieata cowl. Whitemans giro Indiana ahlp'a blaouit; 
Indian not know what biaeuit for. Before wbitenana cone 
Indiana hare little balla, not very big; roll than along 
ground, ahoot at them with bow and arrow for practice, 
teaeh young Indian ao aa not to miss dear. Just the same 
you uae clay pigeon. Indian not know ahip'a biaeuit good 
to eat, ao roll then along ground like little practice balla, 
ahoot at than, break them up.* (Sign aa of bowling a cricket 
ball 'underhand*). 



MO LAgaag F OB "Then whltamana on achooner give molaaaea 
3TITT utcg aame time biaeuit. Indian not know what 
it for, so Indian rub on leg (thighs and 
ealfa) for medicine. Tou know Indian alt on lega for long 
time in oanoo; lags get stiff. Bub molaaaea on legs make 
stiffness not so bad. molaaaea stlok lega bottom of canoe. 
Molaaaea not much good for atiff legs, but my aneeatora think 
ao; not their fault, just mistsko; they not know molasses 
good to est.* And then August Kitailano laughed heartily. 



There are at thla moment (1932) well oyer 
8000 white famlllea supported by 'relief* in Vancouver, 
where formerly three to five thousand Indiana lived off 
land, water and beach. 



19 



18 



ConTersatlon with August Jack Haatsalano (Iltsilano). 

Pet. 86th. 1938. 

^P^FWf August Iltsilano said he was looking for a 

/.-«»» ,-„— , * ob » that **■•■ *«*• h«rd, everybody out of 
CgDAft LOOS • job; that ha had a good atand of eedar 

up tha Souamlsh and would like to gat aoae 

of it out If ho would find someone who would buy the logs. 

Major Matthews asked him what he thought of 
the whole matter of the Qreat World Depression, and how tha 
Indiana farad before the white man came here, how many of them 
lived inside what is now Vancouver Harbor, and where they got 
their food than when all was forest, and no City Hall to go to 
for "relief asslstanoe, as the white inhabitants of the same 
ground now doaa to tha number of thousands weekly. 

August Kits llano replied: "White man's 
food changed everything. Indians had plenty here long ago. 
I could not do without sngsr and without now. Them days 
Indian not want sugar and tea; know nothing about it. Lots 
■eat, bear, dear. Gut meat up in strips and dry ss well, no 
part wasted, not eren the guts. Clean out the guts" (and hers 
*•*•*• • i « a ■• ot pssalng gut through thumb and finger) "and 
fill them up with something, what you call sausage. Bo part 
wasted, only the head. Then salmon; eat lots salmon. Some 
sun-dried, some smoke-dried. Indian know whleh bast wood to 
smoke-dry bast." 

. . "Then berries. Indian woman, some of them, 

know how dry berries. Dry lots of berries. Make them up in 
blocks like pancake, (Rote Her. Tate says bricks about by ) 
and pile them up," (here he made sign of piling up, as a brick- 
layer would pile bricks), "lots of them, enough to laat till 
berries come again. Xlderberry put In aaok, you know, Indian 

ssek, put them in clean oreek; water run 

HLDBBBffilBS orer them. Then by and bye go get what 
__- Indian want, put sack back In water." 

1D0D 

"Then there was roots, Indian woman did 
for special kind of roots. I don»t know Just what kind, but 
I think fern. Sometimes go down deep, perhaps four feat. 
Indian woman piok earth away with sharp atlok ," (he made a sign 
as if peeking away with a short sharp stick, aay aix Inches 
long, in hand), "follow up root, break it off, and dry it and 
put away." * 

_„^ .. "Oh, Indian have lota of food. I think 
3000, perhaps more, Indian live around Vancouver thoae days." 

"Bit white man food change everything. 



20 



13 



August jack Haataalano (Kitallano) cont*d. 

Irerywhere white man go, China, other place, he always change 
food where he goes. At first Indian not know what whiteman'a 
food look like. When first whiteman cone up Howe Sound, up 
near Squamlah, be gire Indian biacuita, big round biacuita 
(ahlp'a biscuit). Indian not know what they are. He shoot 
st the* and break them; he not know they are good to eat. 
"Well, Indian roll them along and ahoot at them with bow and 
arrow. Before white man come Indian hare balls, not wary big. 
He roll them along" (here he made algn as of bowling a ball 
underhand) "and shoot at the balls with bow and arrow for 
practice, so as not to miss deer; so ss to teseh young Indian. 
Tou do the ssme thing now, only you use machine throw*: clay 
pigeon; just the same, keep in practice. Indian roll biscuit 
along and ahoot at biscuit, break them up; he not know good 
to eat." 

"Just the same with molasses. When first 
white man come Indian up Squamlah riwer first see sloop or 
schooner— I don't know which—, but they think it an ialand 
with three dead trees," (two masts and bowsprit, perhaps, with 
sails furled). "They not know what it was; think it an 
island—* go down In canoe to see. By and bye, aee men on 
Island. The men in black clothes with high hst orer heed with 
sbsty point to top. I suppose it wss blsek ower costs with s 
hood. Tou know, the kind that turn up and make s sharp point 
at top and cower baok of head, top of head, and most of cheeks." 

"Whiteman glwe Indian molasses. Indian 
not know what it was, rub it all orer his legs for medicine. 
Indian think it medicine. Tou know, Indian alt in canoe on 
knees for long time, get stiff. Indian rub it on for medi- 
cine to make stiffness not so bad, — rub It up and down legs," 
(here he made sign as of rubbing llnament up and down thigh 
and calf). "Molasses make legs stick to bottom of canoe." 

Major Matthews! "Why did they rub It 
on their legs? What did they think it would do?" 

August Jack: "They think it medicine. 
Do no good, but they think it did; not know what It was for." 



21 



14 



THE UQB O OF KHAHT-SAH-LANO (PTSILAHO) 
("lorly Vancouver", Tol. 2, p. 35.) 



7th Mpvombor. 1982. 
As related by Que-yah-chulk (Dick Iaaaea of North 
Tenoouver Indian Reserve) with the aaaletance of Andrew Paull 
(qpltchetahl), <*ie-yah-chulk ia probably seventy yeara old, 
apaaka Engliah excellently, is aetiTe phyaieally and mentally, 
aaya ha remaabera Mr. Derrick who built the fir at church in 
Granville in 18T6 when *I waa a boy than*, loat one an work- 
ing in the Hastings Sawmill in 1866, can not read or write, 
and la a brother to the late celebrated character, Aunt Sally, 
•prehietorle* realdent of Stanley Park. He Uvea with hia 
daughter and grandchildren. Hia brother haa Juat died. 
Queyahehulk aaya: 

"Haataalanough naae wary old, uaad by Indiana long 
before Chief Haataalanough of Chaythooa, Stanley Park, 
and Toktakaaai, near Souamiah." 

"Haataalanough of ancient daya, long yeara ago, waa 
riaiting down near Point Roberta at a point where there 
ia now an Indian Beaarre at a place called Sngliah Bluff; 
hia wife waa with hia." 



"A woman of the tribe broke the moral coda; her 
puniabJMnt waa that ahe should bo deaertad by her tribe." 

"Haataalanough decided to leave the place with the 
other*, and aaid to hia wife, 'where shall we go', and 
than •aid, *0h, I know good place; lota of elk, beaver, 

~i, duck, fine place, plenty food, plenty cedar. 1 



■Mooae"? interjected Andrew Paull. 

"SO, no moose', replied Queyahchulk, "only elk". 

"That", aaid Paull, and Qneyahchulk nodded aaaent, 
"waa how the first man Haataalanough oame to aettle at 
8naue" (Kitellano Indian Beaarre ). 

Than Paull added, "My wlfe*a grandmother very old 
woman, aaid to ha 112 yeara old, anyway it ia eaay to 
•ao aha la over 100, told me the atory in the same way. 
She la Krs. Harriet George, her Indian name Haztan." 
(She died about 19 8 6. aa e obituary book.) 



22 



15 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 44. 

Andrew Paull, (Qoitchetahl) secretary of the Squamiah Indian 
Council, baring told me that he was a direct descendant of 
the celebrated hero of the Squamiah tribe, Qoitchetahl, the 
serpent slayer of Squamiah. Eaxten, an aged Indian woman 
says Andrew Paull la the grandson of the great granddaughter 
of the original Qoitchetahl. I asked August Kltsllano, 
grandson of Chief Haataa-lah-nough, to give me his conception 
of the legend. He said: 

December 19th. 1952. 

"This is the way it was: 

"Qpitchetahl just a man, he just get 
married, then a aerpent come in the lake way up above Squamiah, 
Old peoples say to Qoitchetahl "Tou go chase that aerpent, 
don't stay at home aaleep with your wife!" So Qoitchetahl he 
get up and tell his wife he be away ten days and not to worry; 
but he go away ten years. Well, when he was going on the way, 
was following the serpent, he wash, wash, wash himself all the 
time — take bath in the creeks in the mountains— get power. 
He gets that power, and the aerpent was in the lake swimming 
about, and then the serpent oame to the Indian man; of course 
they talk together, the serpent and the man Qoitchetahl. The 
serpent said "Go get pitch wood and drive it into my head, one 
stick. Get three sticks, make sharp, drive one in my head 
right here, the other one in the middle of my back, and the 
other one at the end of my dragon tail* Tou know, serpents 
have two heads, one at each end. The one in front is his 
head, the other is near the tall, and is a dragon's head. I 
see one once, little fellow, bout five feet long; two heads, 
one in front and one in tall." 

"Well, Qoitchetahl did as the serpent 
told him. Serpent die. Qoitchetahl stay there until serp- 
ent all rotten. Then he took a bone, just one special bone, 
like a club, and he took it down with him out of the mountains. 
When he comes to the head of the Squamiah River he pulls out 
that bone, out of his pocket, and he waves it in the air. 
Ail the peoples, everybody, just drop just like dead, but he 
has stuff which he sprinkle on them and they all come up again. 
When the peoples come up, they give him a wife, and by time he 
gets back to Squamiah he had eighteen wives. Everywhere he 
goes the people fall down just like dead, and he bring them 
back to life again. His real wife, he Just let her die. He 
had eighteen other wives with him." 



Then my friend August Jack said: "I must 
be off, I've got to see the manager of the sawmill st 
Iburne about my log scale aheets. Would you mind tele- 



23 



16 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 44. August Kitsilano (cont'd). 

phoning him I shall be late keeping my appointment?" 

How can one reconcile the assertion of 
this hard-headed business man, this splendid Indian man, 
that he had seen a "little serpent" of the kind Qpitchet- 
ahl gets credit for having killed. I did not ask him 
where he had seen it* I asked him a similar question 
onoe— do not care to do it again, his retort was too 
rigorous. J. S. M. 



24 



A TRACING OF VANCOUVER AND WEST VANCOUVER 
INDIAN NAMES 




aiLiitano, cue wn<ic ioi<mbL% a«u^oCt >>\. C 
«vt«ral w/ty ( is un ace*ptakle as a. jfrrr'etly 
^ssfc. a**y**ahe rrvab. 



COUVM .Vol I j>.fc 

Pko.HJg87P?»g 



This map traced for me by August Jack Khahtsahlano in September, 1932. He can 
neither read nor write, but the names were filled in by his son, age 22. Done in 
pencil, the tracing and names were afterward inked over by Major Matthews. 
Khahtsahlano's signature appears above. The diagram is a genuine endeavour, and 
while in a general way is tolerably accurate, is unacceptable as a strictly accurate map. 

J. S. MATTHEWS, 1932. 



24A 



CHIEF CHIP-KAAY-M AND BLACK BEAR IN COMBAT 




SIC $* i . ■ 

"You see Little Mountain there? Up Cambie Street? That's where the bear got Chip- 
kaay-m. Chip-kaay-m hunting bear and shoot, but he's slow re-loading, he's only got 
muzzle loading flint gun. Big bear come at him; claw all down left side his face, 
and tear his breast; hurt him very bad, but Chip-kaay-m get better again. That's where 
it was; right there; up Cambie Street; below Little Mountain." 

Following this remark to me as we stood at a City Hall window, August Jack 
Khahtsahlano brought me — a few days later — this drawing in colour, made with 
pencils. He is grand-nephew to Chip-kaay-m, does not read nor write, and his artistry 
is wholly his own. Good, kind Chief George, or Chip-kaay-m, devout Christian, 
established the village of Shaug (Burrard Bridge) early in the nineteenth century. His 
brother was Chief Khahtsahlanogh (Kitsilano). 

CITY ARCHIVES/JSM. 



24B 



I 



a 
z 
< 

< 

X 



O 

X 

o 

X 



z 

H 
Z 

< 






_a' 


g 


c 
a 


J 

3 




jj 


jg 


'H ^ 




1 


1 


>/>? 


I* 



-If 



1 



IT 


^ 




« 


1 


oo 


d 

1 J§ 






3 o 


u 


-» o= 



a t; 1 < 



24C 



DIAGRAMS BY AUGUST JACK, 
TAY-HAY, WHOI-WHOI, KHAY-TULK'S GRAVE 







Tah-hay «t Wlui-Wk 




T *"^^C/> QV tt * V***-^*'" f>v£*4 4^ «£/ 



FR^- 



Ctdat >Zab feuiUings at W/ioi- IWl»l, <"< Jc*atcd«i. 
ty Avjuit T««fWia4t-j«<«»io,' l f*oTH >n«mcr»yj 
3W* »*«%?«*?" ?hn, N,l» TVKmt. 



24D 



CONSTRUCTION OF RANCH HOUSE 
AT WHOI-WHOI 




Window holes 
about one foot 
square. 



S/catck of construction, of 
Indian house at Whoi-vihoi. 
( lumber mans Arch. Stan ley T*rk 
a tracing of rougk Sk4tch., cm 
tcrajs of patxr. drawn 'in rny 9<r»^lyi 
One Sunday aftrinoeti. Dec, ISJ(j3S 
by flKibSt-Jack fclicntsnhlaTio 



Stout outs/de slats /a<^ t/irougi fi> heavier inside. 
posts To support (h/^ p fr omonfc/_£e^val^)ab5. S ^ Beafe ihicUer m centie 

' 3o a s*to Prevent agqginq due 



No post in centre unless ye*y wide 

Bed boo-rd. platform all aiouncL 
inside walls 




</ to weight of loot . 



•Beam, s'toio" atends 

/S"Aj /v" /n iTjiadle 

These posts are It" wide and f" thick. 

g-nd ate inside house, 
C°daT Shakes, slabs a.bout IQjeetlono, 
all widths, 6", 8", 10', ZO^ 
. Stgunoj line 

PSoH 'S3 p arttwo. (ityfachivtijim 



24E 




Indian trails were broken by Indian bare hands and worn smooth by Indian bare feet. 
No trail around the present Stanley Park existed. None was needed. Squamish 
were "canoe Indians." A trail from Whoi-Whoi (Lumbermen's Arch) to Chaythoos, 
just east of Prospect Point, was needed to connect the two villages, for not even an 
Indian could pass when the tide was in. The lower corner shows the trail and the 
cedar slabs in the other corner, shows protection of Indian bodies from wild animals. 
A water colour, painted 1884, by L. A. Hamilton, C.P.R. Land Commissioner and surveyor. 

CITY ARCHIVES/JSM. 



24F 



ROYAL ENGINEER SURVEY, 1863, FIRST NARROWS 



lit fr f 




■*> -9 ZJO 30 



Chay-thoo«,"high bank" 
no* Prospect Point. 



24G 



Jfejfcl 



H ^s*^ 






**'^ ■^**-L.-/V.. 



> 9 *».*•*>;•> 



' . ' ' 








CHAY-THOOS, i.e., "high bank", all Prospect Pt., Stanley Park. Ancient Indian 
clearing of half acre twixt towering forest and shore. Here beside Hay-tulk's mauso- 
leum, a canoe inside wooden tomb on posts, M^yor Oppenheimer opened park, Sept. 
27, 1888; here Lord Stanley dedicated, Oct. 30, 1889. "Park Road" surfaced with 
calcined white shells from Whoi-Whoi midden. Site between benches (above) of 
Hay-tulk's ((Supplejack) tomb. Perhaps "lost" stone of proposed cairn (beside lady 
above), dedicated by Lord Stanley, Oct., 1889. Pipeline road ends (extreme right). 
Site on road corner of Chief Haatsa-lah-nogh's laam (Indian cedar slab house) shown 
in R.E. survey, Mar. 1863; creek in hollow beyond dark bush. 

CITY ARCHIVES/JSM. 



24H 



17 



"Barly Vancouver *, Vol. 2, p. 42. 

Conversation with August Kits llano, 20th December. 1932. 

C HULKS "This ia the way it is about the big 

boulder at Chulks. There is a point 
there, and on the south side, facing south, is a big hole in 
the rook, and a big stone about five or six feet in diameter 
in the hole. Ihen the gods were fixing the geography of the 
earth they threw this stone at the top of Ilount Garibaldi, 
that is chy-kai. Chy-kai is the mountain. Che-kai is the 
creek. The stone missed the mountain and landed at Chulks, 
and is there yet for you to see." 

"One of the gods put the boulder in a 
sling and then swung the sling around and around his head to 
work up speed and force. Somehow the sling, as it flew 
around, touched something. Some say a raven's wing, others 
that s slave got in the way of the thrower — touched his arm, 
spoiled his aim— and the big atone missed the mountain, and 
now you see it in the crevasse, a big stone five or six feet 
in diameter in the crevasse facing due south at Chulks. That 
shows you what power the Squamiah Indians had in those days; 
that's power." 

"Do you believe It?" I asked, smiling, and 
expecting that he would return the smile, but, to my surprise 
and regret at having smiled, he replied most earnestly and 
vigorously: 

"Of course I believe it. I tell you it's 
true. To show you. In the early days they ones out a man 
open— split him down the middle from the top of his head, 
front to back, all the way down, so that he was open right 
through, and then they put him in the fire and roast him— 
the grease run out. Then the eight powerful men start to 
work to fix him up again. Squamiah Indians were very power- 
ful once— could do anything." 

"Are they the same eight as those who 
fame before the Indians and were turned into stone at Homulaom"? 
I asked. 

"No" replied August, "that's a different 
lot; not the same men. These powerful men of whom I speak 
were Squamish. Well, they sew him hp, and, after a little 
while after they work on him, he get up and walk". 

"These eight men were just like other 
men, only vary much power. They live just like wild, only 
they were not wild. They go up in the mountains, stay up In 
the mountains ten years, wash themselves, wash themselves good 
and clean. Then they get power, power to da anything. (Sea 



25 



18 



"Sarly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 42. Kitailano (cont'd). 

Hill-Tout, Beport, B.A.A.S. 1900 and 1902.) Then, after 
they fix him up they say to the nan 'See that aewbill (duck)»? 
•You run race with that e*wbill». Sawblll duck fly very 
fast, hut the man they fix up run a race with that aawbiil and 
he won the race. That will ahow you how powerful those 
Squamish Indians were in thoae early days". 

"When I waa twelve years old I see the 
last two of these eight powerful sen at Jericho. All the 
rest dead. The two very old— catching smelts there. My 
■other Qwhay-wat ahe show them to me, and tell me they were 
the only two living of the eight powerful men. When I waa a 
child my mother marry again — marry Jericho Charlie; his Indian 
name Chin-ow-sut. Chln-ow-sut come from twenty-five miles up 
the Squamiah River. His father waa the greateat hunter In 
the Squamlah. He killed the biggest grizzly with bow and 
arrow." 



C0MMH9T: It waa very strange to hear August Kitailano, 
a splendid manly Indian full of worldly wisdom, energy 
and integrity In ordinary affairs, credited with sound 
Judgment by thoae who know him, and well able to and 
does manage the difficultiea of hia logging business 
getting loga out of the woods, down the river; s res- 
ourceful man highly regarded by the Indian agent, Mr. 
Ball, for hia worth. August la a mild mannered man, 
with a pleasant smile, when he smilea, and dignified 
when he does not. He use* the telephone, has a rough 
idea of banking, log acale aheeta, etc., etc., but never 
learned to write or read. He once said to me a wisdom. 
It wss "Those young fellows never begin to think until 
the meeting has started. I lie in bed and plan the 
whole thing out before I get there". 

Tet here he sat and solemnly told me that he 
believed the above story, and even related it with such 
earnestness that it waa almost convincing to the listener. 
Respect for hia sincerity forbade further questioning. 

J. S. M. 



26 



KHiHTSAHT.lNO 




19 

(See "lerly Vmnoouver", Yol.3, p. a) 
August Jack Khahtsahlano, Jan, 10th. laa^ t 

"This" (Bailey Bros, photo, narked on back 
Photo Ho. "KWANATAN") "must be In Stanley 
Park; they are Musqueam Indians. I can 
tell by Charlie; his Indian name ie 
Kwanatan. He died at Musqueam yesterday. He is the only mma 
who would wear that dress. (The figure on the extreme left of 
the four figures, wearing a white fan-like headdress). Awanatan 
is just a name, so far as I know; has no meaning which I know 
of. It must be some sort of a 'religious' ceremony in Stanley 
Park; I suppose about forty, or more, years ago. The dress 
they are wearing Is called "Swhol Swhoi", (Masks). (see 
Whoi Who!, in 'Early Vancouver,* 1932, also companion photo 
numbered 'Just Dressed*.) 

Jan. 11th, 1934 t 
"This" (»Just Dressed' pholo) "must be In 
Stanley Park; they are Musqueam Indians, I think. I am 
judging by the other photo marked 'KWanatan.* They are per- 
forming some sort of dance. The clothes they are wearing have 
no especial significance. They are *Just dressed' for the 
danoe. This is not Swhol Swhoi. They are Just dressed, 
that's all." ' 



OP ENING O f 1 STAN LEY Lord Stanley was not present. It was 
PARK. [ DTSILAITOl opened on Thursday, September 27th, 1888, 
auFiMgJACK'S (5ULVS . by Mayor Oppenheimer. The procession 

formed on Powell Street, went up Cordova to 
Granville, up to Hotel Vancouver, down 
Georgia Street across the new Bridge, around lovely drive past 
Brockton Point, and then on to a grassy spot where Supplejack's 
grave used to be, close to the landing place of the Capllano 
Water «orks, where a halt was made. Here a temporary platform 
had been erected. (See photo No. ..., showing flagpole.) 



INDIAN GRAVES. 



• •• , 

On May 31st. 1934. there was read over to 
August Jack Khahtsahlano, V.A. Grafton's 



narration re Indian Graves at Chaythoos, Stanley Park. He 
nodded assent to each statement, and to my query respecting its 
accuracy, said, "Tee, but Supplejack not buried In 'grass 
house,* but 'glass house.'* 



8D» MOODY. Major Matthews: "Can you tell me what 
MOgbTVlLLI 3AW - this story is about Sue Moody (Moodyvllle 
MILL. Sawmill) borrowing |2,000 from Supplejack 

to pay the mill hands when the money did not 
come by boat from San Irene iseot" 

Andrew paul ( Tab. 12. 1934) ; "I remember 



27 



20 



the* tailing me about it when I wa* a little boy. some 
Indian— you know Indiana can be very quiet in the woods, and 
can watch you without anyone knowing they are watching— well 
they told ae an Indian waa watching in the trees somewhere over 
about Victoria, and saw a Chinaman or somebody burying some- 
thing. He afterwards told Mr. Ifoody about it, and Mr. Moody 
said to him, *Tou take me and show me where it is,' and he did, 
and got the money." 

Major Matthew*: "How much did the Indian 
get out of it?" 

Andrew Paul: "A few blankets, I suppose, 
but I never knew It was Supplejack, although now you remind me, 
I have some hazy recollection." 

HOTS: The story is told by Harold E. Ridley that Mr. 
Moody of MoodyvlUe Sawmill borrowed |2,000 from Supple- 
jack, of Chaythooa (Stanley Park). The money was in 
gold and silver coins of American denomination. (See 
•laxly Vancouver,* Vol. 2, re this interesting Indian.) 



VSAHLANO . May 31. 1934. 

ST JACK." Memorandum of Conversation with August 
Jack Khahtsahlano, of Capilanp River: 
(See "Marly Vancouver", Vol. 5, ».».) 

Major Matthews: "What is there in the 
story that Sue Moody (manager of Moodyville Sawmill Co.) 
borrowed a big sum of money, about $2,000, from your father, 
Supplejack?" (Xhay-tulk.) 

August Jack: "That*s all wrong" (dis- 
gustedly). "That was Alec Tom; same fellow killed a man on 
Granville Road to Kburne; knock him on the head with an axe; 
kill him. He was In Jail eighteen years for doing it. 1*11 
go tell you." 

"Alee was working for Sue Moody; flunky; 
wash dish. Alec goes holiday in Victoria. Then he was look- 
ing for place have rest; sit down. Vent in bushes. Sit- 
ting in bush very quiet and a Chinaman come along. He heard 
noise of Chinamen coming along. Here was Chinaman, so he sit 
still. He watch Chinaman. The Chinaman bury this box, then 
he get up and walk towards the place where the Chinamans was 
burying this. He dug it out. The Chinamans gone." 

"He open the box and found the money in- 
side the box, so he did not want to take the money, so he 
cover it over again and came down to Victoria city; stay there 
two days after; and they caught the Chinaman and the Chinaman 
would not give away where he had put the stolen money; so 
Alec found out the Chinaman stole the money, and he (the China- 
i) was arrested." 



28 



21 



"Then Alee go back that place and sore 
the box, abd bury tba box again. He took some out. So he 
earn* horn and went back to hie work washing dishes in the 
kitchen, and Moody was crying *eos he did not hare no aoney 
to pay his men; so Alec went up to Hoody and says *What*s the 
aatter, Moody?* Moody answered, 'I got no aoney to pay ay 
aea.» So Alec said, »I was in Victoria, in the bush, and the 
Chinaman eoae along with a big box, aoney in it, and the box 
is there yet.* So Moody said, 'Let's go and see.* so Alee 
seid, 'All right,* and they go to Westminster and take steamer 
from Westminster to Victoria, and they got the money." 

Major Matthews: "How much?" 

_ _ .. August Jack: "Oh, can»t say; don»t know. 
That's the story, anyhow." 



(See "Marly Vancouver", Vol .3, p. 4) 

3TAH1BT PART. On January 7th, 1869, the report of Dr. 

A.M. Robertson, M.D., City Health officer, 
recommended to the City Council that the houses at Brockton 
Point be destroyed, and that no Indians coming from a distance 
be allowed to eamp there in future. This was on aoeount of 
fear of epidemics of disease (smallpox). Stanley Park had 
been opened on September 27th, 1886. Recommendation was car- 
ried out, but the report that a lawsuit followed, resulting in 
the city haTing to rebuild them, has not been investigated, but 
his recommendation gives an idea of the date when Indians no 
longer lived in their ancient home. 



PORTDCaSB JOB . Remark by Jim franks (Chilaminst) , Indian 

^*£!±±H!i .$?P ot Nortn Vancouver. (See Early Vancouver. 

STAMJfT PARK. Vol. 2.) 

"Portugese Joe he first go out Point Grey, 
out on sandbank, catch dogfish, bring them in Deadmans Island; 
too rough out there. He get oil. Boil them in great big 
kettle on Deadmans Island, make oil; sell sawmill. That's 
what Portugese Joe first do." 



May 51. 1934. 
Conversation with August Jack Ebahtsahlano: 
Major Matthews: "What does Sasamat mean? 



The Spaniards who were here before Vancouver say that the 
Indians called Burrard Inlet Sasamat." 



29 



22 



Conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano, "Early Vancouver", 
Vol. 3, p. 4. 

31at May. 1934. 

SASAMA.T Major Matt hew a; What does Saaamat meant 

The Spaniard.* who were here before Captain 
Vancouver My that the Indian* called the plaoe "Saaamat." 

August Jack: "That must be down towards 
Indian River. Den*" Enow what it means; don*t think it has 
anything to do with Tsa-atalum, that's out Point Grey, means" 
(shrugging shoulders) "chill place. Taa-tsa-alum out Point 
Grey, not Squamish language; don't know what Saasaat means, 
not same language. We never finished the place names up the 
Inlet. I give you some more now, all I can think of Just now*' 



Chul-whah-ulch t 

Taa-tum-auns 

Turn- ta-mayh- tun t 
3puc-ka-naah: 



Bidwell Bay, same name as Coal Harbor. 

Don't know exactly where, but up by Port 
Moody, east of Barnet. Don't know 
meaning. 



Beloarra, means land. 

Little White Rock on the point just where 
you pass mill (Dollar ton). Means 'Whits 
Rock,' same as whitemans call it. (White 
Bock Island in middle of channel.) 

Thluk-thluk-way-tun: Barnet Mill* Means 'where the bark gets 
pealed* in spring. 



Slail-*i*-tuth: 



Indian River. 



30 



a SK_ mum. 




&ANLgT PATK CATTLE 



Vol* 3. p» 7. 

Memo of ConTersatlon with August Jack ft"if>|in (Kltsilano 
"••J Khay-tulk, and grandson of Chief KtSShStgh Jf ' 
ChaythooB) at Clt* Hall, Jan. 12, 1934. 

..-H-^ffi"* £^L { S? B of *«PPl«J»eki or Khay-tulk) was born 
under tha present Burrard Street Bridge, the then Indian Till- 
age of Snauq, and says he la now 59. [Actually 57. See bap- 
tismal certificate, Pho. P. 42, Pho. H. 76. See also 'Early 
Vancouver', Vol. 2.) J 

Query* How many families were Hrlng at Whol-Whoi In 

Stanley Park when you were a boy? (about 1881-86.) 

August Jaoki fAfter reflecting) "There were eleren fam- 
.,, ,-k,,,^, . lllea. That's a long time ago. There was 

old Ckunth' in one house, then there was Ce-yowqlwa-lla in the 
next house, an* Ahtsulk was in the next; then there were eight 

f^i ^V* *?* Xh * T * miBt hays oeen nore *l»n 100 Indians all 
told llrlng In the four houses. These man's names haTe no 
meaning* Juat names. I forget all the family names; it's such 
a long time ago." 

it ?- t Jh t0h < Wa ! hel l tl W £&'*& i ln 1885 « Ther « ia mention of 
it ln the minutes of the City Council proceedings about 1887 
where the medioal health officer recommends the destruction of 
the houses on aooount of small pox. R eT . C. H. Tata says the 

Knc'curer?: ST? J? ift *"* BrlT — * "* ° Ut ' "" '**** 

Query* How old were those Indian houses? 

August Jack. "Oh, wary old; there long before me. You 
,.,. .. . . . to* * **• Iumber«an'a Arch ln Stanley Park. 

Wall, the big house was about 200 feet long, and sixty feet 

the^reoTU*^ ?!?! 1 ^ • q VU r *^ B froBt of *«■»«"■»■•■ Arch at 
iSLi? !-^L u t,ail f ^" th * ***»»•■• Mwaatnt. That waa the 
Jrealf pew-wow house. The name of It waa 1TAH-HAT: no meanlnc t 
Just name, and alx families lire* In It. ■»■■•■»■ 



31 



m 

IHDI-1HDI AHKA-CHUA CHATTH003 

Vitus; ilk* BBS 

gBB HARROWS , STANLEY Mg 
▲ painting In oil by Auguat Jack Khahtsahlano, 15th January, 1936. 

DESCRIPTION 

THE SOPAMISH VILLAGE Of WHOI-WHOI . (meaning "maaka"): 

Tmtold agaa paat men lived on thia clearing; remalna were 
eight feet deep. In 1792, when Capt. Vancouver aailed by, Squamish 
lived here in huge cedar alab houaea, one alope roof a, built with 
atone hammers and chisels. Circa 1870, theae were demoliahed, and 
•King George men" peak roof cottagea, with peak roofa, glaaa windowa, 
aome with floora, erected with sawn boarda. lue to smallpox theae, 
in turn, were demoliahed in 1689, shortly after the "Park Road" waa 
made around Stanley Park. 

TAT-HA T. the communal "manor", (no meaning): 

"Lumberman * s Arch" stands on the ancient site, the exact former 
location of "Tay-hay." They were the moat accompliahed native car- 
penters in North America; a kindly, generous, God-fearing people 
with a clear conception of the fundamentals of life. 

a ht a -ctiu. the creek and lake, (meaning "email lake", i.e., Beaver 
Lake. ) "I paint it for you" responded August Jack Ehahtsah- 
lano, Squamish, age oyer sixty, six feet tall, aon of Haytulk, or 
"Supplejack", and grandson of Chief Haatsahlanogh— no English name. 
He cannot read or write. Thia painting is from memory fifty yeara 
after, and, remarkably, is hie own first unaided attempt at drawing; 
without advice, tuition, or model; the conception and creation of 
an untrained hand of a practical and lovable Indian of brilliant mind. 

Here lived, loved and laughed, in comfort and in plenty, our 
good friends the Squamish, before the "whitemens" came. Then one 
summer's day, 1792, Capt .Vancouver sailed by. Those along the 
atrand gazed in wonder; others, in canoes, pushed off to welcome, 
to escort, to honor with clouda of white down feathers floating 
above and about him as he passed inwards. 

CHAT-TH00S . the clearing, (meaning "high bank"). Proapect Point. 

On thia email prehistoric cleering there stood a stone tool 
split, thiok cedar alab, one alope roof, nailleas Indian houae 
occupied by Chief Haatsalanogh , from whom Elteilano takes ita 
name. The "hut" is shown on Royal Engineer field survey notes, 
liar. 1863. Cirea 1870, hia eon Haytulk, or "Supplejack", demol- 
iahed it, and, on exact aite, replaced it with cottage, here de- 
pleted, of sawn boards from Haatinga Sawmill. Thia, in turn, was 
demolished when, in 1888, the "Park Road" paaeed through it. 



HATTPLE'S TOMB ; 

Here, beside Haytulk's remaina lying in a canoe inside hie 
wooden tomb on posts, mayor Oppenhelmer opened, 1888, and Stanley 
dedicated, 1889, the Park. 



J. S. Matthews, 

City Archivist. 



15th January, 1938. 



32 



24 

"Then, to the west of it, was a smaller house, about 30 
feet front and 16 feet deep with a sort of little kitchen at 
the backj I think two families lived in that. 

"Then to the west again was a smaller house, about 24 by 
16 feet deep; one family lived in that, and on the extreme west 
was another pow-wow house — it was measured once — and I 
think the measurement was 94 feet front by about 40 feet deepi 
the front was about 20 feet high; the back was about 12 feet. 
Here two families lived. All these houses stood in a row above 
the beach, facing the water; all were of cedar slabs and biz 
posts; all built by the Indians long ago." 

(Hote: The picture, "Before the Pale Jace Came" (illustrated 
by John Innes, prepared by J. S. Matthews) was hanging on the 
wall as we conversed. It records the Indian place names of 
Burrard Inlet and English Bay.) See Map P. 10, H. 18. 

««. /^a*' 8 ? ot right," said August Jack, pointing to the hut. 

That roof got two slopes, Squamish Indian hut only one slope, 
rrom front to back, and the posts are always outside, and—" 
(pointing to roof beams) "—the top part stick out; see the 
ends of the timbers, so." (Drawing with pencil on piece of 
paper.) "The door always in the end, one at each end of house, 
right in corner under highest part of roof, not in the middle 
of end. Hole for smoke? Ho hole for smoke; just poke up with 
stick and slide boards off hole in roof, not like northern In- 
dian House. Light? Ho windows, but holes in side along front 



of house; not very big holes, not very many, in big pow-waw 
house (200 feet by 60 feet) perhaps, maybe, four; So glass for 
window; just cover hole with something when no light wanted or 
to keep out wind. 

"The side and all the walla just cedar slabs on side; 
cedar slabs on roof; the beams stick out all round just under 
roof." 

tyiery: How about posts for support of sides? 

August Jack « "Just same as ends, only smaller. Cedar 
slabs dropped in between posts, and posts 
fastened together with little cedar boughs twisted together. 
Posts onlyttied in two or three places up and down; windows, 
might be four windows in the 200-feet "Tah-hay"; they don't put 
in much (for light). Ho holes to shoot bow and arrow through 
at enemy; use windows; when they make light, just open it; 
they had something to cover window over when want to. Yes; 
the floor was earth." 

Queryj "Any totem poles?" 

August Jack: "Ho, not outside, but might be oarved on 
post inside house." 



33 



ss 



queryt Any oanoos? 

August Jaokt "Yes, on beaoh, lots eanoss; some man got 
three, soma man two, bigger canoe, smaller 
canoe. Squaaiiah oanos like this shape." (See diagram.) 



^uery* Any dogs? 

August Jaokt "Oh yas, lots dogs, Indian dogs, not white- 
dogs." 



^ueryt What about water? There's no oreek at Whol-Whoi. 

August Jaokt "Ho oreak there; bare well; Indian dig him; 

about six feet deep; use cedar board bucket." 



<iuery» What about grareyard? 

August Jaokt "Little grareyard. You know where totem 

poles have been put near Lumberman's Arch? 
Well, go* up little trail from Whol-Whoi, little trail behind 
those poles; peoples burled there; may be 100 feet from poles; 
long before my time. They were getting soatterad; people get- 
ting seattsred. (Wot intelligible, but no time to interrupt to 
gat explanation, but see W. A. Grafton narratlre re burials in 
boxes and oanoes at Chaythooa, Stanley Park. A. J* probably 
meant "bones getting soatterad.") So they got one of the men 
and bury them there. They had a little small pox before the 
white man same. There's been two or three small pox eame to 
Squamlsh peoples. When? Couldn't say; that's a long time. 
They had that small pox, and the big fire in Squamlsh. (Presum- 
ably he means about the same time.) What did the fire do? Oh, 
just burn the country. How did it start? It started with 
thunder; that was the only punishment the Indians got; the 
Squamlsh peoples." 



Queryt Was there an Indian trail from Whol-Whoi (Lumber- 
man's Arch) to Paapeeak (Brockton Point)? 

August Jaokt "I don't think so; poor one if there was; 

don't remember one; no need for one up that 
way. Bat there was a good trail to Chaythoos (end of pipe line 
road) about that wide (extending hands apart about three feet.) 
Ho Indian oan go along beaoh whan the tide Is in, so Indian 
make little trail from Chaythoos to Whol-Whoi; they follow that 
trail when they build the Stanley Park Road around the park; 
then another trail out through to Chulwahulsh (Lost Lagoon), 
and then along to Puokhale, (C. P. R. Station) then to Luokluoky, 
(Carroll Street) Kumkumlqf, (Bastings Sawmill) Chetohallmun, 
(B. C. Sugar Refinery) and Huphapai (Cedar Core)» How wide? 
Just little trail; just enough one man to go past; no tools make 



34 



trail, Juat break with hands, break bushes. Deer, bear, all 
use the same trail* 

"When they make Stanley Park road we was eating In our house. 
Some one aake noise outside; ohop our house. We was inside 
this house (at Chaythoos) when the surveyors cone along, and 
they ohop the corner of our house (indignantly) when we was 
eating inside. We all get up go out see what was the matter* 
My sister Louise, she was the only one talk a little English; 
she goes out ask whiteman what he's doing that for. The man 
say, "We're surveying the road." my sister ask him, "Whose 
road? Is it whiteman' s?" Whiteman says, "Someday you'll find 
good road around, it's going around. (A. J. makes eiroular mo- 
tion with hand.) Of course, whiteman did not say park; they did 
not sail it park then. 

CHXgJ' KHAATSA-:UB-HOUQH«S HOME . "Our house beside a little 

creek at Chay those, you 
know end of pipe line road; just where you start to go up hill 
to Sunt*." 

%uerys I thought Suntz was at the bottom of Prospect 
Point, a rook on the beaoh by the lighthouse* 

August Jaoki "Tes, that's right, but Sunt* is all the way 
up the hill, too; up top too; all Suntz. 
(Motioning from bottom upwards with hand.) Our house about 8 
feet from creek; little slope from house to creek; creek on east 
side of eur house; our house about 30 feet from slope of bank; 
near beaoh; when they out roadway they go right through our 
house; my father's, Supplejack's, grave, (It was beside this 
grave that the dedication of Stanley Park by Lord Stanley took 
place; the procession stopped there.) was about one hundred and 
forty feet west of house; our house little house in front facing 
water; big long powwow house behind; both made of cedar slabs; 
been there long, long time; long before my time. 

"Only two places on first Warrows (south side); just Whoi- 
Whoi and Chaythooa." (See "Xarly Vancouver", Vol. 2, 1932.) 

<luery» August, there's a man lives up in Mt. Pleasant — 
Mr. Soales. He says he corns Vancouver long, long 
time. His mother live Gas town. He say his mother want vege- 
tables. He say, "Mother, I go get some." He take canoe, go 
some plaoe near Prospect Point, climb hill to Indian garden, try 
steal potatoes, earrots; have saok on shoulder* He meet Khay- 
tulk coming down trail, black hair all hang down over shoulder, 
wear black hat. Khay-tulk say, "Where you going?" and look 
hard* ley frightened and aay "Howhere." Where was that Indian 
garden? 

August Jiaokt "Close by our house, little garden Just be- 
side it, on west side." 



35 



Z1 



f}uery« Wall, before whltemanB come, what vegetables grow? 
That aort of garden Indian hare? 

August Jack: "Oh, little garden; Just clear apace before 

whltenan come. I never see, but I think they 
have it (ground) ready like; then when the whitemans come In- 
diana Just put in potatoes, turnips. 

STAKLBY PARK COTS 

"Khaytulk, my father, bought one cow; then the cow had a 
little one; it waa a bull; then they got lota. Te had 12 ocma 
running around, and 6 pigs. (See 'Xarly Vancouver', Vol* 2, 
1932, page 273.) They were running looae around Stanley Park 
when they got road put up (built). Then we had them cows we 
bought our horaea, two of them; they had one horse uae it for 
racing Tew Teatminater on Dominion Day. Te lost half the cattle; 
some people a kill.* 

SBCOMD BEACH (BTAITTOOK ) 

TJueryl Did you ever hear of whites camping long, long time 
ago at Second Beach? (See Joe Sievewright, Cariboo 
miner and companions, 1853, 'Xarly Vancouver', Vol. 3.) 

August Jacks "To. Sever hear white camping at Second 

Beach my time. Indians living there; juat 
come there to oamp; kill ducks, take canoe away from storm in 
Bngllah Bay over to Chul««ttaiiufiih.(Lo8t Lagoon); kill ducks night 
time; that's how they kill them; ducks don't fly when they got 
fire in canoe | they come close; get out in oanoe spear ducks, 
and Indian uae spear. At that time hard to get ducks with bow 
and arrow; that's (spearing) the easiest way they can get them. 
Then they got fire in oanoe, ducks come close; then Indian uae 
spear." 

<luery» Didn't the fire burn the oanoe? 

August Jack: "They get cedar board (aplit cedar); they 

pile the mud on top of that so as would not 
burn oanoe, then sticks, all pitch sticks; pitch burns quiet; 
no spark to make noise. (See diagram.) 

Duck dcrou. Used at nirjUt bu Indians. 



0i e „ 




* Fla-me.. 5 fcicks of b iheh wood burning 

h*~ — MUSL Tnmott^'ffOS^ t?' lefg - tlflM f :TP 

"•*~-^ - 3ln.h nj «;pl'fb cedar v tnoS.. • J 



Q*ueryt Then you were a little boy, what did you used to 
live on? Beef? Perk? 

August Jaokt "To, no beef. Te used ducka, deer, fish, 
clams, anything that's going around that's 
good to eat for Squamiah people; no beef, no pig." 

tiueryt That about elk? 



36 



August Jaokt "Veil, there's always elk going around hare. 
Where? Oh, out Point Grey, around Byalmouch 
(Jericho); anywhere where there*s swamp; they go around juat 
like horses only they got horns." 

(Jueryj Did the Indians go by trail to New Westminster; 
orer to Traser River way? 

August Jaokt "They go canoe; winter or summer; not always 
winter* Westminster not only place they want 
to visit; if juat Westminster they go trail; they got trail 
from Maxle's (Hastings) before the whitemans oame. They got 
trail from Fort Moody to Eraser. But in canoe, may be two, 
three, may be four men, everybody in canoe paddle, it go around 
quick; visit lot of places, not Just Westminster." 



He promised to come in again, and we went out to 
have a cup of coffee and cakes while awaiting his 
wife, Swanamla, who has never had her photo taken; 
a very pretty, demure Indian lady; I repeat, In- 
dian lady . (Addenda, 1949s Nor was it ever taken, 
save by subterfuge. Fort. P. 657, H. 270, was taken 
with a flash bulb at Kitsilano High School in 1943.) 



37 



29 



HTTTMnnp CBtt i y TitpT^N RB3ERVB 
3T0SS KMITB 

Vol. 3. p. 11 

Memorandum of conversation with August Jack Khamtsahlano, Sept. 

27, 1934. 

SBY1PUR CRSEK INDIAN RBSBRVB 

Query ! What's tola photo? (showing him Out. P. 92, H. 92) 
August Jack: "That's the old Seymour Reserve, lots oanoes. 
The b^g house belong to Chief George, chief 
of Seymour Creek; the next house Policeman Tom. Chief George's 
Indian name Tho-lah-kun (spelt as nearly as is possible to do 
in Bngllah); he old man then, (about 1890 or earlier), may be 
90 or more* He and his wife drowned out of canoe in Seymour 
Creek; their bodies found next day, about 1891* Him great big 
man; his feet about that wide (showing how wide, about six inches 
with hands apart). In winter he go over to Maxie's (Hastings, 
B. C*). go Westminster* He put on mocassins, go about 100 
yards (along Douglas Road), tear them off, and go barefoot* 
Hever use shoes. ■ 



Query. Why barefoot in winter? 

August Jack: "Teet slip." (1. s., on wet oorduroy n 
See also re Capilano Joe, "Early Vancouver", Vol.3 , p. 95 



Query: This -- (showing heavy stone hammer presented by 

W. A* Grafton) — was found near the corner of Cambie 
Street and 63rd Avenue, away from Worth Arm, Vraser River, a 
mile or more, and deep down under big cedar tree root, eighteen 
inohes down. (See W* A. Grafton story, p. ) What doss it 
mean? 

August Jacks "You see this hollow in middle? That's 
where they make canoe. (See Chilamlnst, 
"Barly Vancouver", Vol* 2, p. 48 ). Use it for hammer, pound 
chisel, make canoe. Indian mans take ten year (to shape stone 
haunter*) Man makes those stone hammer, rich man; he got ten 
northern goat skin, peoples give him one oanoe, big canoe, for 
one of these (stone hammer or pestle.) Wot all mans make them; 
only one people, one tribe make them, all Squamish; may be one 
Squamish reserve; one Squamish (band) make oanoe, one stone 
hammer, another Squamish do hunting or trapping; they trade; 
skin, stone hammer, oanoe, meat, berry, all same white man trade 
he's things." (see-also "Sarly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 128) 



38 



30 



Query: This found same place. 
What for? 



(Cambie Street and 63rd.) 



August Jackt "That la a knife, I think, may be for spear, 
but I think knife, (wields one end aa though 
cutting meat) only point sharp." (Holding other end in pafan 
under thumb.) 

Stone. V\i.Yx\trv«.r itonc Wym£«. 






l\ Its. 
1 , 

A. i 




\ci\gTV\'. t n\che_5 



> cone art uiitV ult^r 

Query* Did Indian use deer horn for wedge to aplit cedar? 
(See "Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 135, Rev. CM. 
Tate.) 



August Jackt 



SIX 



"Ho. Use big wedge yew wood, long sharp 
wedge, pound with atone hammer, aplit cedar, 
great long slab cedar." 



Aa A. J. K. waa lea-ring the office, he picked up and ex- 
amined an old, rusty British Army rifle, Brunswick model, about 
three-quarter inch bore. (Rifle of Thoa. Deasy, from Queen 
Charlotte Island.) Then he handled it and said: "You know Cap- 
llano Joe. (Chief Joe Capilano, who visited King Edward 7th). 
Joe tell me about 1904 or 1905 hia father told him that, about 
forty years back from then, there waa a heavy snow, and he shot 
thirteen elk, all one time, over False Creek; ship them (car- 
casses) Victoria for meat." (See Blk, "Barly Vancouver", Vol. 
1, 2, and 3.) 



39 



31 

INDIANS. NUMBER BBTORE WHIT™ ,* 1 * "AMT. 




HOMDLOTBSUN 

GHS-CHIIi-lSS 






.SET 

JA1I-KEB 

IT" 



-STTT3*-F0S-TAH-KWIN-ACB 
Vol. 3. p. 13A 

Memorandum of conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano, 
Hot ember 23, 1934. 

Query : How many Indians do you suppose lived around 

Burrard Inlet and English Bay before the white- 
nans came? 

INDIANS, number before whlteman came 

August Jack: (exaggerating) "About a million! There was 
a settlement at K-yal-mough (Jericho), 
another at Snauq (Burrard Bridge), at Ay-yul-shun (!Rnglish Bay 
Beach), at Stait-wouk (Seoond Beach), at Chay-thoos (Prospect 
Point), at Whoi-Whoi (Lumberman's Arch), at Homulcheson 
(Capilano), at Ustlawn (North Vancouver), at Cbay-chil-wuk 
(Seymour Creek) — there was nothing at Lynn Creek -- and more 
settlements up the inlet besides the one at Kum-kum-lye (Hast- 
ings Sawmill)." 

MJS(j.UBAMS 

Query t How is it that the Musqueams claim that English 

Bay and Burrard Inlet is their territory and that 
it did not belong to the Squamiah? All the nafces for the places 
on English Bay and Burrard Inlet are Squamiah names, but the 
JIuaqueame say that the Squamiah did not live down here until 
the Hastings Sawmill started, and that gave them work. 

August Jack: (smiling) "Ifiisqueam'e got no claim. They 
claim Snauq, but they've got no rights. 
They not build a house there; Squamiah build house there. Kus- 
qu earns just oome round from North Arm to fish on the sandbar 
(Granville Island) and up False Creek, and then they go away 
again, but Squamiah build house* 

POTLATCHBS 

"Jericho Charlie (Chan-nal-set) , my step-father, he build 
big house, thousand feet long, cedar slab sides, cedar shake 
roof, out at E-yal-mough, he hold big potlatch, great big pot- 



40 



PROSPECT POINT, 
FIRST NARROWS, 1889 




No Squamish name applied to Prospect Point. The First Narrows entrance was wide, 
and had no geographical significance to the native in a dugout canoe. But, on the 
shore at its foot, beside the present lighthouse, was a small rock with a small fir tree 
growing from the top. Squamish legend was that the rock was a woman, Siwash 
Rock's wife, Sahunz, or Sunz, and the tree was her hair. She had been washing it 
in the sea, but, as punishment for some impropriety, the Squamish gods turned her 
into stone. Vandals chopped the small tree down. The historic Hudson's Bay side- 
wheeler, "BEAVER" is ashore, 1889. 



40A 



SAHUNZ OR SUNZ, BELOW PROSPECT POINT, 
FIRST NARROWS, 1937 




A few yards from the lighthouse below Prospect Point, at the foot of the steps from the 
top of the point. According to August Jack Khaahtsahlano conversation 12 Sept. 1940 
"She is not Siwash Rock's second wife; he did not have two wives. Siwash Rock's 
wife is right beside him — about eighty feet away. Sunz was punished, too, like 
Siwash Rock, and Chit-chul, at Point Grey. She was washing her hair; that little tree 
on top is her hair. She had evil in her heart, too, and was turned into stone for 
punishment. But Yahmas, or Tim Moody, last Indian with flat forehead, said Sunz is 
a woman's name, a kneeling woman, and is Siwash Rock's second wife, and Andy Paul 
says the same. See "Early Vancouver" Vol. 2, page 21. 

40B 



INDIAN SURGERY, ERBURNE MIDDEN, AT LEAST 1,000 YEARS AGO 



INDIAN SURGERY ,MARPOLE,B .C . 
"Trepanning at least 1000 years ago . 




This ancient skull was recovered from an irregular trench in the trees, about six feet 

deep and thirty feet long; earth without sand, or even small stones, an ancient refuse 

heap. The location was a few feet from the edge of a cliff twenty-five feet high, at 

the foot of which were the B.C. Electric interurban tracks, and about the foot of Cartier 

Street, east of Granville Street. 

It proves that centuries ago, the mouth of the North Arm, Fraser River, was at least three 

miles east of its present position, as a large village would obtain their shell food 

from a nearby beach. 

This skull shows two tumor operations, both performed with stone implements; in the 

first, the bone grew, showing the patient lived, in the second, the bone did not alter, 

indicating death. 

CITY ARCHIVES/JSM. 

40C 




t,< 










■IP 


11 

:.■■■;■■ 


■IP 



1 s 
I 
1 i 



•10D 



32 



latch, that before my time. That houBe could he there yet, hut 
the gun boats come and take It away, load all the timber on the 
gun boat. Chen-nal-set, he waa working, he was away, working 
for old Jerry Rogers, freighting aig oanoe, hay and supplies 
from Hastings Sawmill to Jerioho; gun boat just come, anchor, 
load lumber on gun boat, and take it away. Chen-nal-set and 
Tee-who-qwuam-k.ee and two other Indians give the big potlatch 
at Jericho. 

■Then they hold potlatch at Stait-wouk (Second Beach); 
Q,ual-kin give that potlatch, and there was another potlatch, a 
great big one, at A-yul-shun (English Bay Beach). My grand- 
father, Chief Khaat-sah-lah-nogh, he gave one potlatch at 
Chay-thooa, and after that another one at Whoi-Whoi. 

WHALBS 

"Peter Smith, white man, UBed to lire at Brockton Point, 
and made a liring spearing whales. He used to catch them off 
Bowen Island, and take them to Swis-pus-tah-kwin-aCe (Worl- 
combe Island), Westminster and Victoria. When the white man 
come, he did the same as Indians had done before. When white 
man go to Bowen Island he find lots whale bone lying on the 
beach, and call it "Bone Island"." 



41 



33 



SAjatQH. WCK. 

SfoiMISg TBIBB 

3Q,UAMISH""TBRRIT0RY 
S2C~ 



AP--BB-LA-NOGH 



Vol. S, p. 14 

Memorandum of conversation with August Jack Khaatsahlano, on a 
special all-day trip from Vancouver to Squamish on the Union 
Steamship "Capilano" for the purpose of having him point out 
location of Indian places of interest. November 28th, 1934. 

Query! Why did the Squamish make their home at a point 

like Squamish? Squamish is not as nice a place aa 
Whoi-Whoi, Staitwouk, or Eyalmo; anywhere on English Bay or 
Burrard Inlet? 

August Jack: "Squamish their home; lots salmon, deer, 
beaver. In the summer time they go down 
English Bay and Burrard Inlet to get email fish, smelts, her- 
ring, oolichans, and dry them, and get clams, get berries; lots 
su$ser food down Burrard Inlet. Duck easier to get at English 
Bay than Squamish. Indian catch duck at night, spear them; 
got out in oanoe; put cedar slabs across canoe, mud on top, 
then put fire, pitch stick bo not make noise when burning 
(crackle) on top mud; when duck see light of fire in dark, he 
get curious, come nearer oanoe, see what it is. Man in bow 
have spear on end pole twenty feet long; man in oanoe paddle as 
bard as he can. Canoe for (hunting) duck specially built; very 
narrow, very swift. Paddler in stern not raise his paddle; 
keep it in water as much as he can, so as not to scare duck; 
M make canoe go fast; that's way get near duck at nirfit with 
fire in canoe. 

"when Indian want go somewhere he use different canoe; 
wider oanoe, but to catch duck he use oanoe made to go swift. 

"When Indian smoke salmon he use hemlock or alder for 
smoke. Salmon keep about two year if kept in good place, hard 

V**t J?** Soak ln ** teT * then •»*• If gets damp goes mouldy. 
a«t Indian only keep salmon one year; when spring salmon come 
next y«ar, throw all old salmon away. May be have one hundred 
■aimon wten winter come; only ten when spring salmon come again; 
tnrow ten away. * 

miles"™? i^-.i 0n f,*f°» wh ? n , 1 **" fl8hln 8 salmon about five 
■lies out in gulf off Bowen Island, a deer pass me swimming; 



42 



34 



don't know where he was going; may be loat hia way; guess he 
drowns* 



<}uery: Was there a prinoipal chief in the Squamiah tribe? 
When the chiefs of the Squamiah tribe met together 
there must have been a chairman or prinoipal chief* 

August Jack: "Hot one man big chief; each head of a family 
supreme in hia section; call his friends tog- 
ether decide what to do* 

"One time, before my time, Yucklataw Indians come down 
Point Grey, kill three Indians; six others ran off in trees, 
and get away. Indian chiefe hold council, decide what best do; 
whether to get revenge. The chiefs all meet. Somebody aay, 
'Our good friend haa been killed, we go get revenge.' So they 
all decide to go; ten canoea, twenty men in each canoe. 

"It waa your ChrlBtmaa time; lota snow up Yucklataw. When 
they get near they see smoke coming out of houaea, ao they hide 
until it geta dark; then they greep up. They hare pitch wood 
with them, out up very fine, (and) in bundles; they light 
bundles and throw on roof* Then they get big stick, lota men, 
lift ridge pole off house, roof fall in, kill people inside; 
lots snow; peoples inside oould not get out, only one outlet 
out of house, kill them aa they come out, kill eighty or ninety; 
only one man escape; he creep into snow and hide; they miaa him. 
Then Squamiah come back." 

SgOAiaSH TERRITORY 

According to Khaatsahlano, the boundary of the territory of 
the Squamiah people extended oTer the entire area of Howe Sound 
and Burrard Inlet. On the west, their territory commenced near 
the point known as Gibs on* a Landing; to the north of Gibson's 
lived the Sechelta, in whose language the Squamiah could not 
easily converse. 

The Squamiah Country extended sixty miles up the Squamiah 
River to the Shovel Hose Indian Reserve (Spring Salmon Creek). 
Eastwards it included all English Bay, and Burrard Inlet up to 
Indian River and Port Moody. Khaatsahlano Bays its southern 
extremity ended at the tip of Point Grey (Chit-chil-a-yuk), but 
others say at Hahley, Just west of Huaqueau. The probability 
is that Khaatsahlano is correct. 

August Khaatsahlano does not read nor write. He complains 
that the speech and pronunciation of the present-day Indian is 
affected by speaking constantly in English, and says "Andy 
Paull (Qaitohetahl) spoils things." Mr. Paull uses the English 
language constantly and is fluent. Khaatsahlano, being older 
by perhaps ao years, and habitually speaks in the Indian towtue 
excepting when talking to white own. 

Ha says, "Oapilano whitemans word; not Squamiah; no "cap" 



43 



35 

in Squamieh; whltemans say "oap"-ilano. Indian word "Koe-ap"; 
1* e., Kee-ap-ee-la-nogh. 

"Squamlah peoples not wear feather hat like prairie In- 
dian; Just band for hat; like hat band inside whltemana hat; 
made of buckakln, nay be one feather In band, at front or back; 
generally front; pull band down over head; keep hair In place." 



44 



35 A 



Conwersstlon with August Jack Khahtsahlano, "Barly VancouTer" 
Vol. 3, p. 15K (back of page). 

1934. 

SK0-MI3H-0AIH. "It la the nana of the country, or ter- 
ritory of the Squamlsh Indian peoples, and 
includes all Howe Sound and Burrard Inlet, (includes English 
Bay) from Staw-ki-yah, a creek west of Gibson » a Landing to 
the tip of Point Grey; all the land in between belong* to the 
Squamiah". 

NOTE: Other authorities (Indian) aay to Manly, 
Just west of Musqueam, and that Manly waa Muaqueam terri- 
tory "leased" to their friends the Squamlsh; Khahtsahlano 
thinks Point Grey waa the territorial boundary; Ayatak, 
(see "Barly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 1 and 8) aays false 
Creek and English Bay belonged to Muaqueam*, and adds 
"Squamiah and Musqueams, also Seehelts, alwaya good 
friends". On the west, Staw-ki-yah, near Roberts Creek, 
was the boundary beyond which Ehahtsahlano says "Squam- 
lsh must not go". Skomishoath included Port Moody, and 
Indian River, and extended many miles up the Squamlsh 
Hirer. j. s. M. 



"Barly Vancouver" Vol . 3, p. 345. 

INDIAN BURIAL GROUNDS . Some of the Indiana burial grounds, 

before the whiteman came, near 
Vane out er, were: 

DfjflgfJUl Island in Coal See Early Vancouver, Joaeph Morton 

Harbor. narrative , etc. Hill-Tout, etc. 

Toot of Howe St.. false A tiny low island covered with a bit 

Creek . of grass and with a tree or two on it, 

was known as "Smamchuze," (aee Jim 
Franks, p.47, "Barly Vancouver", 
Vol. «). 

Two bare rocks off See pp. 57-58 "Barly Vancouver", 

Point Atkinson . Vol. E. 

Defence Island, near 

Squamlsh 

3tanl*y"Park. Chaythooa . 

near Proapect Point. See "Early Vancouver", Vol. 2 and 3. 

Whol-WhoTT In Tlrst Narrows: aee "Early Vancouver". 



45 



36 



fxp^Tflwrny IHDIAH DAKCB DBS MP BJC 

SI 



Yol. 3. page 15-A 

Memorandum of conversation with August Jack Khahteahlano, 
Pebruary 2, 1935. 

POTLATCHBB 

(luerys What did tha Indiana uae to "make a potlatoh" 
before tha Whitemans came? 

August Jacki "Blankets. The 8quamish women made the blan- 
kets, Indian blankets. After the whitenans 
cone they get other things. About one hundred guns, two 
thousand whitenans blankets, and thirty canoes, 'sake a pot- 
latoh »." 

(Votes Prof. Hill-Tout records that Jonathan Miller told him 
that at one great pot latch held at Whol-Whoi, there were about 
ten thousand Indians present.) 

ttueryt What do you think about the banning by law of tha 
potlatoh? Don't you think that if the whiteman 
had emulated tha noble spirit of the potlatoh instead of inter- 
dieting it, it would have been more or editable? What a spec- 
tacle it would be to see a rich citi&en of Vancouver on top of 
an elevated platform in Stanley Park, easting down to the crowd 
below tha worldly riches it had taken him a lifetime to acquires 
Old you have debauchery? Ware there intoxicants before the 
whitemans earns? 

August Jacki "Wo whisky bafore whitemans. Whitemans 
come i he bring boose; spoil everything. 

(After pause) Chinnalsut (Jarioho Charlie) and Towhimqwhamkee 
Jack) olub together give big potlatch that time at Jericho. 

than Indiana ware dancing at potlatches, they danced by 
themselves} they did not hug a woman like the whitemans do. 
Hug woman no good. I never do it. Dance by myself. Only three 
Squamish mans now dance by themselves; nobody else. Just Chief 
Matthias (Capilano), and myself. All reat danoa with 



46 



37 



woman like whitemanaj (making grimace and hugging motion to 
ialtssrate ) Indian girls now paint facea like white womana. 
rouge lips, pluck eyebrows and make ourre (arched eyebrows ), 
put stuff on eyelids, high heela about four inches, long skirts 
down to ground; then they sweat, and — (drawing fingere down 
cheek) — paint run all down face. Don't like. Ho good. So 
good hug womans. Indian paint not run off cheek like whltemans 
face paint." 

DEER AHD Big 

query t Didn't you tell me that Old Kan Capilano (about 
1860) shot thirteen elk on the shores of false 
Creek after a big anow storm? (Vancouver has Just experienced 
one of the deepest falls of snow in her history, January, 1935.) 

August Jackt "Yes. I remember out Jericho beach, used to 
kill deer with a pike-pole. Snow so deep, 
deer oome down to beach. When the tide go out they eat the kelp 
and sea grass. Jericho Charlie (Chinnalsut) come along in a 
boat; deer get frightened, can't go in snow, snow too deep, so 
deer strike out into the water. Go after them and kill them 
with a pike-pole from the boat. 



Tarty Yancouwer", Yol. 3, p,15A. luguat Jack Khahtaahlano. 

CANOJS 2nd February. 1935. 

"Indian name for oanoe 'anaqaith'". 



47 



36 



IH3L1HJ3DUSB3. MATS. COOPHG. SOAP 
PLATES 






kMi wSaaua 

first customs omen* 
QiUTti DsNfifi 

LHDIAN MHDICIKg MEM 



Vol. 3. D« 1S-B 

Memorandum of conversation with August Jack Khaatsahl&no, 

March 15th, 1935. 

DTDIAB HOUSES. MATS. COOKING. SOAP 

<lueryj How did the Indians eat their meals before the 
whit email s came? They couldn't eat outside on a 
wet day. 

August Jacki "Inside house, on mat. Ho wooden floor, 

just earth, then put a mat on earth to keep 
the dirt away, and then another mat on top." 

ftueryj Why two mats? 

August Jacki "The thin mat goes over the heavier one; 

thin mat easier to clean, to wash; oh, may 
be a yard and a half square. See why they have two mats; 
ground might be a little dry; that's why; the bottom one keeps 
the dust down; may be little kids move; he make dust; so they 
have two mats. 

"Table? Ho table. They don't use chairs; they got little 
blocks; cut them with slate chisel; little blocks about sixteen 
or eighteen inches long by ten inches high; sit on them. 

van sok 

"They roast deer meat by fire inside house. Take sharp 
■tick; sometimes split stick (amice a prong), sometimes not 
split it; then put meat between stick; put stick in ground close 
to fire, and cook meat very carefully; roast it. If they want 
to boil meat they get certain kind of rocks, and they, they got, 
like, — you know how they feed pigs? (Trough interjected.) Yes, 
that's it, trough, cedar trough; they put hot rocks or stones 
in water, and boil meat* 

OroiAH PLATES 

"They got plates; they make plates themselves; big fellows; 
three feet long; and they put meat on the wooden plate, and put 



48 



39 

plate on mat on floor j then Indian family elt all around; and 
regetaM.es on big plate, too. They not put their fingers In 
lti hare little etone knife; out 'em (meat). Bow, s^ose one 
family *y be fire or six; then may be plate fire feet long; 
all sit around and eat off the one big plate; or they got 
spoon; you know mountain goat's horn sppon; well, they use 
that; they use big spoon (ladle) to lift Tegetables out of hot 
water; put on big plate; use big spoon to dip from trough; 
then put xegetables on big plate; then each man hare little 
spoon* 

query t How about drinking? 

August Jaok. "Drink? They got cups; not regular white- 
mans cups, but cups made out of alder dug 
deep, and a Little handle on them." (A sort of wooden dipper.) 

Query! How did Indians wash themselTes? They had no 
whitemans soap. 

August Jacki "They use little white berry; grows on bush, 
so high, (holding hand about three feet from 
ground), lots in (Stanley) Park, lots in Kltsilano, grow in 
little clusters of white berries; they take them, rub orer buck- 
skin, and make clean; no foam, not much anyway. Tou take four 
or fire of those berries, and rub in your hand (crush between 
palms) then go in water, and your hand quite clean. You can t 
wash buckskin in water. Collect lots white berrieB, put In 
damp moss; they keep till next year." 

IHDIAH HAIR CUTTISQ 

query: How did Indian* cut their hair? 

August Jacki "Sharp stone knife, sharp as glass. You 
see, there two kinds of slate rock; soft 
■late rook, and hard slate rock. Indian get hard slate; make 
him sharp, cut hair. Indian wear hair so it Just nearly touch 
shoulder. Hare leather band about two inches wide of buckBkin, 
with two or three feathers in front, go around forehead and 
back of head to hold hair in place." 

OBXMM CLOTHIBQ 

query* Did Indians wear underclothing? 

August Jacki "Hoool Wear buckskin pants, buckskin shirt; 
oh ho, nice and warm; too hot. Soft. In 
Tety cold weather, wrap blanket orer shoulders. 

THB LAST POTLATCH _ . . _„_ 

■fie last real poilatch was before the War — about 1913, 
and was held at quamlcham — a big affair down on the rirer bank. 
After that the Gorernment banned them. I was there. (See 
In. P. 6, IT. 8| also In. P. 8, N. 6.) 



49 



40 



Hffl FIRST POIJCBMAK ATO THB FIRST CUSTOMS OFFICER 
"The first policeman I remember was Oeorge (Tompkins) 
Brew. (See V. W. Alexander.) He had an Indian wife, and lived 
•* Bcew f 8 Point in Stanley Park — they call it Brockton Point 
now. Jonathan Killer waa the next constable* 

DEATH DASCF. 

"The Squamiah word for funeral ia "kumaayp"; the word for 
danoo ia "maytha"; the dance and feaat come after the funeral; 
if the funeral ia in the morning or afternoon the dance and 
feaat cone in the evening of the same day. One time, down at 
8nauq (Burrard Bridge), before 1915, four or fire email Indian 
children die one after another. I pay for potlatch; nobody's 
elae got any money. Government not allow potlatch like we uaed 
to have, ao we pay thoae whose helping, in money. Man who makes 
coffina get most) man who digs grave next most; girls peels pot- 
atoes; everybody gets money; after funeral, then have feaBt and 
dance; potlatch." 

Query: What's the reason for feast and dance when every- 
one sad? 

August Jacks (apparently annoyed at the atupidity of the 
queation) "Well, may be — (pause). You got 
to pay help. Whitemans give drinks (whisky) after funeral. 
Indiana don't give drinks; he givea eats; something good." 

HDIAH MEDIC 1KB MM 

Query t What la a medicine man, August? 

August Jaoks "A 'awohmtun' (medicine man) la a doctor; 

what whiteaans calls doctor; makes you well 
again. A 'auu-wayn' la a fortuneteller, who telle about things 
that are going to be; they are two different kinds of men, though 
the whitemana thinks both the same} a auu-wayn tells about 
things (myths)* 

"It's like this. When a boy about aixteen, you go out. 
Stay up in the mountains; jump in the lake, waah youraelf , make 
yourself clean, come out dance about; get warm again. Well, 
you do that for ten years." 

Query t Wo, surely, not for ten years I? 

August Jaokt (positively) "Tea, for ten years; then he's 
• man — (pauae) — in ten year a* Ten year a, 
summer and winter." 

Query* What does he do for food and shelter? 

August Jaokt "He get himself his own food from mountains. 
He got bow and arrow, kill goat; that's what 



50 



41 



he uae for winter) kill goat, dry it; ha makes his little house; 
he's got go*t fur* deer fur, hear fur*" 

Query* How far up doea he go? 

Auguat Jaoks "Oh, he goea long way up ao nobody* s aee him; 
nobody go near him; nobody dlaturb him. And 
all the time he praotloing* He kill thlnga and try to make them 
allre again; bird; that ahowa he'a a doctor, a good dootor." 

Query* what do you mean by "make It *llre again"? Doea 
he kill it fir at? 

Auguat Jaoki "Tea, kill it flrat." 

Query* But It oan't be quite dead? 

Auguat Jaoki (reasoning) "Well — he atone him; must be 
dead; anything he aee in the woods he used 
atone to kill him; then he danoe abound it and try and make 
the thing 'lire again* If he makes it 'lire he* a a doctor 
(emphasizing the word)* Some awohmtun, aee, If it's a bruise; 
they auok that blood out* Sometime mana get hurt in hia head; 
hie bradn;then awohmtun oome; auok blood out with hia mouth. 
See, two different ways* One awohmtun, if that waa you hurt — 
(pointing) — he oome auok the blood in your bruise; another 
awohmtun, he just oure alok people (phyaloian)* Those fellows 
atay In the mountains ten yeara; nobody aee them. When he comes 
home again, he'a dootor*" 

Query* How doea he know when to oome home? 

Auguat Jaok* "Well, I was telling you. If he kill some- 
thing and make it allre again, then he's 
dootor; he know he oure somebody; he comas home. Swohmtun don't 
uae polaon; whitemane dootor uae polaon. Indian nerer use pol- 
aon; uae herb, good to eat, good to drink, make you fat, make 
you feel good* Ho polaon anywhere, 'eept rattlesnake, but he 
doea not belong; he Juat rattlesnake." 

Query* What did you aay the Squamish Indiana got for the 
aale of the eight aorea of the Kitallano Indian 
Veaerva uaed in 1932 for the footings of the Burrard Bridge? 

Auguat Jack* "The arbitrators gare $44,988.58 and the law- 
yera got #28,854*40 of it* The lawyers for 
the City of Yanoourer got $15,145.65, and the Indian ooata were 
113,708.85, and then they wanted ua to oarry It to the Priwy 
Council, but the Indiana deolded not to; there would hare been 
nothing left at all* I understand that when they buy the four 
aorea for the Seaforth Highlanders drill hall they will pay 
#7,500 an aore, or #30,000 in all, but I hear something that the 
Indiana are to get only #15,000, but don't know* The Indian agent 
•aid that if we did not aell it they would take it anyhow, by 
expropriation. So our Council woted to sell it*" 



51 



« 



•"WT 41 »HDI-WDI STAUC (JERICHO) 

POTLATCHBS 



Vol. 3. p. 15-Q 

Memorandum of conversation with Auguat Jack Khahtaahlano, in 

ny garden, March 24th, 1935. 

TAYHA.Y AT 1H0I-WHDI 

Huiryt Tayhay had a peakleaa roof j Juat a lean-to; one 
aide higher than the other; which vide waa the 
tallest? 

August Jack* " The one nearest the water . All thoae Indian 
oottagea oonoealed In the trees. You aee, 
thoae days, enemy might come; no uae showing where you were, so 
hide house in the trees." 

(Motet Captain Vancouver's Journal saya they aaw no algn of 
habitationa aa they paaaed out of the Harrows.) 

Auguat Jaokt "Long time afterwards -- after whitemana 

come — Indians commence to build houses on 
the shore where people could aee them. 

fJIHB f Jerlohoh POTLATCHBS 

■The big pot latch at Jericho was before my time; all I know 
about it is what they tell me, but it waa the biggeat potlatch 
of all. Indiana oome from everywhere — Lumai, Victoria, Saanioh, 
■anaimo, Panall (Cooper Island), Chee-woat-held; no Indians 
from Seohelt; they not oome to potlatohes. 

"Jour men giro it. Chinalaet (Jericho Charlie), Tow-hu- 

2y a "C k ??i. H * y 7 MUOh " t ^ n » * nd ■»**■ (° ld Tom). They have great 
big building Just other side where air station ia now; building 
•bout three hundred feet long, ninety feet wide, great big beams. 
At each end three big posts; high; big a a a man's body, then 
three big beams run the entire length of building on top of 
posts, eaoh beam eighty to ninety feet long, and butted end to 
end so as to run whole three hundred feet of building one on 
eaoh side, one down middle. Split oedar slab aides, laid what 
you oall horizontal, laced together with small posts; roof of 
great big split oedar slabs fitted together like this so aa not 
to let water in» tell you how big they were. Jour kida (In- 
dians) use one for oanoe after they pull It down. Warship oome 
along one day and take a lot of it away; load on scow and take on 



52 



43 



board; don't know what they did with the slabs; to England, 

nay be, may be burn; don't know. But you see the way they build 

the roof no water oan get in* 

POTLATCHBS 

"I'm glad government stopped potlatches. All right in the 
early days when Indian make his own blankets and no booze, but 
afterwards whitemans bring booze, and Indian buy blanket. In- 
dian rich those days; poor now* 



JfKiCHO 

I/UHflN 

VIUAGE 









r 


— — 














I/ 







-gutte* fSSf** 9""«* 

cross saction of split cedat slabtooj 




53 



44 



Tff-TA-KiTTCg ntrrir r gUatfiagg SHAua: ihdiaii hodsto 
imdij^ Hnnaw. w^a,Ttw« IHDIAH OBCTtf|Hp^ 

POTLATCB H0U3B 



▼ol« 3. P.15-H 

ConTereation with August Jack Xhahtsahlsno In my garden. Mr. 
Khaatsahlano oame from Horth VancouYer to pay me a visit; we 
sat under the trees for three hoars and chatted end he had a 
plate of padding ny *lf« brought. 

SimdST. 19th Mar. 1935. 

TIM-TA,-MATOBT Major Matthews: "What name did the Squaaish 

glTS to their landT" 



August Jack: "Tin-te-meyuhk; means 'my 
country*. Mus queen* hare a name too, seme word, but pronoun oed 
differently. People up Lillooet have different name (sounds 
like Tsasch); all mean the same, 'ay country* ". 

CHIP wMfct ttATftMnng 1uiax Katthewa: "How tall was Chief 
Knaatsalanoghf" 

August Jacks "Must be big man; look st me. 
My father, Khay-tulk, six feet two; I am Just six feet. My 
■other tell me about Chief Xhsatsalanogh going from Squamlsb 
to Pembertom. Paelfle Great Xsstern train take four hours; 
mother say Chief Khaatsalanogh take one day; one day from dawn 
to dark; he start ss soon ss light, and at dark he's at Femberton; 
he go up to Aah+ow, then he outs across shout 40 degrees north- 
east; Just go through forest, orer mountain, no trail. That 
will show you what kind of a man he was." 

ag Apa. "The big Indian potlatch house on the Klt- 

TOTTAff fl 0P3B • llano Indian Reaerre not far from the end 

of what is Chestnut Street; about £50 
yards oast; face the "Wast Aid". It was about 175 to 200 feet 
long, sbout TO feet wide, and made of eedsr slabs. It had a 
peak roof, rery low peak, I think copy whiteasns, dirt floor. 
All around the edge was a bench or platform, about fire feet 
wide; wide enough for two people to sleep side by side on it, 
but tbsy did not slsep cross-wise to the walls, but longways, 
(i.e., on the long side of the building they slept east and 
west; at the ends, north and south.) That beneh or platform 
Is called "yi-wus"; Just boards, no bed, end raised sbout 16 
lashes off the ground, Just so you could sit and put your feet 
oa the ground." 



54 



40 




Tv»o bersons 
slee£m<} 

Side kuSi'de 
ott blafyolTfl 



TovrHU-OUflM-KFc" PnTtfl TcM Hn.nr 

FoJst CVfk T-nrJin-n KfsefVf 
at the foot of Cedar sheet] nn<L ott fhf kpaf <j 



wow called TiutrarA -J- 



56 



FALSE CREEK INDIAN RESERVE 

Indian village of Snauq, August 15, 1891. 




UPPER: The "WEST END", between Thurlow and Broughton Streets produced. House 
on ridge, now Davie Street. Squamish type dugout canoe. Peelass George 
in bow. Next: William Green, half negro, Chief Jimmy Jimmy, Jericho 
Charlie in stern. 

LOWER: Corner shed attached to Chinalset's (Jericho Charlie) home on bank above 
boulder strewn beach at foot of Pine Street produced. Yam-schloot (Mary) 
making kliskwis (mats for floor). Peelass George, from Chilcooten; Chief 
Jimmy, with old fashioned .44 rifle. Tow-hu-quam-kee, paddle maker, 
seated. (Jack) an Indian defaced, who disliked photos, and went barefoot. 
Canoe making tools. Fishing poles with spear points, or when fitted with 
forked ends, for twisting duck's necks at night. 

CITY ARCHIVES/JSM. 




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BUILDING A RANCH HOUSE, ALERT BAY: 
ABOUT 1912 - 1915 




The building of a ranch house was a ceremony. The Chief directed. Big trees in 
the forest were cut down with stone tools; the larger the tree the more important the 
undertaking. The timbers ranged from 18 to 30 inches diam. and from 30 to 50 
feet long. The house was 16 to 20 feet, ground to roof. The timbers were chipped 
exactly straight, without compass, square or line, and by sighting on some distant 
object. The fluting, or decorative grooves were cut so prec'sely by turning the log 
over and over, and sighting. The grooves, etc., were to illustrate the skill of the 
chipper, or carver. The walls were of very wide thick split slabs. 

Authority — A. M. Wastell 



561) 



47 



Convsrsa tton with >ugust Jack Khahtaahlano. Aug* 12. 1935 . 

Vo/. <4 . f>. I 

I asked August what truth there ma In a report published 
In the "Province" as a despatch from north Vancouver, dated 
about August 1st, that "Old Cronie", an Indian, had died at the 
age of 101, and that his great grandfather had been the first 
Indian to notice the arrival of Captain Vanoouver in 1792* 

ARRIVAL OP CAPTAOT VAHCOPVSR "As I told you before, the 

first whiteman the Indians 
see was up by Squamish; up by Stamish Reserve. My great grand- 
father see him too} all Indians see him, but when Captain Van- 
couver come, he go up Burrard Inlet, and these Indians about 
here aee him. My father Kaytulk, my grandfather Haatsa-lah- 
nogh; I know my great grandfather's name, but I forget Just 
now* Old Cronie only 88." 

SQUAMISH DTDIAK TERRITORY I remarked that Mr. Diamond 

Jenness, of the National 
Museum, Ottawa, would be out here in October, and would want 
both of us to go with him in the launch so that we could photo- 
graph and record the Indian place names of Howe Sound. Would 
Khaatsahlano oome? 

"There cannot be very many that we have missed, and I do 
■ot know who oan tell us. I shall have to find someone older 
than myself, and he will have to be a fisherman who used to go 
places." (I suggested Mrs. Mary Capilano, Chief Joe's wife, 
now very old, but August said, "she never go anywhere; she not 
know as much as I do.") 

8Q.UAMISH KORTHKRK BOuMDARY "Our boundary go far as 

"STAWK-KIrYAH" , that's as far 
as Squamish peoples oan go; there must be a little creek there; 
that why they call it "Stawk"; some peoples must go ashore 
there sometime, but they see lots wolf; big band of wolf; so 
they turn baok so as not to disturb wolf; that's why they call 
it Ti-Yah", whioh means wolf; that is wolf creek." 

3QPAMISH HOUSBS "Laam" means one house; 

"Lum-laam* means lots houses." 



57 



48 



GonYorsation with August Jack Khahtsahlano, Sspt. 23rd, 1955. 

I told August that X had boon up to see Kra. 
Muth Morton, widow of John Morton, first settlor 
on Mirrard Inlst, and that shs had told as all 
about ths Indiana bringing hia duaks to sat 
when hs llrsd by hlmsslf on his llttls oloaring, and that Krs. 
Morton had told as that Mr* Morton had told hor that ths Indians 
got ths duoks by spaaring at thsa with a forkod stiok, and 
oatohinc thsa by ths nooks bstwosn ths prongs at tha and of ths 
long forkod stiok. I asksd, "Do you know how thsy spsarsd thoat" 




August Jaoki 
J. ■• M.1 
August Jaakt 



J. 8* H.i 
August Jaokt 



J. 8. M.I 



August Task i 



"8paar *sa. a 
"Mow not alas?" 

"Mali, thrss or four prongs, llks sproad out 
your flagors, on and of spaari not alss thoat 
duoks ooas olosoi aaybs tsn fsotg thsy not 
suspicions." 
■Broak nookT" 

*8upposo so. Ton soo, Indian go out in 
dark, dark night, build flro in aanoo liko 
I told you baforo* Man with apoar la bow, 
flro just bshind hia, pltehwood, no spark, 
quirt, no oraoklo. aan in storn paddla, 
paddla soft and quiot; no brush liko Mrs. 
Morton says, Just firs. 



"Spoar fish saao way, trout, stsslhsad. 
oohoo, any flsht Indians not do it now." 
"Woll, what about than using brush to ooror 
ths aanoo and hldo thoasslTos uador it, as 
Mrs* Morton says Mr. Morton told hor thoy 
did In 1882 or lator?" 

"I doa'jr know if thoy did. In. tho day tias, 
thsy might ooror aanoo with brush, paddls 
quiot, drift, got about tsn fast, and thsa 
pull bow and arrow* Arrow not sink* Arrow 
aads of yaw wood} burn yow wood a bit* and it 
is Ilka Iron} it don't braak} it*a don't 
sink. Arrow nay not kill hia (duek), but 
ha oan't fly, ho oan't diwo booauss arrow 
kaop hia froa airing*" 



58 



49 




August Jack Khahtaahlano 
tails as that the loca- 
tion of the anelent fife* 
dian kitchen midden, a 
■ass of ealoined shells approximately sight feet deep and 
aeres in extent, used as a whits ooTsring for the first »r ire- 
way around Stanley Park la 1888, was just a fsw yards south- 
west of the Indian Tillage of Whoi- Vhoi. The largest house, 
named •lay-Hay", stood on the exact sits on which the 
Lumbermen** Arch, first Barrows, Stanley Park, now, 193a, 
stand* • 

The werk of excavating the midden, and leading 
the broken white shells onto a wagon, is portrayed la Bailey 
Ires, photo So* 541, C. T. 0. 1. 91, and the exact Units of 
this excavation still narked by a fringe of trees on the 
sidehlll to the south west of the swimming pool, and between 
Lumberman* » Arch and Totea Poles, 




August said, 16th August, 1935s "Old Cronie", 
his Indian naae Cho-ha-nua, was 84 when he 
died this month, (August, 1935); his father was 
Hy-nuoh-tun, and lived at Baauq (Burrard Bridge.) 



Conversation with August Jack Khaaxsahlano, at City Archives, 
City Hall, Oct. 8th, 1935. v»f. u-.\>-$ 

esta sn asWM A-n jwwwvawa si ■ ■ ■ — ml aff i ■— rf M mr\ a. a •>•*__.•. a _ •_ . 



It KARR0W3. IHPIAB HAMC 



J. 3. M.i 



"tytatsalem was Khatsa-lah- 
nogh's father; he used to 
live at Tooktakaaik, but he 
died at Squaalah." 
did the Indians have for the 



"August, what 

Tint Barrows?" 

August Jacks (quiokly) "Bunx". (a rook beneath Prospect Point.) 
J. 3. H.t "Well, what naae did they have for Burrard Inlet?" 
August Jacks "Bo particular naae, but after you pass the Second 

Barrows, Ihluk-thluk-way-tun, Turn- ta-may- tun, and 

awa y up, Slail-wit-tuth. The real name of Capilano 

8 BJfJg River is Hoauloheson, but Just because 

there was a chief there (by that naae) 
they call it Capilano." 



59 



50 
Conversation with August Jack ff i* k ***| > il °ino. April 15. 1936 « 

MR3. MARY CAglLAHO City Archivist t "What's this yarn about 

Mrs. Vary Cap llano being a daughter of 
the chief who welcomed Capt. Vancouver, 1792?" 

August Jnok t "X don't know. See-yik-olay-aulk, he oldest 
■an llrlng at Whol-Whol. He build first house there; then after 
* while* perhaps hie brother* perhaps hie cousin, 
they ooae; long way back, long ago. The way 
TBOI-WBOI they come* olams on the beaah there at Whoi-Whoi." 
(lumberman's Areh) 



Conversation , with August J y* ft>p>» taahlano. April 30. 1936. 

"0U> MAM" CAPIL AHQ "0J4 Man" Capllano had two wives * I 

MRS. MARY 3B30SB2 don't know what their names were* but 

one had a son called Ki-ap-a- la-no, and 
the other Lahma; they were half brothers, lakwa boeaao ohlef 
ef the Squaalah Indians at Heemloheeon (Capllano River) before 
Chief Joe Capllano. Prank Charlie* of Musquoam, his Indian 
name la Ayatak, (see "laxly Vancouver", Vol. 2) is a grand-son 
of "Old Kan" Capllanoi it was Ayatak who told you about his 
grandfather telling him that he saw the first white nan oome 
down Vraeer River when he was a boy of about ten or fifteen. 

"She "Old Kan's* son was Kl-ap-a-la-no, toot a*» »i*o 
was half MUsqueam, and half Cowiohan, and was the mother of 
Ayatak. They belong to the Musque&m Capllano family. 

"The Indian way to pronounoe Capllano is "Ky-ap-lanogh"." 

(lotet This is a possible solution to the extraordinary and 

unsupported claim of Mrs. Mary Capllano* now living bat 
very aged* that she is the daughter of the Indian ohlef 
who "welooaed" Capt. Vancouver in 1792.) 



Conversation wl^h August Jac * Yffl h »" hlano. May 13. 193d . 

CHESTS. 3QJUAMI3H City Archivist i "Don't you think this 

ola la of Mrs. Mary 
Capllano (now about 98) to be the daughter of the chief who 
welcomed Capt. Vancouver in 1792, is ridiculous? Capt. Richards 
of the "Plumper" at Mort Moody in August* 1859, mentions a 
Chief Ki-ap-a-la-ao coming on board. How could the same man 
be a chief U 1792 and also in 1859T" 



60 



51 



(with Incredulous sal).*) "Vail, I don't 
know, not born then. They aake ohiefs pretty young; young as 
sixteen (rsnrs). laxly days ono nan oU*f (of) Steals, and 
all littla Tillages up 8quanlsh Rlrer; that's before; that's 
early days; they not oall than afciafa, but he'a bigger man, 
If they's staying one plmoe, if they* a got good nan, why they 
sake hln hand nan; lt'a a boaa, like." 

City ArehlTlatt "Well, what about fcralao (Jarloho), 
whoi-Vhol, and Hbauleheson (First Marrows)?* 

M ,JB2S*tlg£aa2* "Jhat's the sane. They got man at Byalao, 
Staitwouk, 3uauq, Ayulehun, Whol-lhol, Hoauleheson, Slnwn 
(the Mission), but no klng| eaoh nan boas In his own family, 
but when they nil get together — I don't know how you put it 
in Mnglish — but he'a the best talker -- not anal man, Indiana 
hare no ohnimnn — but nan who says most wide things.'' 



Cenrarsatlon with iggUJ Jf,rt ??W htsahlano. July 13. 1936 . 

C^fHW . "Hexten, ny aunt, tell ne Old Man Capilano got 

a Squaalsh wlfej got a S liaison wife, and he 
got a asaeueaa wife; three wonen, one nan. 

fall, Inhwn, son of Sq tarnish woaan; Tutanat, 
daughter of Slinaon woman, and Prank Charlie's father, son of 
■usquoaa wonnn. That's nil." 



(lote by J. S. M.t He did not say if all three wires at one 
tin*; we were in a hurry, frank Charlie 
lires at Muaqueaa.) 



fttt IgnM-nYT r »* City ArohlTas . 

Vol. M-. J». C 

"When ay father Haytulk lired at Chay- 
thooa (and of pipe line road), first 
Barrowa ), we had twenty-four oowa, two 
horses, and sons pigs (no goats and no 
, . sheep) running in Stanley Park; aother 

(qrywhat) used to delirer the milk to Bastings Sawnill." 




61 



5* 



J—t aaa ratar, 
laa ta Iadlan 





•a iaia***-, 

at tha atatiat* Bawaill. 

allllaaa of barring la 
8m1 hrter. Aftar tha ihitnui 
aaaa, Mltti »•• Mil* la fish 
Mto«l safora •MtHaw aaaa, «h 
bar* voaaj vhltaaan aall It Iran voaaj 
aaka woai coat an* ary, it gat aafal kara, 
i, ariva woaa throagk aaaar pal*, aak* flah raka, 
Oaal'luraar fall af barring. 




"tea lay »haa X llttla bay, with ay hrothar, va baaa 
fish-raking i» Oaal Harbor, gat lata barring la aaaaa, 



S« ay Iraaktaa Paint, tins tip a aa— , tan arar, laaa 
ah, X hang aa aaaaa bars, va cat baak again, ga aaak Oaal 
•ha* flah raka nor* barring, hat aet aa anay. ay aothar 



ary thaa, whan va gat thaa baaa Ohaythoaa ay aathar cry thaa 
aa stinks, hat m ( pat thaa la aaakat kaap far alatar. 



_ voaa far apaar* aa arar larth ahnra, all 
along hatvaaa (Oapllaaa) Blvar aaa "lha Mlsslsa" {north Taa- 
aaavor), look a aaa fa aatar aat apaar flaaaaari ah, lata 
flah far Indian hafara vhltaaaa aaaa. 



auoks. aa 99vt thara Oiarth ahara) athar si** at 
alght, aava flra af pltah atlaka la aaaaa. X tall yaa ahaat 
It hafara, aaak aaaa alaaa, apaar thaa aaaa har* vood apaar, 
aat praag, hat sharp apaar aa aaa palat *»ak aaaa alaaa, 
llttla aaa plgaon aaaa alaaa* Janay aaa plgaani thay fly 
right lata flrai alva lata flra, aplaah all avar It, 
all a«rta af aaak «o that, to*. 



"ay- grandfather Waaataa-lah-angh, 
ay f athar nay-talk, ay aathar 
% a y naat. My aathar fcwy-vhat) tha 
alaaat, har aaxt alatar aaaaaa (ars. aarrlat vaaaxa), aathar 
af Iaakit 3—% har aaxt alaaat alatar aaa. Oalaf Barry -« 
thraa alatara, hat aaly ay aathar aaaa* thara tva athaaa 
aaaa, tee. anarav Paal*s vlfa la aaaghtar af Xaaklt Jaa. 



Jaak«a aallaaaa 
LaaTapp* 



rlatlaa Tap*, Christian Jaak) 
aaa la tha alaaat and ahaat 
•• aaa, aaa Baa* (aaa. Baaa VUllana). Shay ara hath livlag 
at a aa) Blsalaa*. Booth Taaaaarar, aaa. Sva haya, tllllaa 



62 



53 



VoL a. (3 a 
August mm bringing with nla a length of eater bark 

•tone, nine pounda, 10 ounoes, uaed to .toady .pood and 
K*U?V£ " no% " h * n etching "turgeon taHngli.fa 
Sd'wEan h^hf:" ntly f! * O0 ^tiuano IndiL Hoaorro. 
LtL**a1 it ™2 » r#Mnt8d t<> **• Wty ArohiToa. Ha 
•ttaobed It, and wo aat down to talk. 

Jfc^rJhtthjBU, "August, llatan to this* (roading) froa 
:!*? P«°"«f* la tha "Prorlnoo" during exhibition weak 
~rly Sopteabor. um, .optioned ^J^J^Ssl SSm^ 

Vw'iPrl otlMi float . 

He refuaed bJS £ 555 J °?* • xhiDit - «• prioeleaa. 

» rerusea nnndred. of dollara for an old buekskla out 

SuaaTsh"^: lat »* Tl —« *ing «iward%n^£S"o?°S. 
*2?£! 5^ *»■*■•• nnny yaara ago. The ooat haa been in the 

S^wj5aas«a«5rtrBS , 2r 

long tlae, thinking, and continue.! ) 

w-^ — . , * **« *•*• *<>«»• »«t afire, and than he 

ha* nothingj it*s not Tory long ainoe ho*, house ,,7.?!-, 

5!I *2" ^ *«» *"* *»'«• tb* wn~ She oolt CapliSo 
Joe, he*, father, wore when he sea King Howard ?TI1) «. 
in a trunk, and burned in fire. I Sink JHatSaa iade^ha 
one (ooat) he* a got now hiaeelf. w "" "**• the 

■^JfetShwn -Hare you got an old eoatT" 
SK-aa 1 "!•▼• «ot a ooat 1 I got two ooats. 014 
°~t I get from Cariboo, buy hia froi eowboy ?ha? tine 
S lt ?~ B L h t* * P° tt **ob Otote, .one reoint oe"bration) 1* 
in, I node ny.elf, it*, new, almost." 

Si 9 it*I2 f 8o ai7 gh ' t '*"" *"■* °" —* you -"» *»•*• 

^BaLiMS* "IhatT Ifi in the box. Where eon* front 
2 nnele at Htasoueaa had it| then ay brother he had it? 

St^i: ?£' % JK*™ " t0 J»*-SEJ a? Srotier 

Shnt^ii^oi 1 .Ir ^!.?^^,;^^ J^^i 
grnadf^her hare it) it*, a lonTuI. anyhow EefToU f* 
K5 fctttMM . ^t about HJ^iaa* aoihoVaarVno. 7 



old is she?" 



63 



54 



A umiBt Jaolci (Milling) -Haxtan -- (nota* tb* oldoat Indian 
I nTtortn TTfcn oooTT) - aaya eba'a Ofcry) «a young wow*na-. 

fcxton mi Bfetalaa* mother about eighty-nine. Haxtan aaya 
ah* (Haxtan) was married and going to bare * baby *« "hi 
(«^y) 1m a ioM>t that* a about 16. (Xotet oereawny of be- 
coming aarriageable • ) Vol **-.{».«} 



(Vote* In 1937 the offiolal age of Chief Oapilano Joe'a 

widow, aa rooorded by Indian Department, Yanoourer, 
la 80.) 



64 



54-1. 

Vol. u, (». I7Z October 2nd, 1936. 

■O LD CHIBP" CAPILAHO The solution, if any, of the 

g rfeHAgg extraordinary etory ao frequently 

3. MARY CAPILAHQ printed In Vancouver, and also in 

the Canadian Geographical Journal, 
July, 1936, attributable to Mr. Hoel Robinson, a well-known 
Vancouver Journalist, and, by repetition, becoming, unfortun- 
ately, accepted aa fact, seems to be as follows* 

"OLD dUSF" Capllano, as a boy, lived at Musqueam, 
where his descendants of the same name still live, one of 
them, Ayatak Capllano, now a man of 65 or 70, stating that 
his grandfather, the "Old Chief", told him that he saw the 
first white man come down the Praser (1808). The "Old Chief" 
seems to have had two sons, one of them afterwards succeeded 
him as chief, that is, Chief Lahwa, uncle to Ayatak. The 
"Old Chief" is mentioned by Capt. Richards of the H. X. 3. 
"Plumper" as going on board, In August, 1859, whilst in Burrard 
Inlet. Chief Joe, Mary's husband, succeeded Lahwa. 

"Old Chief* Capllano had more than one wife, and 
several ohlldren. One of the sans was Ska-kul-tun, and Ska-kul- 
tun (or Kha-kul-tun) was the father of Layhulette, or Agnes, 
commonly called Mrs. Mary Capllano* 

It is claimed that Mrs. Mary Capllano la very aged -- 
over 100* Report is that "Old Cronie", who died in 1935, aged 
88, always said she was younger than he was. Mrs. Harriet 
George, or Haxten, a very aged Indian woman, says she is younger 
than she is beoause she recalls Mrs. Mary Capllano aa a little 
girl. Mrs. R. M. Bower, daughter of Ben Springer, manager, 
Moodyville Sawmill, etates that "Old Mary" used to wash for us| 
I don't think she la 90." 

Another point is that the name of the river which 
enters in the Plrst Barrows is not Capllano, but Homuloheson, 
and never was known as Capllano to Indians until the white man 
named it thus. Capllano is a Musqueam name, and the family 
still resides there* But, "Old Chief" had two homes; one at 
MUsqueam, one at Homuloheson, and it is reasonable to assume 
that in that way his name beoame attaohad to the creek. 

The fact is seemingly clear that Mrs. Mary Capllano 
Is the granddaughter of Payts-a-mauq, (or Paydsmuk, or Paysmauk) 
whose half-brother, "Old Chief* Capllano was a boy "about four 
feet " when. In 1808, he saw Simon Praser come down the river* 
The welooming of Captain Vanoouver appears to be a myth* 

If anyone "welcomed" Vanoouver in 1792, it might 
have been See-yik-klay-mmkk, whom legend credits with being 
"the eldest man" living at Vhol-Whoi (Lumbonsan'e Aroh) and who 
built the first house there* 



65 



55 



CoMTTiatien " ith lamtf T n?ft ttimaflaMi Horeaber 6. 1936 . 

Vol, If. f3./0 

WR3T lAHROfB BBIDQg August Jaolct (who lires on the Indian 

Beearre Just M8t of Cap i Ian o Klrer)s 
"Hares men, just thro* aen, started this morning with axes to 
olear away the logs and trees on the other side (west) of 
the rirert suppose it's a start on the new bridge." 



J. 3. Matthews. 




fcaa£T t ^r lis* 1 AlWM,t ft|alt ^^^^^l" 1 fi<t T *™"™Hr 

"My father* naytulk,» said August Jack, 
"had a brother ( Ke-olts, and a sister, 
luoy. Ee-olts had a eon, Allele; he is 
llTlng at Musqueaa, and ay aunt Luoy, who 
married a halfbreed, Miranda, is 11-rlng at the "Mission", 
Forth Taneoureri Miranda oleared out and left ay aunt. 

CHIM LABgA t dJtamtM If "Tes, I haws seen Chief Lahwa, 

reaeaber hia well. Tou see, ay 
father and lahwa were the saae age (o on temporary)} not the 
sams number of years oU, but, you see, ay father, he llred 
on this side (Chaythoos in Stanley Park) and lahwa llred oa 
the ether side, (First Marrows at Capllano), and they used to 
talk about things. I haws aeea lahwa when I was young, 
lahwa was a real Indian; got little bit beard on ehlnt little 
austaohe, and hair down orer hie shoulders. We used to go 
aeress Marrows, and fishing up Oapllano Creek, and lahwa used 
to take us up to his house and giro ms dinner there. X 
reaeaber when he was drowned at Mrookton Point} he was missing 
that night, and the next day they found him oa the beaoh; in 
the water t dead on the beaoh. Just inside Mrookton Point." 

_o£ "X wae named Khak. taenia not 
got an old aen to do itt 
that was forty years agot.down 
on the Elteilaao Kdserre. 3ho 
old man said to the peoples t "bis boy going to be sailed 
KheMtsahlanoi saae aa his grandfather". And I giro the blan- 
kets. X had lota money then. X work for old Salt — (w. L. 




— w-— m m *~~ *www ww^ «»wu« * wvn tor OAU l.*X« ••\f» i.. 

bit, sawmill, at Ihlrd Arcane and Oranrllle St., afterwards 
Mat Portage Lumber Co. Mlll)| work for hia nine years, and than 
for Jenkins, ths logger. (Motet She Tait and Mat Portage earn- 
mills eaploysd aany Indians from nearby reserve.) 



66 



56 

Vol. w.. t* I' 
POTLATCH "I give away about one hundred blankets* I 

buy them Hudson's Bay store on Cordova street} 
two dollars each) double blankets* Then besides that I pay 
for eighty pound saok of flour ; thirty pounds tea. and I buy 
dishes and spoons, give them away; down at Palse Creek outside 
C. P* R. bridge; in the big long house whioh belonged to Jimmy 
Jimmy's father, Toe-who-nuaarki . (Hotet big lodge just west 
of trestle bridge | almost under Burrard Bridge.) 

"The christening take place in morning, last all day and 
part of night. The old man he act as my interpreter (spokes- 
man). Ha make speech. He say this boy sailed by whitemans' 
name -• August — now they going to giro him his proper name, 
Indian name; same name his grandfather, and he put hia hand on 
my shoulder, and I stand still, and look. 

"He calls out to all the peoples inside the house to stand 
up; every man stand up, and the widow womans; nobody else stand 
up; the married womans and the young peoples they not stand up; 
just the men and the widow womans. Then they bust the bundle, 
and go around with the blankets, and giTe one to each man and 
widow womans; then give tea, and flour, after. Then, by and by, 
cook dinner and supper; then all go home." 

"Just one day celebration* Ve not allowed to keep those 
peoples more than twenty-four hours; one day; on aooount sick- 
ness. Tou see, if they pow-wow too long, may be dance all night, 
may be get sick. I don't remember how many peoples come, but 
lots. Come from Squaraiah, musquaam, Baneimo, not from Sechelt. 

HAYTPUC (seoond ) "And my brother Willie; he was called (named) 
¥EE|OJ5k~ too. Call him by his father's name, Haytulk, 

MARY CAPtlAHO same time, same old man as name me. I don't 

think Mary Capilano more than eighty-four." 

(Botet See "Barly Vancouver", Vol. 1, Mrs. J. Z. Hall narrative 
of hearing noise of potlatoh on the Kitailano Indian Reserve 
as she walked to her father's beaoh (Greer's Beach) across the 
C. P. R. trestle bridge.) 



Conservation with August Jack Khaatsahlano, son of Maytulk, grand 
son of Chief Xhahtsahlanogh, after whom Eitsllano is named, at 
City Archives, December 17th, 1936. 

iB POIST, City Archivist I "Do you know where that 



LY CSlfSTBRIBS graveyard over at Brockton Point was, where 
STAKXEY PARK they bury the whitemans?" 

August Jaok i (astonished) "Whitemans 1 White- 
mans — and Chinamen. Along there, they burled whitemans and 
Chinamen; I did see them bury one Chinaman there; after the big 
fire (June, 1886)." 



67 



57 

Vol u-. Ka 
City Archivist t "Did anyone try to keep the grave- 
yard clean and tidy?" 

AuguBt Jack s "Ho. It waa along there between the 
gun (nine o'clock gun) and Brockton Point (on shore facing 
east). There was a lot of graves — more than twenty} they 
were burying there all the time before they got Mountain View. 

grPIAK CBMSTERIBS "The Indian cemetery not between 

IlDJAtl BHRJAIi? Lumberman's Arch and the totem poles, 

IBflJi-TOoT "" but behind the totem poles; some 

LUTtBKKU flJ i'S ARCH graves) there yet; they lost It; it 

was a fence around the Indian graves, 
but the fence all rotted out, and they could not find it; so 
they can't find it at all now; I*ve been looking for it myself, 
but can't find it; it was the peoples of Julian; he was an 
Indian at the Morth Vancouver Mission; he die* about five 
years ago; it waB his grandfather's grave and his peoples (an- 
cestors). Julian waa going to move It to the Mission, (ex- 
hume the remains), but the priest would not let him; there 
was more than one grave Inside the fence; there were lots of 
Indian peoples; there was one big box; bigger than that box. 
(Pointing to B. C. Rifle Asbb. trunk) You see, the Indians 
gather the bones and put them in big box; put them all in; bigger 
box than that, sides about four inches thick. (This avst be 
the box of bones from Deadman's Island. J. S. M.) 

TraATTMAw q ISLABD City Archivist t "Well, did the whitemans 

have two graveyards, one at Brockton Point 
and one on Deadman's Island?" 

August Jack Pnahtaahlaoet "Well, how that came 
about was. There was a fellow, a squatter, and he lived on 
the Island in a shack, and he must have died; and they found him, 
•nd nobody's know how long he's been dead, but they (the white- 
nans) sail the place Deadman's Island. They could not get the 
island no name, so they Just called the place Dead Man's Island 
because they found a dead man in the shack. 

•After that they start burying on Deadman's Island and 
ston (burying) at Brockton Point. Brockton Point was the first 
cemetery for white peopes; after that they bury at Deadman's 
Island. The Indians used to have them (bones) all in a box on 
Deadman's Island, but the whitemans say "you better bury them 
(deceased) in the ground", so the Indians gather all the bones 
on Deadman's Island, and take them over to Wh l-Whoi (lumberman's 
Arch) and bury them." 

City Ardhlvlst t "Did Professor Hill-Tout 
send the bones down to Ottawa t 

August Jack t "I don't know. I think (laugh- 
ingly whitemans orasyT he takes a grave and puts it in his 
house, and puts an Indian in Jail for catching a salmon." 



68 



58 



Memo of conYeraatlon wi th Au gust Jack Eh » faU*bABP »,et City 
JLrohiTee, BwO. 23rd, 1936* WW. v. (b. 13 

YAHMAS, Indian, TIM MOODY August Jack * "Just celled *o *•!! 
TOUhl lait asBa yoS !aS» ( Tim Moody) 1. dead." 

(Motet See "Barly VanoouTer", Yol. , pages 1, 7, 10, 12, 
etc., re the last surviving "flathead" Indian, 1. e., whose 
forehead was made flat artificially by preseure, and whose 
bust, showing the flat forehead, was made by Charlee Marega, 
Yanaouver sculptor. ) 

UAH H0 U3BS IH STAHiLgY PARK "Ho mats oTer entire floor; 
iT - ' w ! H0f ~" J«»t Little mats In corner 



■fCTHSY where yeu eat; Inside house 

Jm Just hard floor (earth) » hard 

like oement. Indians wonans sweep up erery morning. What 
with? Oh, cedar bough, anything, maybe hemlock (bough). 
(See his conTersation on Indian Houses). 

"All old houses rotten before 
Qaatown was; nails In house (whlteman's Iron nails), and 
pealc- roof** 

C_lty ArohlTiett (astonished) "Peak roof* Iron nails?" 

August Jaok t "Tee. You see when whiteaans come, all 
old houses rotten, ill cedar slabs (in sides) lie flat 
(horizontal). They (Indians) take and cut lumber (out of 
sides of old houses), and cut the lumber where it*s rotten, and 
before orossways (horizontal), after whitemans come, sides up 
and down, and peak roof, and nails. They use iron nails) 
whitemans giro them nailsj all old houses rotten." 

? ltr Archivist . "Well, could you make me a model of 
2 houses) the old houses before the whitemans come? 
You never see them; you too young?" 

August Jack i "Yes, I make you model* All old Indian 
houses in Stanley Park gone before I born, but I see old ones 
up Bquamieh; them up there yet, only all rotten and sunk down. 



This remarkable conversation explains the wash 
paintings in the Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa, whioh shows 
peak roofs, and perpendicular slab aides, paintings made by 
Geut. Willis of H. M. S. "flanges" in 1861. The Squamlsh hut 
roof was a loan-to roof i afterwarda they adopted the 
peak roof, but they must hare done so prior to 1861 
when Mr. Willis made the paintings of Indian huts on 
what la now Kitsllano Beach, YanoouYer* 



69 



59 



Conreraation with August Jack Haataalano. 

WOB5PTTP l qTOB January 27. 19S7. 

Hk August t "Tha cam* wa gave Mm la pron- 

ounced "ELayala". There la bo auoh word 
In tha Squamish tongue that I know of. It muat be a Powell 
Hirer Indian name. Tha Alert Bay Indians say It means in 
their language •mink". That'a what they call a mink. Tha 
Peabarton Indiana say it means, in their language, •cloud". 
I don't know what it means. We had to name him some thing." 



]ifTl?'m*I^— "^ f " ***•* inapeeting the bronze memorlaytablet 
f5iii L t.. TA ffiJT, to tne BeT " c ' u ' Tat «i Indian mlaeionary. 

IKpIAN C USTOMS Auguat: 

"Ho, not exactly, not exactly eagle, god 
of the aky. whale, god of the aaa, and bear, god of the land. 
(Dr. Baley*a interpretation). Thla la tha way it was: 



"The eagle ha makea the rain. He makes 
tha wind; blowa laaTea off trees. He goea round and round 
and round, climbing up and up, way up In the aky; high up. 
Than ha cornea down, straight down — almost straight — swlahhhhhh. 
He's trying to make the rain." 

"Whale I It amy be a blsckfish; he* a al- 
ways after everything. He'a after duek, fish, aeal. He»a 
always after something." 

"Bear I He»S tyee of the land. He'a 
fiahermsn. Ha aats STary thing on the land." 



The Bar. Br. Balay'a interpretation of the 
totem (two) on the Tate Memorial tablet la that tha whale, 
I.e., God of tha Sas, waa always making trouble and try- 
ing to ••curs mastery of the Bear, God of the Land. He 
did it by atorm, snow, rain, flood, lightning, tidal 
ware, and tha Boar (seen sheltering tha Indian between 
his anas and lags) always was protecting himself from 
tha whale, and aa such was friend of the Indian. Tha 
eagle, God of the Sky, and tha moat powerful of all three, 
saw what waa happening to the Indian , and stopped tha 
whale sufficiently to make his efforts futile. 

As narrated to as by Dr. Haley. J.S. Matthews. 



70 



60 



Conversation with August Jack Haataalano. March 15, 1937 ♦ 

BARLY CiMETgRIES After displaying before Mr. Haataalano a 

BROCKTON POINT" colored crayon drawing (presented by Mra. 

Matthews) showing the old "Park Road", 
white surfaced with calcined shells, at a point in Stanley 
Park looking north from the Nine 0» clock Gun towards Brockton 
Point—a distance of about two hundred yards, Mr. Haatsalano 
then said: 

"The graves must be under that road; that's 
why no one can find them. There are people buried all along 

there; all along that east shore between the gun and the 
point, on the edge of the high bank. A lot of Indians were 
buried right up on the point itself. But the Indians not on 
the point are under the road now. Indians always bury close 
to the shore, but the Chinamans are further from the shore 
than the Indians. I see the Chinamans burning stuff there 
once — for to feed the dead {and August smiled). The white 
mans are buried all along that shore too. No cemetery or 
graveyard; Just come in a boat with the d eadmans; just climb 
up the bank, dig a hole, and bury him; all along close to the 
water." 

"Nobody buried on north shore of Brockton 
Point; Just east shore." 

J. S. Matthews 



71 



61 



UDIAH TOBOGGAH — BK FORa TH B "WHITSMAUS* CAME 

Copy of skatah drawn in ray garden by August Jack 
Khahtsahlano, whilst having tea and cakes this 
Sunday afternoon. J. S. Matthews. 



Vol 



f> '*- 



June 6 , 1937 . 





Cedar slab, 3haped with stone hammer and stone chisel; 
twenty- seven to thirty Inches long, hollowed or scooped out 
to fit chest on one side, and rounded on other, (concave- 
convex). Cross bar at one end, lashed in position with oedar 
rope through holes in one and of slab; handle projecting both 
sides. 

Memo of our conversation 

Khahtaahlanot "Bo. Indians (did) not skate on ice like 
whltemans do. They slide. They slide down rivers; on slab 
of oedar; my step-father (Jericho Charlie) tell me. I never 
see them do it; no ioe suppose, that's why I not see them, 
but I see cedar slab they do it with. They take it (cedar 
slab) in their hands; hold It in front of them; run hard, throw 
themselves down on top of it, and go (slide) a long way down 
the river; river slopes down, and that makes them go a long 
way; they lie on it; it's same shape as man's body (torso); 
same size, without his head and arms and legs, fits him, and 
there's a handle bar, a oroas bar. In front for his hands to 
hold on to; it's got two handles, and it's lashed (with cedar 
rope) to the slab. I draw It for you." (Which he did and 
attached his signature.) 

J. S. Matthews. 



72 




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72A 



POTLATCH AT ALERT BAY 




72B 



CE-QUAL-LIA, or SE-QUAIL-YAH, 1953 




Mrs. Chief George, sister of Chief Jimmy Harry, Squamish Indian Reserve, North 
Vancouver. She is preparing a delectable dish, broiled salmon, broiled in the open 
air before a wood fire, and between split sticks stuck in the earth as her mothers for 
generations had done before her, and before whitemans came with frying pans, forks 
and grease. The process is referred to as "skwul-lum," a word difficult to interpret, 
but suggests "ripening the whole," as ripe fruit. At No. 3 Reserve, east of Seymour 
Creek. 



72C 



AUGUST JACK (see FRONT) 




72D 



HOW SQUAMISH MADE FIRE 



^Y awl1l o t>y August 3aef< Jl*aW'-SaMa->to 
stlOvyrrvO Kov« "t-w.dlct>is tmoxjC-« £c>vfi. 
V^iftC stie, K ayxeL boarot o^ oerfa*.. 
WaJ-ev s o * H*dL < e<£ <or 

V«Yy dVy cv» VayJ t*V« o/- 5 

/lOUSC. Holt. CH fcoa.Vti, 

Fvi'ftl-,i-»* embers fall 
"tfiYouo^ hol< o>i /' It ^e 

dLu it teneatt* 

Men. STu^K^e corn**, 
ok Ur wilt t>yfca.tyT7 




i<f$9 



72E 



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72F 



AUGUST JACK - RE DEED CHANGING NAME 

raoriiciAi^BQkgDjCT_nAj.w 1 _Mrroic» or vital statistic* 

!*J»«7 18,1941. Radatarlac ohaac* «f anaa af a'agnat Jmok ta Auait J»ok 
PttlMU l M •• M Aaguat 19SS,aad af his wlfa, Ku7 Ant Jaok (Indlaa dim* 
■vaaaala) ta Mar/ Ana Zhahtaahlana . This la la owflluM with Saotiaa 13 
•f tha "Cbaafs af Iw Aot" , ud haabaan glran tha fila nuabar H.CI.1M." 

"J.D.Soatt, far Slraotar. 

DCKmOH OP CANADA, ) in THE UATT3R of August 

J Jack Khahtsahlano, here- 
PROVINCE OF BRITI3H COLUMBIA.) tofore known as August 

Jack (son of Khay-tulk, 
who was also known as 
Supplejack) and grandson 
of Khahtsahlano formerly 
of Chay-thooa (now known 
as Prospect Point), Stanley 
Park. 



I, AUGUST JACK KHAHTSAHLANO, of the Capilano Indian 
RsserTe, North Vancouver, British Columbia, born in the 
Indian village of Snauq (formerly situate on False Creek, 
Vancouver, B. C. ) heretofore known and called by the name 
of August Jack, 

DO HBRHBY GIVE NOTICE: - 

That I do for myBelf and my descendants formally and 
absolutely renounce, relinquish and abandon the use of my 
said surname "Jack* as a surname and hereby assume, adopt, 
and determine henceforth on all occasions whatsoever to 
use and substitute the name of "Khahtsahlano" as my surname, 
which name was bestowed upon me formally, according to Indian 
custom, at a ceremony held by the Squamish tribe at the Baid 
Tillage of Snauq in or about the year 1890. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and 
seal this twenty sixth day of August, A. D. 1938. 



SIGNED AND SEALED 
I IN, THE PRESENCE 








Atytf/^A KLAbWA, 



£**£ 



" ETSIIANO " VhoN.ISI.P.ltf b- 



Chief Khahtsahlanogh (no EngliBh name) was a Squamish Indian 
chief who, early in the 19th century, migrated from his ancestral 
home at Toktakamic, Squamish River, and settled at Chaythoos.i.e. W10. 
"high bank", a clearing at Pipe Line Road, First Narrows. Here his NISI 
son Khay-tulk, or "Supplejack", lived, died, and was buried with hon- T>2i^. 
or in a canoe placed inside a mausoleum of wood. Khay-tulk's son, 
August Jack Khahtsahlano, was born at the vanished village of Snauq, 
False Creek, (Burrard Bridge). In 1905, the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way opened lands for settlement, and called the new district 
"Kitsilano". 

72G 



AUGUST JACK - CHANGES NAME 



CITY OF VANCOUVER 

City /}vcIiivisT$ „m 



7 



CITY HALL 



WIKWPS**** 45, 



Kv\KY- 



UH 



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^ '>• A 



1. S tucazhuAT* 



litis Li "the. sh'fo o- ' baJzeJ- otsveu. -ocue -6y CUt^i4^t 

/ia^t^ ~P& ( /.4yaJ ftyad, &i#y \Mmj% *z*^J> s2^- C r-r^~&' 
« /{(lay- ti^ZSC, <rv " Sit^f-tej oatf/ ' <y ' ( Aay^&tr^ 



72H 



tZ 



Memo ot eonToraatlon with Augus t Jack FamattaOladQ. in ay 
Cardan, 2083 Mbyte Arenue, evening of July 7th and 8th, 1937. 

Vo/. i+ bis 
IBDIAB FAIBTS iBBlgl mtM « "Ikl» bit rook (from Sunsot 

Beach, "a mile or so north of Horseshoe Bay 
on Horn Sound) is tuaibth (Indian nut)| it's been lying in 
creek where the red paint coses from, and got a ooating of 
tumbth. Indian find tuabth in soft ground} aometlmea thia 
thiok (indioating about six lnohee); up in Garibaldi Mountain 
break off big lump; make it (mould it) flat like hot eaket 
build ll*il* fire of dry alder on ground; put flat eake of 
tuabth on ashes; eook him for six hours, then it be red; put 
something on ground to oatoh lt| break it up in hands} it Just 
like dust | red dust; then mix with grease and put on face. 

"Bluet Blue high up in the mountains) some place it lie 
six inohest its blue* Mot mix with water ; it's blue already} 
mix with grease, put finger in it i draw finger across cheek 
for face paint; whitemans says ttt*s iron} that's what he says. 
Bind the earth, the blue earth, high up in mountains} when sun 
shines on it, it falls off (down); Just pick it up. 

"YellowT make it out of tuabth} out of red earth; mix 
it with alder bark; boil both together; It's yellow. 

"BUokT Make it out of charcoal. 

•White T Bo white." 

akJLtj ********* "Portugese Joe hare a daughter, Mrs. Buss, 
she llTes up Bgaont. She tell me make white stain far baskets 
out of some kind of grass that grow on beach; boll it and boil 
it, then it's white stain for baskets." 

August Jaekt "Maybe, I don't know." 



DPUB MMaSuTgMBTT OS TIME "Before the whitemans come, 8q varnish 

hare seres days in week, too} just 
name whitemans. Six days Squamish go up and down; up to Bquaalah 
down to Magi 1 ah Bay; seventh day be Sunday; mow work. One men.. 
he priest, talk. All the peoples go into bit houee; prleet 
tell them what to do; how to do it right; they haTe another 
kind of religion them day a. 

"Squaaish hare namea for every 
month; they tell by the moon what month it la; just earn* 
whitemana calendar; eame moon name month same name eaoh year; 
just like whitemans calendar , but not hare year; no 1936 no 
1907; forget about year; no uee. Indian count one month, two 



73 



63 
Vol. t*. 1=. rfe 
month, three month, then when twelve month coma, that hoy* a 
been born ona year; after he's born fire year ago; six years ago; 
that's how. Indian's got no book; no pencil* Haxten remembers 
all about that; the getting pretty old; 106 this year I think; 
she's my mother's younger sister, my mother eie 27 year ago 
(1910); she's eighty then. 

■Squamish keeps time with little stick; each day break 
off little piece wood of stick; put little bit in box; maybe 
break off bigger bit of stick for month, and put in little box. 
Old mans do that, that's the way they keep how many days it is." 

major Matthews t "Who breaks the little bits?" 

August Jack i "Every bod las what wants to know how many 
days it is." 



ffBATA "Ho sea otter in English Bay, nor 

3SA. OTTER Howe Sound; just seal, lota seal, 

SEALS, C"ooklng meat Squamish go seal hunting in oanoe. 

Seal Bleeping on surface; just 
under surface, (indicating seal heaving and falling with the 
swell); sneak up spear him. Or, maybe, at night, dark night, 
seal sleeping on K'pul (Rocks in Howe Sound east of Bowen 
Island) lota seal sleeping there; sneak up in oanoe, quiet, no 
noise, very quiet; seal sleeping on rocks; spear him. Then 
cook him, little fire, slow, not big fire. 

"Cook on two little logs on ground; 
about ten inches diameter; lay logs side each other; about 
twelve inches apart on ground; built little fire of pitch sticks 
between legs; lay seal across logs bo his middle over fire; 
cook him slowly; just burn the hair off. When middle's done, 
catch him by tall or feet, turn him over; two or three times, 
when he's cooked in middle, cook ends, move him; pull him across 
logs so he's head over fire; catch him by tall and pull him. 
Tail's last part cooked." 



OOLACHAH OIL Major Mat thews t "August, you like 

"~" oolachan oil, I don't. Too much 

smell." 
August Jack t "Yea. I like it. Some not smell much. When it's 
two weeks old, it's mild; one month it's strong; two months very 
strong. It's good medicine. When I up fishing that time my 
trousers thirty-five Inches (waist measurement}* I take one 
spoonful oolachan oil every morning; by and bye thirty-eight 
inches; trousers too tight; make you fat* If youse got worms 
inside you, makes you fat. I weigh 200 lbs. then." 

SaOAmTSH gDlAHS Major Matthews * "How tall are you?" 

August Jaok t "Six feet, just six feet. My father {Supplejack) 



74 



64 

Vol <+ k 17 
six feet two; ay mother five feet ten. My father Squamleh; 
my mother Cowlchan. Squamleh Indian all big men before white- 
mans come. Lillooet Indiana medium} about fire feet eight. 
Chllcoten Indians retry big men; tall, Bllmi Alert Bay Indiana 
short, fat, big around middle; ait down all the time." 

INDIAN WIVES 0? WHITEMEH Major Matthews ; "August. What 

whltemans about Burrard Inlet 
marry Indian woman?" 

August Jack *. "Well, there* a lots. 
Peter Smith and Mr. Coe (?) at Paapeeak (Brockton Point). 
Peter Smith got Indian wife and four children, and Mr. Coe he* a 
got Indian wife, and three children. And, Baker at the Nine 
•O'clock gun, he's got Indian woman and five children, and John 
Beatty he lived on False Creek reaerve (near Burrard Bridge), 
he had two children, and Burns, the logger at Jericho, he had 
two children (girls), and Tompkins Brew, the policeman at 
Brockton Point, and Joe Mannion, and Navvy Jack, and Gassy 
Jack, and Portugese Joe, they all had Indian wites and children, 
and Cummlngs, in Stanley Park, he's got three half breeds and 
there was a man at Belcarra, I don't know much about him, I 
Just hear, and Newman, at Deep Cove, North Arm, he's got Indian 
wife and three boys and two girls, and Chinha, whiteman at Deep 
Cove, North Arm, he's woman got two girls, and Perkins at 
Moodyvllle mill, he's got four girls, and Cockles (?), Mr. Cock- 
les, at Moodyville, he's got half breed boy and girl. And Mr. 
Rivers, at Moodyville, clerk in the store, he's got one living, 
and Capt. St ter shank, he had Indian wife, and got Billy Ettershank, 
and Peter Plant in Stanley Park; he had two girls and two boys, 
and Saripee at Bburne; he's got one boy and two girls. No, 
Oaropee's woman not half breed; she pure Musqueam." 

(Notet Moat men mentioned are now, 1937, dead. J. S. M.) 

TIM MOODY "Tim Moody, Priest call him Tim Moody; he died 

last year. (See Obituary Book and "Early Vancouver") 
Priest oall him Tim Moody when they start Mission at North Van- 
couver; long time after whiteaana come Burrard Inlet; before 
priest call him Tim Moody they call him Yahmaa." 

TREASURE ON KITSIIANO Note* August Jack KZahtaahlano la 
INDIAN RESERVE living in a tent on Kltsilano Indian 

Reoerve, and smiles and says he is 
digging for "treasure". It appears that when he was young and 
strong he earned good money in logging caim)s, gave it to hia 
mother who lived in their little house about 100 yards east of 
Ogden Street at Cypress— about 100 yards into the Reserve and 
close to the old beach. She told him she had buried it Just west 
of the house, and he is digging trying to find it, but so far 
without gucceBB. (See his file and "Sun" newspaper about June 
15th, or near that date.) 



75 



65 

Memoof eonTarMtJ^jL«)iU^H&^^£^ m «y garden, 

where w e Bay together thie beautiful eool Bummer evening, 
drinking tea and eating cake. July 14, 1937. Vol. w>. 12 

DTOIAN CHU RCHES Mfcj pyfttaahlano aaid« "That little 

M STHO'Dl'sfC HURCH church at Homulcheaun {Capilano CreekJ 

HOlJJLCHiSfoK »aa pulled down; oh, long time ago; 

cHlSt* CAPfi^NO JOE Capilano Joe build it for himself, 

for hie peopleB at Capilano; he waa 

working on the reserve getting out logs; he got the lumber f » m 
the Ratings Sawmill; it was not of logs; it was aort of private 
church for he's own peoples." 

Major Ma t thews . "What about the church 
at Korth Vanoouver; at Uatlawn; the churoh with one steeple 
before they got the church with two steeples they have now; 
which was first, the one at Ustlawn, or the one at Capilano?" 

Khaht sahlano t "The one at * St lawn. 
The church at 'Stlawn was built by all the peoples; everybodies 
give money. The church at Capilano waa built by Capilano Joe 
himself." 

Major Matthews ; "Well, whioh was the 
first churoh on Burrard Inlet?" 

Khahtaahlanot "The first church was 
the one the Indians call "King George mans church" over at 
Gastown; put up by the Methodists; the Indians built it; the 

Methodist priest was there* Mo 
KI NG GBORGB MA N S CHURCH other churoh first; no church north 

shore; only after, when the Catholic 

priest cone; Korth Vanoouver churoh built before my time." 

Ma jor Matthews * "Well, Catholic 
priest here long time before? - 

Khaht aahlano t "The Methodist priest 
started first; to get the Indiana to go to church; to go to 
the Gastown churoh." 

Major Matthews i "I thought the 
Catholics claim they were the first to get the Indians to go 

to church?" „__ 

Khaht aahlanot "They were --in 
Westminster, but not here" All Cathollos (Indians) in 
Westminster. 

Major Matkhaya t "Why did the Indians 
ME THODIST CHORCH go to "dtiawn. Ho Indians at 'Stlawn 

HASTiros~sffigLL before. All Indians at Whoi-Whoi, 

Snauq, Homulcheaun, and up Steets- 

s»h-m»h. (Lumberman*s Arch, False Creek, Capilano, and Seymour 
Creek.) Why did they go to live Horth Vancouver?" 



76 



66 



Vol. l+. to \q 

Khahtsahlano t "Hastings Sawmill. Everybodies what was working 
at the Hastings Sawmill go to the littla Indian church at Gas- 
town on 3unday. Thomas Randle, no, not half breed, pure Indian, 
he interpret for minister. Then the Catholic priest come. They 
want to build a church on Hastings Sawmill property, but the 
Bastings Sawmill peoples say "no, you cannot build here; you 
must go your own place". So the people go across the inlet, 
and there was two old peoples making canoes there. They ask 
the two old peoples if they could come over there, and the old 
peoples say "alright", and then they build the church with one 
steeple." 

(Hotet The refusal of the Hastings Sawmill management to have 
anyone on their property was their customary attitude; they were 
rery jealous in that respect; they feared squatters, the est- 
ablishments of rights, and would not tolerate occupancy for 
scarcely a single day. Of oourse, St. James Church was built 
on their property, but Mr. Raymur was a moving spirit in that 
church and it was called after his name James.) 

IHDIAN SLAVB3 I explained at considerable length, the 

system of barons and serfs under the 
feudal system in England, and how the universal sufferage was 
ultimately extended', to male and female, and then continued. 

Major Hit thews : "What about slaves?" 

Khahtsahlano i "w aiavea; Squamlah don't 
have slaves; they don't capture in another country; maybe take 
a little girl (indicating three feet high) or maybe a little 
boy about ten years, but they don't take a man or a womans." 

Major Ma tthews; "What's all this talk 
about there being a little king or chief, and nobles, and 
commons, and slaves before the whitemans come? Professor 
Hill-Tout he write all about it, in a book?" 

Khahtaahlano i (irritated) "Oh, that's Ions 
ago; maybe two hundred, maybe three hundred years ago. They 
(Indians) don't have slaves in this country. - 

Major Matthews i "Well, haven't you heard 
it?" 

, , .. Khaht sahlano x "Y 88 . I've heard of it. but 

you picked them out wnen tbey were little kids (young children)." 

„v. , , , ,,».,, MUfflE Matthewwi "Did your mother (Jericho 
Charlie's wife) tell you about slaves; she tell you a lot." 

rf„„t* ».n ,,,„ IBiaktaahl,ano» (visibly annoyed) "Ho. You 

don't tell ohlldrens that; you keep that to yourself; it's 
not right to tell the ohlldrens." 

Major Mat thews i "Why?" 



77 



67 



Vol. <+ f>. io 

Khahtaahlano . "Slave boy, you say to him you go hero, 
you go get that, you go get this for you; while you alt* down; 
that's not right; you ashamed. You not tell your ohildrens 
where you get that hoy or girl. 3ome nana he with you when 
you get him; he knows where you get hlmj you knows all about 
it, but you don't tell your ohildrens*" 

Major sat thews i "I don't understand clearly." 

Khahtsahlano t "Veil, jaaybe your ohildrens say (taunt) 
something to the sieve boy. Then someday the slave boy grow 
up and tell his friends* That's bad. Kever tell your ohildrens. 
They sight insult him." 

Major Matthews t "Tou mean the slave boy remember, and 
by and bye tell his friends same time when they come to visit 
you that he's been inaulted, that he'a been sailed slave, and 
they seek vengeanoe, and find out about it, and start a dis- 
turbance. Somebody start a fight, somebody get hurt, maybe 
somebody get killed and that start a war?" 

KVyhtsahlano t "May start a war, yes. Mover tell the 
ohildrens whose boy it is if a slave} that's same whiteman's 
kidnap." 

HDIAB PROMWtCIATIOH Ma.lor Matthews . "August. 1 oan always 

understand yon when you talks you say 
things clear, but some whitemans write down Indian words ■• 
that no one, not even whitemans, e*n read them or say them. 
Andy Paul (qoltohetahl) Just the same. You aay "8ait-up-sum". 
I oan say that, but Andy Paul aay muat be "Taait-up-sum", 
all the time T's and T's, and Hots other hard words for white- 
mans, too. Is it all necessary? I oan echo the words you say; 
why eannot I do it with other Indians and what whitemans write 
about Indians words.?" 

Khahtsahlano i "May be something wrong 
with his tongue. It's not neoessary." (But August Jaok has 
often told me that whitemen oannot eoho the sounds of Indians' 
words in every ease. What I think ho means ia that there ia a 
tendency among white writers to exaggerate the spelling, and to 
increase the difficulty rather than reduce it*) 



78 



68 



Memo of conversation with August Jack Khahtaahlano , In my garden, 
evening, 21st July, 1937. v"T~ r" 

INDIAN SLAVES 

We did not resume our previous conversation 
on this subject; the time was inopportune, but upon reflec- 
ting upon what my friend said the other evening, it i3 
evident that much whiah has been written about Indian slaves— 
aa in other natters — has been exaggerated and "colored". 
It ia obvious, for instance, that a Yuclataw slave in the 
possession of the Squamieh would be a source of irritation 
to the Yuolataws; might form an excuse for a reprisal raid on 
the Squamish, and, regardle33 of what whitemen have written of 
the desire of Indians to fight one another, the fact is they 
feared those raids, and desired peace, no lass than we do. 
Capt. Vancouver reports that when, in 1792, he passed through 
our First Harrows, he saw no signs of habitations; yet 
actually there were two large villages close at hand; one at 
Homulohesun (Capllano) and the other at Whol-Whoi (Lumberman^ 
Arch, Stanley Park). The explanation most likely ia that, 
following their usual customs, these two villages were slightly 
back from the beaches, and hidden from the sight of passers- 
by, for one authority, Chief Matthias Joe, states positively 
that until the whitemen guaranteed safety, Indian villages 
were concealed thus in the trees, to hide them from the sight 
of possible foes. JSlf. 



SKUNK COVE Major Matthews ; "August. Did you ever got the 
Indian name for Skunk Cove?" 

Khaht sahlano : "Noooo. I ask everybodies; don't 
know| must be some name; tJta only one I can now ask is Kaxten, 
or perhaps Jiany Jimmy may know. If they don*t know then no 
more use trying. 

(Hotes This ia in oonneotion with the map 
"INDIAN VILLAGES AND LANDMARKS, BURRARD INLET AND HOWE SOUND" 
recently compiled after six years* endeavour. Through disuse, 
the Indians have forgotten the o Id names; one by one we re- 
covered many, but Skunk Cove seems to have been completely 
forgotten.) 

INDIAN PAINTINGS NOTE: Khahtaahlano came this evening with 3 

colored drawings, done by himself; one 
on brownish paper or cardboard depicting an Indian in yellow 
Jacket and feather headdress; one on an old piece of packing 
case cardboard depicting, in red and^llow paint, three 
Indians wearing masks, and one of a half length naked brown 
Indian with feather headdress and clenched fist on white nan.r 
It is an extraordinary faot that Khahtaahlano could not write a 
hla own signature until I taught him four years ago, nor can he 
read, nor has he ever previously made drawings, yet this week 
he successfully attempted and effected these quite creditable 



even 



~9 



Vol. M.. (=4i_ 

drawings In hi a little tent on th« Kitsllano Indian ReserTe 
on l&lse Crook, whore he la digging for hie burled "treasure". 

atjMB Major Mat thews » "That's this?" (holding 



69 



AH MA8K3 up sao ond picture . ) 

Khaht sahlan o_ i "Those two big fellows are swhy- 
whee (masks) — (a form of Thol-Thol, i. «., "masks", the Tillage; 
and the little fellow Is tyaaln-nia, the funny man. They are 
dancing! erery time there la a death, or a marriage, or a first 
born, they oan have a danoe. The funny man is tlokllng the 
swhy-whee, teasing him, tickling his nose with a brush; makes 
peoples laugh. 

"Those (stems with red and yellow flowers 
in head dress) are bushy feathers off goeso; the red (plumes) 
are little atioks with feathers tied to them} hand made, home 
madet they are like whltemans feather duster." 

Major Mat thews t "Thy hare two swhy-wee and 
only one quain-nia?" 

Khahtaahlanot "Oh, Just looks betters if 
there's only one owhy-whoe, not look so good, but one qualn-nia 
ia enough; no others oan use that mask; that mask belongs to one 
■an; it's He's mask; nobody else use it." 

Major Matthowa i "Patented, eh? Tell, why 
did you put big eagle feathers on their heads; Squamlsh not hare 
hats with eaglee feathers like prairie Indians; only prairie 
Indians have feathers before (whltemen come)*" 

Khaht sahlano I "That's right. Only prairie 
Indian hare them before, but that's my hat." (Hotosi By which 
he means that he has adopted that form of headdress; he is the 
first to use it; he may bare oopled it from pictures of prairie 
Indians but he is the first to use it, and therefore, according 
to Indian ethlos, it le his personal property; that ia, the 
design, whaterer it may be. Henceforth that form of headdress 
belongs to Khahtsahlano; see his photo*) 



J or M* t thews t "That's this?" (indicating 
di 



brown-skinned naked Indian, half length, with clenched flet 
and feather headdress painted in color on white paper*) 

Khahtsahlano i "Oh, just an Indian, only he's 
angry, he'e mad, he 'a got olenched fist, he'e looking up, he's 
lip are firm, he's going to do something, he's determined." 



Major Matthews i "That about all thla long 
hair? I thought Indians out their hair at the shoulders; why 
do long — down to his middle?" 

Khaht sah Ian o t "That's an old timer. All the 
old timers have long hair; some - braid It, some ties it up like 
this man ties his, but all the old timers hare hair down to he's 
middle." 



80 



70 



Vol. 1+. f>. i3 
(Bote: aee Lieut. Willis* famous painting (at Ottawa) of 1861 
of part of Kitallano Baach which shows an Indian with his hair 
half way down his hack, in the foreground). "Only old timers 
have long hair." 

Major Matthewa i "Why is he naked?" 

Khahtaahlano t "Squamish got no ooat; only 
little shorts around his middle; just like whitemans bathing 
trunks, made of buckskin* about twelve inches around hia middle, 
like little short pants; buckskin. That* a only thing he wears; 
he's not oold; summer or winter go naked." 

Major Matthews : Thy not cold?" 

Khahtaahlano t "Hot when he's in house by fire; 
when he goes out he wears cape over his shoulders." 

Major MatthewB t "Barefoot in house?" 

Khaht sahlano t "Ho, moccasin; he's got lots 
sin; lots time make them - in winter." 



t.lor Matthewa i "August. You can't read or 
_ draw these pictures! 
this week?" (He is about 60 years old.) 



write. How did you draw tnese pictures) you never draw before 



Khaht Bahlano t "Tes. I draw him. I Just sit 
down. Some peoples have models to draw from; some peoples have 
picture to look at, but I just draw from memory. I give little 
totem pole to boy; he give me paints. I just sit down In my 
tent and draw what you've got; only it get dark and I have to 
stop; maybe by and bye I draw better." 

(Wctet A remarkable fact that this Indian 
who has never had a day's schooling in his life, can sit down, 
and with rude tools on a rough table, draw these pictures of 
Indian life from memory. He mist have great natural ability, 
and be a born artist. And yet some people sail Indians 
"8iwasb". (1. e., eauvage (Jr.); savage (Xng.)) 

J3DIAK MASKS Khahtaahlano t "I'se only one got it, mask, in 

all Squamish peoples I'se only one. I'se 
got only old time mask; mm great grandfather's." 

Major Matthews i "How did you get it? Did 
you say your great grandfather?" 

Khahtaahlano t "My mother keep it when my 
father (Bay- talk) died, and my brother (Willie Jack), he's 
Haytulk, too, ha not like it, so he waits until I grow up, and 
then he gives it to me (Khaht sahlano). I'se the only one In 
gquamlah (tribe) whose got one. My father (Haytulk) got it 
from my grandfather, and he got it from he's father Khahtsah- 
lanogh, and he got it from he's father, old Haataalanogh." 



81 



71 



Vol. i+. p. tif 
(Bote: It will be recall** that Haytulk's two sons, known by 
the Xngllsh names of Willie Jack and August Jack, were cere- 
moniously bestowed at a potlatch giren under the Burrard Street 
Bridge » the old Tillage of Snauq — with the names of Hay-tulk 
and Khahtsahlano, being the names of their father and grand- 
father.) 

fsao of eonTersatlon with August Jack Khahtsahlano . in my gar- 
en, August 14, 1937* 



IBPIAK CUSTOMS 
HT>IaK Pool) — 
SftBoisoB 



August arrived dangling an angular stone, 
six and one-half inches at its widest part, 
and weighing 3 pounds net, by a wire which 
had been passed through a tapered hole, 
about one and one-half inches wide at the mouths on either side* 
and narrowed down to a central half-inch, two and one-half 
inches through stone from side to side of hole, which had been 
bored by some primitlTO instrument! the angular edges of stone 
being rounded, and the stone itself showing minute spooks which 
sparkled* 

Major Matthcws t "Where did you get that?" 

August t "I did it up. I get another 
bigger one; bring it next time; got hole in it, too. Wot sure 
what it is, but I think it's hold canoe when they catches stur- 
geon out Spanish Banks or iq> head false Creek. I dig it out of 
ground when digging for my treasure: not find my treasure yet, 
but find thlsi about two feet down (in earth)) two of them; 
together) right where Chinalset's (Jericho Charlie's) house 
was -- (approximately 100 yards east into the Indian Reserve 
from the corner of Ogden Avenue and Chestnut Street — down 
deep, about two feet) I find two) bring you big one next time." 

Major Matthews t "What for?" 

August t "I think us* it when they eatohes 
sturgeon. Bquamlsh hare big hook on end of long pole) big bone 
hook with barb on it, and theys go out after sturgeon, when the 
tide Is out, and hook him) then sturgeon, he's big fish, maybe 
ten feet, he pull hard) wriggle) wriggle in the water | 




go swift) canoe goes too fast, may be wares) amy be wind, Indian 
hold on hard, and if theye got nothing oanoe not go straight) 
goes this way, goes that way, all about, so the man in the stern 
drops this stone) hold back stern of oanoe." 



82 



72 



, n , . ._ Ms J or Mstthcws : "lor anchor?" 

August : "Bo, eo ' a canoe not go so swift. 
Hakes oanoa go straight. Then, by and bye, hs's (sturgeon) 
get tired; they take him to beach) he's too heavy, so's they 
tip canoe on beach; slide him in; tip canoe back again, and 
they take him home." 

Major Matthews : "How do they know where 
the sturgeon Is? They cannot see him on the bottom?" 

August: (shaking head) "There must been 
awful lots sturgeon one time; up end false Creek; out Spanish 
banks; all over. They can't see him on bottom; they just 
feel with pole with hook on it; bone hook, big one; they Just 
feel around with pole when the tide is out. front man in canoe 
hare pole with hook; man in stern with paddle; poke around 
with pole. Sturgeon's kind of rough outside, they can feel 
when pole touches him; then Jerk hook quick; maybe hook him in 
front, maybe middle, maybe tail. 

"There's a csdar rope on the hook; man in stern pull rope 
tight* Hook cornea off pole; (note: he means that the tremend- 
ous weight, perhaps 800 pounds, of the struggling fish would 
pull the bone hook off the pole), take pole in canoe, but hold 
on hard to rope; hold hard on to sturgeon; keep rope tight; 
hang on; pull pole in canoe; hook not come out if hold on hard; 
throw rope with stone over stern; it pull behind; rope is 
oedar bark rope." 

Major Matthews : "Veil, what happens then? 
when he gets tlrsd, take him beach, tip canoe, slide him In, 
tip eanoe back; he's in canoe. That next?" 

August: "Take him home; pull eanoe up on 
beach, dump sturgeon, clean him; slice him; slice him, not 
very thick (notet with stone knife) 'bout one inch; hang slice 
up to dry; maybe hang In house to dry; maybe good day hang him 
outside." 

MsJor Mstthews t "Doesn't it get smell?" 

August : (amused and smiling) "Dry, oh dry 
quick, dry good two days; then put slice la house; smoke him; 
dry by fire; that's food for winter." 



i or Matthews : (laughing) "Then put In 
s 



(wooden) trough (filled with water) , put In hot stone; supper's 
ready." 

JUlf— *- (also laughing) "Supper's ready; 
no bread; just sturgeon; good eat." 

IfcJor ^ t thews t "What about pudding?" 

August: (chuckling) "Mo pudding." 



83 



73 



Vo ' ** P±<> Major Matthews ; (consolingly) "Well, maybe 

they didn't have oranges , and lemonade , or Ice cream, btft 
that aort of food produced some pretty good men and women." 

August t •Good health; no sick. Look at 
Haxten; she's 106 years old, and got front teeth; same teeth 
(as when she was a girl). Don't drink tea when she waa young; 
everything roast, fire roast, maybe sometimes boil. I bring 
you big atone next time." 



. . // \* cedat baYk Yofop 

bone hook ,_j£__xv^ n^ 

. r~-*~ t i Bottom 



-jLarLg^d*a.t} 



Memo of conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano, in my garden, 
23rd August, 1937. (He is still camping on the Kitsilano Indian 
Reserve.) 

Mr. Khahtsahlano brought another stone; much larger than 
the las t; of sandstone; probably originally from Slm-sah-mulls 
(Baywwater Street beach), or perhaps from near Siwash Rock; 
pierces by some primitive abrasive stone tool, with a good sized 
hole in the centre large enough to pass a half-inch rope through. 
Ihe stone ia seven and one-half inches by seven and one-half 
inches by four inches, and weighs nine pounds, ten ounces. It 
was dug up on the Kitsilano Indian Reserve, by Khahtsahlano, 
about one foot beneath the surface, and about one hundred yards 
east of the corner of Chestnut and Ogden streets, on the site 
of the old bouse of Chlnalaet (Jericho Charlie) and To-who-quam- 
kl . 



STUROBQJ Mr. KhahtBahlano saidt "Here's that other stone 

I promised you." (See conversation of Aug. 14.) 
M»Jor Mstthewst "Do you s'pose it was anchor 
for canoe?" 

August Jacjct "Moooo, It would not be sharp in 
front if it was." 



84 



74 

Vol i+ f> iy 

HPIAK DRSSS Khahtaahlanoj (handing oTor three nor* crude 

IHDIAM HAlF ' drawing* on writing paper, made with colore* 

crayons such as school children use.) "Indians 
head (laughingly). These green feathers alright in he's hair; 
may he not colored right (not correct hue), I*se got no good 
paints, but theys (Indians) take white feather and dye then 
so theys (feathers) ease as grass; then put them in their hair. 

"Indians not cut their hair short long tine ago; long tine 
age let it grown down to he's Kiddle; only since whitemans come 
cut it short. (Votei by short he does not mean as whitemen cut 
their hair, but cut off about the nape of the neck; which is 
rery long for whltemen). Chinalset and Tom-quam-kee cut hair 
short, but not before that (Indians did not); before that 
Indians wear it long; down to he's breasts. Theys braid it. 
Mans wear it in front; woman a hang it down back. Hans hare 
one braid on each side; it hang down in front; he ties ends 
together bo's it not go over (his head); just like I draw you 
here." 

CHIS? KHAHTSAHLAMQGH Major Mat thews : "What's that yarn about 

Chief Kbahtsahlanogh coming up from 
Point Roberts, or about Kbahtsahlanogh being a rery anolent 
historic title first at Point Roberts; woman break the moral 
code; they all lea-re her and come to Snauq?" 

August Jack i "Mo; that's not it. Chief 
Khahtaahlanogh not come from Point Roberts; he come from 
Lillooet; anyways he's father did; "old" Kbahtsahlanogh; my 
great grandfather. 

"My mother Vhy-wat, she tell me. My 
great grandfather Khahtsahlanogh he come down Souamieh from 
Lillooet, and he sit eight days, all the time, nothing to eat, 
in the door; without eating. 

DTDIAK CUSTOMS "He sit eight days without eating; maybe 

DTDIAK MARRIAGB he go away for a few minutes, but he come 

back again and sit down; sit in the 
doorway; just inside. 

"He' a got lots goat skins; they expensive, 
hard to get; shoot with bow and arrow, but he's got fifty; all 
together; he get them up the mountains; take long time to get 
them; shoot with bow and arrow; take long time to get fifty 
skins; he bring them to house with him when he sits in the door* 
He wants to marry the girl in that bouse." 

Major Matthews I "How did he know about 
the girl; he must have met her before?" 

A ugust Jackt "Mo. He just hear the news; 
he Just heard about girl; he hears the news; the girl is good, 
and her peoples rich, got lots of everything; got canoes; 
got blankets, old fashioned stuff (Motet meaning unlike the 
modern Idea of wealth). He never see her before. He just leave 
Lillooet and come down Squamleh. 



85 



75 

Vol U. p2g 

"a.t the and of the eight daya, her father aeya "put then 
together". 80 har father goea out and gata a aan to put then 
togathar (marry) ao'a ay great grandfather' a going to Barry that 
Squanlsh girl, and than he stays at Squaalah about a year, and 
then there'a a baby, and that 'a ay grandfather Khahtaahlanogh. 

flw W F^^ PSAHLMIOGH "Then "old" Khahteahlano he'a not old than; 

he' a go back to Llllooet again to ehow 
then he'a wife and bey, and than he eoaea back to Bquaalec, and 
stays, and ha* a boy grow and grow and grow, and that* a Chief 
Khahtaahlaao, my grandfather, and then he eoaea to Chaythoos, 
and hi a brother Chlp-kay-a go to ' 



■a Jar Bat thews t "Did you aay •old" Khahtaahlanogh froa 
Llllooet alt outalde for eight daya without anything te eatt" 

august Jack 1 "lot alt outalde) lnalda door; lnalde door- 
way t nothing to eat for eight daya. Tou aee they got big nana In 
Squaalah (proud faally mm). Theya (the glrl'a family) pnnlah 
hlat they find out what aort of a aan he la. Lata of aan he alt 
four dayai then he'a go awayi he*a gire up; he go away; he not 
ooae back j he not want girl Tory aueh. a 

"When he ("old" Khahtaahlanogh) waa leering Llllooet, 
he* a father tell hln "If you not aan enough to alt eight daya you 
■JEVJOt get a wife". 80 he* a ("old" Khahtaahlanogh) eoae to 
Squaaiah froa Llllooet, and alt down eight daya." 

Major antthowa i "Did you aay the girl* a father got 
a aan to put thaa together?" 

Auauat Jaok i "Tea, they hare to. The glrl'a father 
eannot do It. Tou aee, theya got a big naae In Squaalah; they 
oannot take the aan*a word; theya got to hare witness. That's 
Indian atyle." 

8IWASH ROCK 

aaJer antthowa t "Where did you aay 81waah Rook' a 
aeoond wire waa; Just by hlat how far away?" 

Auguat Jac k 1 "Juat this aide (southeast froa Slwash 
Rook) about eighty feet froa Slwaah Rook; perhaps aorei this 
way (towarda Kltallano Beach). It'a a rook; sharp shape at top; 
peak; high at top, like woaana got peak hat; lt'a got aouth, and 
eyea; looks Ilka a woaan." 

Vote* Slwaah Hook's other wife, Suns, la below Pros- 
pect Point, near Lighthouse. 




86 



76 



It la my old Indian friend, Kbmhteahlano, who neither reads 
nor writes, speaking « 



■Mil (astonished) Stone age man? May be, 
too} (long pauaei then aailllng) you're "Relief age" 



"Long time ago, Indian boy' a father Juat 
(as) anxious heea boy hare good education aa white 
boy's father like heea boy go unireralty, but heea 
got no pencil; nobodies know how to write* 80 
heea TKLL him. 

"When heea go out in oanoe fishing young 
Indian paddle; old Indian flah; oanoe not go fast; 
oanoe go alow paat places; lota tine talk about 
things; tell what happened there as eanoe go by* 
Old Indian flab and talk; young Indian paddle and 
listen; old Indian make young Indian aay it back 
bo'o he get It right; then old Indian tell him again; 
that 'a way teach him about Squamiah* Soma boy no 
good; he not listen. Good boy he listen; bye *em 
bye he grow up, be wise man; he know lota* Indian 
(who) knows most 'bout hiatory moat educated; heea 
best man; peoplea ask him 'bout thlnga; maybe make 
him chief." 



J* 3. Matthews 

October 6, 1937. 



87 



77 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 337: October 6th, 1937. 

PU CAT I ON Two men, one white, one brown, aat aide 

by aide on a cottage verandah on sunny 
summer's evening at Kitailano Beach; old friends, enjoying 
each other's company, and with a tray of tea and iced cake 
between them, watching the blue sea beyond the sandy beach of 
Kitailano shimmering as the golden rays of the setting sun 
fell upon its wavelets. It was a tranqullle happy scene. 
On* man was August Jack Khahtsahlano, son uf Khay-tulk, or 
♦Supplejack'; grandson of Chief Khahtsahlano of Chaythoos, 
First Narrows, and Snauq, False Creek, Vancouver, Canada. 
The English speaking people converted the historic Squamish 
name Khahtsahlano into Kitailano, and applied it to their sub- 
urb of Vancouver. August neither reads nor writes. The 
other man was Major J. 3, Matthews, pioneer and City Archivist, 
Vancouver. 

The conversation continue*: 

Major Matthews: (jokingly replies to 
some remark made by his companion) "Oh, you're a STONE AGE 
man, August!" 

Khahtsahlano: (astonished, ejaculates) 
"MEM! MEM I ME STONE AOE MAN? May be, too. (a long 
pause; then smiling) You's RELIEF AGE MAN" (a reference 
to the thousands of Canadians living 'on relief' during the 
years 1933-1937). 

Khahtsahlano: (continuing) "Long time 
ago, Indian boy's father just as anxious hees boy have good 
education as white boy's father like hees boy go university, 
but hees got no pencil; nobodies know how to write. So 
hees TELL him." 

"When hees go out in canoe fishing, young 
Indian paddle; old Indian fish; canoe not go fast; canoe go 
slow past places; lots time talk about things; tell what 
happened there as canoe go by. Old Indian fish and talk; 
young Indian paddle and listen; old Indian make young Indian 
say it back sos he gets it right; then old Indian tell him 
again; that's the way teach him about Squamish (Indian tribe). 
Some boy no good; he not listen. Good boy he listen; by 'em 
bye he grow up; be wise man; he know lots. (Indian (who) 
knows most about history most educated; hees best man; 
peoples ask him bout things; maybe make him chief." 






88 



78 



Ve/ 



P 3o OBHBALOOY 

Of 
THE SqUAlgSH DPIAS IMffig 0? KHAHTSAHLAKO 



from which nana 
"KITSILANO" IS DERIVED. 



Kitallano 



Khaht sail Ian ogh of 
Llllooet 



"Old" Khahtaahlanogh of 
Took-tah-kah-alc 



Chief Khaht sahlanogh 

of Chaythooa 



Khay-tulk. (Supplejack) 
of Chaythooa 



August Jack Khaht sahlano 
born , Snauq 



89 



CHIEF KHAHT-SAH-LAN-OUGH 

57 

Kitallano. 



A European descendant of Chief Khahtsahlanough, of 
Chaythoos, (end of Pipe Line Hoed) Stanley Park is, in 1943, 
Frank Plante, of Clarke Road, R.R. No. 2, between New A'est- 
minster and Port Moody. Also Mrs. Captain George Mayers, of 
the same address, and other members of her family. On Oct. 
29th, 1889, Frank Plante drove Lord Stanley and his A.D.C., the 

present Earl of Derby, and Mayor Oppen- 
FRAHK PLANTE heimer and his City Clerk, Thos. F. McGuigan, 

to the ceremony of the dedication of 
Stanley Park. 

The descent is as follows: 
Chief Khahtsahlanough had three (or more) 
sons, Khey- tulle, Khar-luk and Kee-olst, and one (or more) dau- 
ghter, Khah-my. Khah-my married Suppllen Guinne, a former 
Fort Langley Hudson's Bay Co. employee, French-Canadian, from 
Three Rivers, Quebec. Suppllen Guinne was a pre-emptor of what 
is now part of Marpole. His farm and orchard were exactly at 
the south end of Granville St. on banks of North Arm, Fraser 
River. His name was so difficult to spell and to pronounce 
that he became known as 'French John*. Frank Plante says he 
was also known as John Young, a semblance to French Guinne being 
English Young. Suppllen Guinne, 'French John', or 'John Young' 
had a daughter Ada, or Addle, a half-breed, and she married, at 
Moody's Mills (Moodyville, now North Vancouver) July 18th, 1868, 
Peter Plante. Their wedding was the first recorded one on 
Burrard Inlet, and the clergyman was Rev. Edward Vifhite. 

The eldest child of Peter Plante is Frank 
Plante. (See his photograph taken August 7th 1943). 
13th April, 1868. J.S.M. 



CHIEF KHAHTSAHLANOGH (KITSILANO) 



Suppllen Guinne 
"French John" 
"John Young 



Knah-my, sister of Khay-tulk, 
or "Supplejack", 
son of Khahtsahlanogh 



Peter Plante - Addle, 



Frank Plante - 



"Miss Ada Young", dau. 
Suppllen Guinne. 
Wedding at Moody's Mills, 
Burrard Inlet, 18 July 1868. 



born 13 April, 1868 



90 



80 

of conTorsatlon wit h August J acft f^«fit««h;«.n W . wbo called 

at the City Arohires after an lnterrsl of ttren month* alno« 
his last Yislt. July 11, 1938. v e / H «, 3/ 

jjagMSjaaMi PM| ffsior Mttthawat (to August Jack) 

IBAHTSAHL AEO QH* Chief 'Gracious, where hays you been all this 

tlaof" 

^t /- ttfJif'^lrrif "*••» in st« Paul's 

Hospital) thirty-Bins days; atoaaoh sick; six tlass X-ray; 
didn't toll as chat's aattsr; better now; no paint no asat| 
just TSgstablas; not Tsry strong; Sfsel weak." 

aaJor aatthewat "What about that 
declaration we sade that you vast to change your naas froa 
August Jack to August Jack Khahtsahlano? Tou got paper wo 
aadaT" 

A T j t p'fh tsahlano i "So. I take It 
Squamlshj not bring It back yet. but I talk to Chief and hs 
says It's got a "X"; ha says It's KhahtsshlAno, not Baatsalano, 
so as better change It." 

■fAlflt a ^tthew s t "You sign this paper 
now) It's oopyj It won't be official, but It will do to 
reaeaber byi If It's official you're got to aaks swear." 

A. J. Khahtaahlano i "Alright*. (Signs 
la pressnos of Kiss Margaret Giles, who witnessed his signature, 
aaas "August Jack Khaht sahlano" , after the words bad been 
written for hla to oopy.) 







)IAB C08T0M3 AID GAMES 

Major Matthsws t "Corns over here to the 
glass ease* See that black stons ball? 
It's four Inches through; twelre and a 
half lnohss round It; weighs three pounds six and a half ounces. 
(Prssentsd C. R. Brusberg, sse Acquisition Book, page 10.) 
Vhltaaans tell as he dig It out of ground near corner of Csdar 
Street and fourth Arenue when he's asking road; long time ago; 
giro It to aa. What's It for?" 

A. J. K. t "Well. If It's Indian It's 
Tck-kwal-lah; Just like laorosse; only they uses their hands; 
bo stick; no not; that's where laorosse comes froa (originated) 
kastern Indians use stick; 8quaaish use hand. Say "Tchuck* 
fast, "kwal" slow; Tahuck-kwal-la, Tck-qualla." 

Major MatthewB t "How did they play 
the game?" 

A. J. K .t "I aerer see it played; not 
enough young aen ay tlaaZ But ay father (Hay-tulk, or "Supple- 
jack"), hs tell as about it; ay father toll as if aan's a 
good runner ho always gets to the goal. 



91 



81 

Vol u £32. "Your partner throws it to you. 5o, they 

don't play on beach; play between houses; in front houses; 
any place what's good where they can play; any place where there 
good clear ground in front of houses. They're got little base, 
like lacrosse; only two poles; no net; 'bout fire feet apart; 
'bout six feet high poles; they'se got goalkeeper. You got 
(stone) ball; Just like football, only you use your hands; 
you get round atone, you throw it to your partner; about six 
■sen on each side; six men make team for Chuck-quala; your part- 
ner run; you run too; man in goal try stop it. You can run 
through with it in your hand, or, maybe, throw it with your 
hand. Goal keep try stop you; try catch stone; he's got to 
take it from you. Good ruflnar get in goal. 

"You see, there different places all the 
way up Squamiah river from Stanlsh; Staatish is below Squamish; 
and those fellows up river come down to Stamish to play; long 
■my up; up's far Yukits (Yook-witz), and they play against each 
other, and find out what's the strongest team; just same whlte- 
mena." 

Major M » "Well, it's heavy; it's atone; 
maybe it hit you; may be hurt you?" 

A. J. K .i (laughing) "Oh, take chance." 

Major M ; "Where did they get black stone 
to make it? Ho black stone here." (Black pebbles are in pro- 
fusion on Sechelt seashore.) 

A. J. K .i "1 don't know; up mountains, 
I suppose." 

Mm J or M i "Well, how did they make it so 
smooth, and round, and polished?" 

A. J. K» ; (impatient at such ignorance) 
"'#•11. They can chip it, can't they? Make it smooth with 
another stone, can't they? So'a not to hurt his hand when he 
catch it; so'a it roll. Sames they do other stones when they 
make things." 

Major K. i "Well, how did whitemans come to 
find it at corner Fourth Avenue and Cedar Street in the ground?" 

A. J. K. ; "Maybe they had a good place to 
play there; may be they lose it down old root, or hole in ground; 
any be just leave it there till next game." (Hotel All the area 
to the west and north was originally wwamp; all to the south, 
hillside; the old Indian village of Snauq lay due north, a short 
distance from Cedar and Fourth, where it was found. In early 
days of white settlement, there were still trace of what appeared 
to have been a clear space in the woods at that point; a little 
creek ran through it, and there was a small pond surrounded by 
solid ground; it may have bean an Indian "playground". J.S.U.) 



92 



Vol. u |»3i fcjar Ifctthw ii "I show that (stone) tell 

to Dr. Baley, and Ei tella 5 XSaUaa bar* gaae with ball, 



82 



• is* about, but aoft; cedar bark, relied tight, tgnrtd with 
akin, and a llttla tall about eighteen inches lone faetened 
faat, ana they (Indians) pick It up with atlek — by the to 11-- 
and throw It with atlok. Jut ha aaya ball's aoft.* 

A . J . K . i "Tint's •nothar gaas; that's not 
Tck-qualla; that* a light ball with tall on ltj I forgot tha 
naae; whltoaane plays that gaae; thaya oalla It "Hobby" | 
two llttla bits of sticks with llttla bit of string between; 
pick It up with atlok; throw It. 

"Tok-qualla's dlf f orant ; Ilka laoroBse; only 
no atiokat no net In goal; just throw It with hands. That (stone) 
ball* a heary; thay nake It hoary aa's they oan play, ay father 
tolls an If sins good runner he alvaya get to tha goal.* 

Further oonToraotlo n with Augu st Jaiyfc rj^ht««^>Ti« r Aug. 4, 1938 



ELS 
llfiuf- 



3AST0WH |JL 1884. A. J. X. t "First I reaaaber Oaatown only 

\CK. BUTCHER four houses | Juat two aa loons, one but- 
cher shop, ana ohlnaa»n*a laundry; nay 
be more, I forget, long tiae ago, and a 

SjiLSftiS f * )w »hacks along beach by Canble Street. 

SUXBT3IDB FLOAT Ton Cyra haro one saloon, south side 

Water Street; china laundry south aide too. 

"Jerloho Charlie, ny step-father, ha take big oaaoa; 
go down Bastings Kill atore. Load up. hhybe tan sacks oats, 
tan aaoka barley, fire bales hay, groceries, put all in oanoe, 
than paddle up to Oaatown; ateer, in here between logs and 
float a; la between Sunny side float and Joe nana ion's float; push 
oaaoa under Oeorge Black's butcher shop, and theys open trap 
door In floor, and lower aaat lato oanoe. Sail and paddle aanoa 
down to Jerloho and Point Qrey lagging saape; no float at 
Jerloho; Juat ran nose of oanoe up on aand, and Jerloho Charlie 
paok oats; oae anah at a tlaa; up to oaap; oaap just by boaoh. 
Big aanoa, big lead; two tons. 




"Sunayside float juat two loga; any be float four 
feet wide; aay be fire feet; about two hundred feet out la 
water | foot Carrall Street. 

t a T XWF/tfii "X think that* a boathouse (photo af 

Oaatown from water, lSOd) way ore* 

here. There's whit aaans lired In littl. 

shaoka alaag there (foot Caable St.). 
There Andrewe live in little aback there, and "Chuckle" ho* a got 
hole In his throat, and whan ha talks he goes "chuckle, ohaokle" 
and wo oall hla "Chuckle"." 

^ABS? "Theee logo (ansa photo which showa 

a few loga beside Sunayalde float) 
aay bo spars. They square thea on tha boaoh, low tide. Fat 



93 



83 

Yol 14 t- 3c-»- 

them on beach, high tide; chop them square (octagonal) with 
axe; float off high tide." 

^RLiiS "I been plok blueberries and blaokberrles, but 
E rULj theya low; six cent pound blackberries; ten cents 
blueberries; my wife (Swanamla) go out Point 
Orey sell them. Indians boys break In our house and steal twenty 
baskets, and my hat whats In that plcturo there on wall; I got 
two more though, not so good though. Catch boys up Kamloops, 
bring back; priest says they's not to go to Jail; theys get lash 
every Saturday." 



Memo of c onversation with Au g ust Jack Khahtaahlano.i who came 
to the City Archives, and shared my lunch with me. His wife 
Is up at Sumas picking hops. August 22, 1938. 



QTDIAH IMPLB1EHTS 
ALP. J. TT. COHKBTT 
?IRK. mak ing. 



♦-cedar stick. 

roughened end 
stone 
cedar dust 




August said i "This stone (a round flat 
stone fell out of the bank at the summer 
residence of Aid. J. W. Cornet t, lot 9, 
Hogan's Alley, Maple Beach, Boundary Bay, 

(American side), Aug., 1938, size 4*"x 4*" x lfr" with tapered 

1't" hole on both sides hollowed down 

to centre hole of 5/16" dla.; edges 

darkened with charcoal). This stone 

is for making fire. The ways theys do 

la, they get little stick, and twirl It 

In hole; roll it between hands, it gets 

hot; the grinding makes it hot; the 

cedar grinds, and the cedar dust glows; 

it's hard work, but it makes the fire 

alright . Then, under the little hole 

(in the middle) theys have a little pile of cedar bark dust, and 

little bits red hot dust from the cedar stick drop through the 

hole on the little pile, and you get fire. You can see the 

charcoal burn. When the araoke comes, theys lift the stone, and 

blow on the little pile." 

7IKB MAKIHQ Major Matthews : "How long the stick?" 

August > "Oh, 'bout so long; 'bout eighteen inches, and 'bout one 
inch, 'maybe little more thick; dry cedar stick; it 'bout fill 
the hole; they cuts a little notch in the stick so's make It 
rough; end of stick big enough to fill the hole. See this dark 
part of this little hole. I think that's where the fire been; 
maybe. After the whiteman come, they get flints." 

Ma .lor Matthews : "How did they carry fire away from where they 

made it?* " 

August! "Well, they hare a little thing like a tent, just a 

few inches high, but long, only 

no ends to it, and they put it on 

bow of canoes, and they put enough 

cedar dust under it, and the fires 

in it, and when the canoe go along 

the wind blow through the tent. 



!*- 



- Sr 



STnoulderi-ng cedaidvst 



94 



89 R 



V HALL 



Ho*Au<f ffhS 



3>-rav»m.o by August lac* kiaUwUt-yto \ 

VMifJC sHe K <xvi<i boo-Tc£ of oee^aA.. 
Wafer soa **«<<. <*<£«.r 
Slle« <xv,d bo«.voL df'itA 



v«y y dyy i* ra/f t«V$ 



f>OUS«. Ho/fc (.X toaVci 

Fyi'et-io-n e»>,beyj fa{/ 
"throng hale ow /itt^e 
/"/e ofct<ia-f 
dxjlt b*-H«£*fc" 
wen. linage Coto«j, J>)oiv 
oKlt^Kt hre.a.ttr 




-^ *JucuttL^T> .Auf.xL. i?39 



HOW 8Q0AMISH jlijtt ri« 
I tossed this scrap of paper across the desk to August Jack 
Khahtsahlano, saying "show as how Squamish mad* fire. Ha draw 
in pencil; X inked it in, It shows a stick, a board, and snail 
heap of dust below hole in board. The cedar must be old water- 
soaked, almost black in colour after lying in creek or swamp, 
and "dead". It was then stored in the rafters of their houses 
in which earth fires were constantly burning until it became 
tinder dry. Tiny embers, produced by the friction of the rapid- 
ly twirling stick, fell through the hole en to tinder dry cedar 
duct* When aaoke appears, the firanaker blew with his breath 
en glowing embers; fire followed. J.8Jaatthawa 

see Khahtsahlano conrersat ions, 22nd a 26th august 1938 



95 



84 



Vol. M-.f 3T 
and keep the fir* smouldering; that's how." 

Major Matthews : "What about the wood; 

August Jaok t "They get It out of the water; 
aedar trees what's been In the water long time, and theys 
put big pieoes up in the house; high up, Inside house in the 
rafters, and it get dry, very dry; cedar what's been in water is 
beat." 

Major Matthews ; "why don't they get oedar 
out of the woods?" 

August* "Weil. Cedar what's in the trees 
not so good. The sun gets at it, and it gets hot and cold; 
it's got life; it don't work so good as what's been wet. Cedar 
what's been under water, the water soaks into it, and it works 
better — when it's dry again; it get very dry up in roof 
inside house; there's fire inside house." 

SUPPLSJAiaC Major Mat t hews t "Did Supplejack, your 

HAY-TPLK " father, wear long hair?" 

ftfof Aff 'JRB3S 

August » "Long hair, black, down to his 
shoulders. And a little bit mustache, and whiskers on hia 
chin. Great big man; bigger than me. He's good man. You say 
whitsmans say he's bad man. Some whltemans may, perhaps, but 
he's good man; knows how to look after himself. He has two 
horses and twelve cows, and six pigB. George Black have horse; 
race horse. He always racing he's horse against Supplejack's. 
■o. Supplejack not ride his own horse; somebody's else; 
Supplejack too big. Indian not bury him inside that deadhouae, 
in a oanoe, at Prospect Point if he's not good man. 

HAXTKH "I go in to see Haxten this morning when I 

come over. She aay, "I'se getting old; 
can't sleep night; only day." I say, "what's matter? Sot 
enough blankets? You get cold?" She say, "Ho. I'm warm, but 
I* can't oleep". She tell me hex great, great grandfather tell 
her about it before; when you get old you can't sleep in the 
night time; you can lie down, only not sleep; just sleep in the 
day time; that's way you can tell when you're getting old." 

QTPIAH TRADinOH (After and long, desultory diaouasion on 

the purpose of life, and the life hereafter. 
August is very devout Roman Catholic.) 

August i "That's what the Indians say; only 
one man be God, but don't know who he is; never see him. Do 
you think this ground (Vancouver) under water one time?" 

Major Mat thews t "Ho doubt about it." 




August t "Vise Indian man say that too. 
., SARD'S (sic) One time the water rise up; Squamish river 

Oltes MOUHTAIH gets higher and higher; rain, rain, rain, 

big drops, not little drops, but big drops 



96 



85 

Vol u t> 3(= 

bigger taan your hands put together, and they 3 keep falling) 
faj.li.ng, and the water rise up, and up, until It cover 
Srouae Mountain and all the little mountains ; all except three 
peaks, Mt. Baker, Mt . Garibaldi, and Mt . Sakua — way up the 
Squamish River. And the men in the canoe rise up and up, and 
as they steer through the cedar trees one breaks off branches, 
and the other twista it, and they made it into a big cedar 
rope; about four Inches thick; and tied it round top of the 
mountain." 

Major Matthewa t "What did they tie?" 
CAHOiC 

August : "Tied the canoe to the mountain; 
put the rope around the top of the mountain, and tied the canoe 
to it; all 'round top of mountain, so's make canoe fast." 

UTDIAH HASMKRS (Presenting me with a little hammer, four 

inches long by two inches at the widest 
part.) 

Ma .lor Matthews ; "Where 'd you get 
thLa little hammer?" 

August t "Up Squaalah; that* 6 
tetshea, little tetahea (hammer j); 
thoao over in the glass case are big 
tetshes. Big tetahes (haunters) for 

making canoe; little tetahes for making little things. White 
carpenter got little hanmer, little chisel; got big hammer, 
big chisel; Indian carpenter Just samel" 



97 



86 



Memorandum of conversation at City Archives, with August Jack 
Khahtaahlano . born at Snauq, (under Burrard Bridge), False 
Creek, 26th August, 1938. Vol .14 . f> .37 

glTS I LAKQ. The name August said: "I bring you that paper 

KHAHT-SAH-LA-SO back, to change ay name. I see all 

the chiefs. On time they tell me 
there no K; now they tall me there K. I see all the chiefs, 
Gua Band, Louis Miranda, and two or three more, and theys talk 
about it, and they say it* 8 got to be "KHAHT-3AH-LA-H0 " , 
saiae as on thi3 paper." 

Major Ma tthews : "Have you made up yo«r 
mind that you want to change it? I don't like you have name 
August Jack, Just because some body, long ago, call your 
father "Supplojack"; didn't they have a big p otlatch down 
Snauq, and very old man, Tom, put his hand on your head, 
and say "This boy's got an English name, August. How, we 
will give him an Indian name, after his grandfather Khaht- 
aahlanogh; and then they give out blankets, and tea and lots 
to oat?" 

August Jaok t "Yes, that's right. 
When you're ready, I Bign paper." C*i3B Giles typed the doc- 
ument, to conform with the changes made since, and Major 
Matthews and August went down, and the document was formally 
signed "August Jack Khahtsahlano," by August, and witnessed 
and sealed, by John Burling Roberts, barrister and notary pub- 
lic, the impress of his seal, put in triplicate. Major 
Matthews promised to have one copy framed for August to take 
hone. JSM) 

KHAY-TULK (The same committee of chiefs decided that 

KAY-T ULK the name Khay-tulk, known as "Supplejack", 

SITPLBJASK father of August Khahtsahlano, should be 

"Khay-tulk", and not Hay-tulk, as formerly.) 

?IRS. Mak ing , August continued } "You see, ao I tell you 

CAHOBS before, when making fire with this stone, 

your hands slip down the stick, that's 
when you keep the pressure on. So's got to lift your hands 
up to top of stick again; do it quick; stock don't come 
up; just hands. But you get quick at It} Jumping up your 
hands so's not to stop. 

"But some Indiana not use stone; some Indians 
used bit of cedar board instead of stone. They Bay stone 
not so good as board. I don't know how they find out; maybe 
from Pemberton Indians, maybe Sechelt Indiana, maybe find out 
themselves. But, ways they do it make little hole in board, 
and twirl atisk in hole; they say make fire quicker; not so 
much work. Not use stone after; only acme peoples. 



98 



87 



fel. u ^ 32 

"The cedar board come out of water same aa the 
stick; the cedar old, and black color; etiok black color 
too. Been in water; that's what maks It black, and it's 
got gooa and dry in house; cedar board make fire quicker 
than stone. Some peoples still use stone, though. Just 
like whltesana; some use lighter to light his pipe, some 
uae matches; Juat "fancy" which kind you use. Nowadays 
we stuff the store full of newspaper and strike match. 
(He laughs) 

"When they take fire In canoe they have little 
tunnel, like, of wood. Three pieces of wood, few inches 
wide, and about three feet long. Fasten them together; 
mud on bottom to stop wood burn, and block up one end bo's 
not burn cedar dust ao fast. Then put fire in little 
tunnel, and put in cedar dust, and bark. Get bark like 
you make cedar rope of; dry, very dry; rub i t in your hands 
to break it up; roll it like a ball, make it small, then 
atuff it in little tunnel, and when you get in canoe, put 
little tunnel anywhere in canoe, but lift up corner of 
kliakis (cover of woren matting) and that leta the wind 
blow under the kllskla, and it blow on the burning oedar 
bits. Then because one end of tunnel is blocked up, it 
not burn ao fast, but it keep burning all the time* 
They take it in the oanoe, where ever they go, keep on 
stuffing more in little tunnel, and when theya get to 
chiift, fires ready; save iota of work with fire 3tick; don't 
have to work to make fire. 



-ZSa 



-36"- 



CHIP-KAY-M (Chief George) "You see up Little Mountain 

BSAR there; up Cambie Street. 

LI 7 TLS MOUHTAIH That's when the beevr got 

GTSfe. flLDTT Chip-kay-m. Chip-kay-m 

hunting bear, and shoot, 
but he's slow re-loading; he's only got muzzle loading flint 
gun. Big bear coaea at him, and claw all dowi the left side 
of his face, and tear his breast; hurt him very bad, but 
Chip-kay-m got better again." 

"That's where it was; right there, by Cambie 
street Juat below Little Mountain." 



99 



88 



DOMINION OF CANADA, 
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 
TO WIT: 



IN THE MATTER of August Jack 
Khahtsahlano, heretofore known 
as August Jack (son of Kay-tulk, 
who was also known as Supplejack) 
and grandson of Khahtsahlano 
formerly of Chay-thoos (now known 
as Prospect Point), Stanley Park. 



I, AUGUST JAcK KHAHTSAHLANO, of the Capilano Indian 
Reserve, North Vancouver, British Columbia, born in the Indian 
village of Snauq (formerly situate on False Creek, Vancouver, 
B.C.) heretofore known and called by the name of August Jack, 
DO HEREBY GIVE NOTICE: 

That I do for myself and my descendants formally and 
absolutely renounce, relinquish and abandon the use of my 
said surname "Jack" as a surname and hereby assume, adopt, and 
determine henceforth on all occasions whatsoever to use and 
substitute the name of "Khahtsahlano" as my surname, which name 
was bestowed upon me formally, according to Indian custom, at a 
ceremony held by the Squamlsh tribe at the said village of Snauq 
in or about the year 1890. 

IN VITNESS .HEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and 
seal this twenty sixth day of August, A.D. 1938. 



SIGNED AND SEALED IN THE 
PRESENCE OF: 

"John Burling Roberts" 
Law Dept. City Hall 
Vancouver, B.C. 

(Notary) 
( Seal ) 



"August Jack Khahtsahlano" 



(Seal) 



"KITSILANO" 

Chief Khahtsahlanogh (no English name) was a 
Squamlsh Indian chief who, early in the 19th century, migrated 
from his ancestral home at Toktakamlc, Squamlsh River, «nd 
settled at Chaythoos, i.e. "high bank", a clearing at Pipe 
Line Road, First Narrows. Here his son Khay-tulk, or "Supple- 
jack", lived, died and was buried with honor in a canoe placed 
inside a mausoleum of wood. Khay-tulk's son, August Jack 
Khahtsahlano, was born at the vanished village of Snauq, False 
Creek, (Burrard Bridge). In 1905, the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way opened lands for settlement, and called the new district 
"Kitsilano". 



100 



88-1. 



PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH 
Division of Vital Statistics 



January 18th, 1941. 



Major J. S. Matthews, 
City Archivist, 
City Hall, 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 



Dear Sir: 

I am in receipt of completed form 
C.N.-O., registering the change of name of AUGUST 
JACK to AUGUST JACK KHAHTSAHLANO, on the 26th 
August, 1938. Also the change of name of his wife 
MART ANN JACK (Indian name, Swanamia) to MART ANN 
KHAHTSAHLANO. This is in compliance with Section 
13 of the "Change of Name Act" and has been given 
file number NCN 108. 



Tours truly, 

DIVISION OF VITAL STATISTICS, 
"J. D. B. Scott" 
For Director. 

/EJB 



101 



69 



Memo of conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano . at City 
Aro hires, Sept. 21, 1938 Vol ^ f> . 3 ? 

IMDIAH IMPLBMKKTS August earns carrying a long, conaave 

wooden plat tar, 18$ inchaa long, 6£ 
lnohaa wide, whloh ha bad hollowed out of oadar, to illus- 
trate the sort of table "dishes* used by the Indians before 
the "whitemana* as 



August sald t "I make this for you; 
to show what the Indiana put their food on. This one man 
(individual) plate. (Holding it before him) Have some fish; 
hare a>a« potatoes?" 

MaJor Matthewa : (surprised) "Potatoes?! 
Hot before the whitemana came?" 

Aujustt "Oh, yes. Indian potatoes] 
fresh water potatoes; get then out of Horth Arm, Eraser River. 
Ihla little plate; just one man help himself. Theys make 
great big ones, too; (extending ansa); for the family; about 
three feet long, and wide, too. Make them out of apruce and 
maple." 

Major Mat thews t "Make them with stone 
ohisel and stone hammer as good as this one." 

Auguat t "Just as good." 

Major Matthews: (showing him small 
sharp agate-like stone, 2+ x 1; lnohes, shaped like an Indian 
axe; tiny thing, pioked up by Mr. Harry S. Kent on his summer 
cottage property. Lot 6, blk. 24, D. L. 543, near Dollarton, 
1933.) "What for?" 

August i "Don't know exactly. Maybe small 
axe head, but seems too small for axe. I think It's a woman's; 
just about the sise woman's fingers would want to chop up 
roots before cooking them. Yomans hold it in fingers, press 
down with palm, sharp edge out roots up in little bits so 
put in for cooking; like chopping knife white womans have. 
But It's dull. It*s been In ground so long, edge got blunt." 
(Must have been very sharp when it was sharp, for it is quite 
sharp now.) 

f . HTHrt IflBT August : (following desultory conversa- 

"IffllCTO CHARIiIJ" tion on the inhumanity and selfishness 

UDIAM GUaiQMS of man) "Old ChlnaJtset (Jeriehb Charlie) 

MBUI JEMttCa he kind; he sail me son, but I'm only 

step-son. He tells me, "Old peoples, 
go help them; when theys cannot make it, go help then; these 
peoples not pay, but the man above (pointing to sky), Chinalset 
tell me, he pay -— someday." 



102 



OIBSOH'S LAKPDTO 
SCJtfflK 

ROBERTS CKSa K 

stawk-ki-yaA 



90 



"8c Junk, that's Slbson's Landing; Stawk- 
ki-yah, that's Robert's Creek; that beyond 
Squamlsh muat not got beyond Stawk-kl-yah 
la Sechelt. 



"8c junk Is a little creek about 300-400 
yards west of Gibson's Landing; Stawk-kl-yah Is a long way; 
about three miles to Roberts Creek. There's a creek come 
down at Stawk-kl-yah; Indiana oamp there all the tine; but north, 
of that Is Sechelt country." 

(Motet In "Barly Vancouver", Vol. 3, 
p. 16>W, I hare recorded Sojunk as a rook; there must be some 
error somewhere; a creek la more likely.) 

"It was after the flood. Oh, that's 
a long time ago. I tell you about the flood the other day; 
about all the mountains coTered with water excepting three 
highest. 

"Teal, this man Scjunk, he dance, dance, 
danoe, danoe all the time. Of course, he's got his mask on 
and everything, but he takes it off at night, and in the morning 
he puts it on again, and start dancing again." 



danoe for?" 



Major Mattaewa t "What did he want to 



August | "Well, that's the way he was 
made. But, he's so old. He's got a friend in the ravens. 
The ravens he's friend; tell him the news; if there's anything 

new coming, the ravens fly and tell him. 
RAVKK3 The flood la gone; all thia la long after 

the flood. The man 1b Scjunk; same these 

little white models; they're in hea dress." 

Ma j or Mat thews t "August. What do 
you think of 1 this map? What does 
this Punta de Bodega mean here? 



3TC CKALS ' 



BORSB SHOB BAY 
CHA-HAI 



August > (atudylng It) "May be the 
Span! ah was travelling at night; 
at night after they left Boundary 
Bay. Long summer evening, early morning, June, may be they 
travel travel; not see very good. Maybe these houses (square 
dots on map) be at Horse Shoe Bay, and Great northern Cannery* 

"There was always a big plaoe 
(Indian settlement) at Cha-hai, (Horse Shoe Bay); I never seen 
them, but they tell me (split cedar) houses there one time. 
Indian from big village at Whol-nuek (Squamish) go down there to 
troll and fish. 



103 



91 

"Then there was cedar shake houses at Stuckale, (Great 
Northern Cannery). There's a oreek there, and the salmon goes 
up It, and that's where the Indians goes to live. They had 
cedar shake houses at Cha-hal and Stuckale. 

"I think tnose Spanlah soared (frightened) to go In First 
Harrows. Theya just got sail. May be go in with row boat, 
but not with schooner; that's why they not make map. Perhaps 
they travelling at night time, and not see opening at Prospect 
Point." 



Memo of conversation with August Jack Khahtsah lanq at City 
Archives, Ootober 13, 1938. 

TJDIAN IMPLfflfcflJTo (August oaae carrying two black stone 

LMDIAN BURIAL arrow heads, one large, one smaller.) 

ARROW MEADS August saldt "I get these arrow head3 

up at Yookwitz; there's lots of them 
there, but theys all broken; only these two good; they lying 
on ground in old graveyard, the graves were sitting on a rock, 
but the burial boxes all broken and fall to pieces, arrow 
heads lying around. Indian bury their dead sitting up in boxes, 
put box high up on rook; leave them there; Just sitting same 
as when theys alive. But whitemans say got to bury them, so 
get all the bones, and put tmara in big box, sides six inches 
thick, and put them in ground, not deep, only about two or 
three feet down. I cleaned these two arrow heads with an old 
file; theys all covered with dirt; theya been with dead men. 
That's why they got file marks on them* 

"In the box we bury the bones of Chlnalaet." 

Major Matthewai "Why is this one big, this one little?" 

August t "Big one for big animal, bear, deer; little one 
for little animal, perhaps squirrel. 
CHIKALSST . 

JHkJcBb CHARLIE'S PATHKR "Old China laet was not 

my step-father, but my 
step -father* a father; my step-father, Jericho Charlie have same 
name as his father. The old man a great hunter. He shoot the 

grizzle bear. Bverybodies from Stamish, 
GRIZZLE BEAR Mamiuam, all those fellows go try kill 

grizzle bear, but could not do it. Cheaka- 
bub people, they try, lots people try, but Chlnalaet, he kill 
him, HSxten tell me. He shoot him with bow and arrow, with stone 
point like this; go right through bear and out other side. 

OTDIAK GRAVES "So, when we put Chlnalaet'a bones in ground 

we all go up; that's about 47 years ago; 
we all young men then. I was there. So was Jimmy Jimmy, very 



104 



SECOND BEACH. JULY 1889 




Showing bouldered shore of "Stait-wouk", i.e. Indian name "white clay." Presented 
by A. Tinniswood Dalton, Esq. 



104A 



CEDAR BARK ROPE 







■HMB 



Twenty-five feet of three eights cedar bark rope twisted by hand. 






104B 







104C 






a. 
iii 

> 

3 
O 
(J 

z 
< 

> 



< 

I- 

Q. 
< 

u 

< 



o 
a. 

< 

X 



X 




104D 



92 
Vol M- |* l+X. 

old man now, and Jiiasy Jimmy's father, and hie uncle, and Iaaac 
Joe, and Chief Andrews, and my brother Willie Jack, and old 
Bill (1. e,, Old William of Hastings Sawmill). My atep-father 
Chlnalaet ("Jericho Charlie") waa the headman. Theys -- the 
whitemana -- was going to build a bridge, and we have to move 
the boxes, and the boxes they all falling to pieces. The bodies 
set up high, sitting in boxes Just like he's alive, and we found 
old Chlnalaet* s bow, great big bow about four feet long, and 

thick as your wrist ; Chlnalaet very 
BOW AHD ARROWS strong man; that's why he use such 

a strong bow, and there was a big string 
on it, made of thick sinew out of leg of same animal, but It was 
rotten. Chinalset must have been very strong. 

HPIAK GRAVES "Then we found a tube, and they said 

there was a map in it. They say the 
people at Hew Westminster give it to Chlnalaet. The tube was 
about two inches diameter, and four feet long, and was black — 
it's so old — but we could not tell if it was galvanized iron, 
or brass, because it was black. But we did not open it because 
the old peoples say it might have some disease, and maybe that's 
right too; it was in the burial box. So when we bury the bones, 
and the bo*, and lots of things we found, in the box, and put 
it in the ground, we stand the tube up in one corner of the box 
wo*s water not get in tube. The box is big, and the tube is 
standing on end in oorner of box; it's there yet. I know where 
it is. 



"Old Chinalset is a great hunter, all his things burled 
In his box with him. So we buried Chlnalaet again in a cedar 
box about six inches thick — about two feet down — on top of a 

mountain, and put all his things in with 

him." 

Major Mat thews 1 "What wood did they use 



BOWS AFP ARROWS 



for the arrow shaft?" 



August 1 "Cedar" 

Major Matthews : "Wouldn't it split?" 



August : "If it split, throw it away ; make 
another; but not split. Shoot « When shoot, stone part (arrow 
head) go through (flesh); wood part (shaft) come back; but stone 
part (arrow head) go through Just same bullet go through. 

TBI SdPAlgSH JLAGS "Old Chlnalaet got the map of Westmin- 

ster; they must have given it him. That's 
where they get the flags from; the Squamish flag; all the chiefs 
got a flag. It was the first priest who came who gave the flags 
to the chiefs. I*se got mine yet; some others have theirs; some 
have not. Mine has passed from old Ehahtsahlanogh, my grand- 
father, then to my father, Khaytulk; then to my auntie, Kauai-- 
my father's sister— then I got it, and I've kept it. All the 
flags are alike." 



Three black ba//5 

'ike a steam qovetnot 









-> 


wd.'he 


< 




rtd. 





A took; 

biacK lettering 



105 



93 

Memorandum of conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano , who 
called at City Archives, October 31, 1938. Vo |. ^. f> .^2. 

CAMHOH SHOT August said ; (following conversation 

WARSHgS OS EKGLISH BAY on necessity of putting "things down" 
J3RICBP ~~ on paper; he is a born historian) 

■I tell my children. I say "You ed- 
ucated; you can read; you can write; if you sit down beside me, 
I tell you how the Squamlsh liTed, but you think they will do it? 
looooooo. (disgustedly). They more interested in trapping; make 
two or three dollars." 

Major M atthews; "Did you ever see 
the warships doing any shooting on English Bay? Come over here, 
and look at these big cannon shot; we find one at Brockton 
Point; this other on hillside over Jericho." 

August s "The warships used to 
anchor off Jericho Beach, and used to shoot across to West Van- 
couver." 

Major Matthe ws: "What sort of ships?" 

August t "Old fashioned men-o-war; 
we called them men-o-war. Sails, and steam, painted black; big 
ship; big white smoke when gun go off. They shoot up in the 
trees in West Vancouver; I don't know where the shells land. 

"Then, sometimes, they shoot out 
towards Texada Island; away out into the gulf, and the shells 
would strike the water with a big splash, and then the shells 
would keep on going, splash, splash, splash, until finally they 
went down." 

Major Matthews ; "Did they go straight?" 

August ; "Sometimes; sometimes in 
straight line; sometimes they go crooked; curve off to one side, 
but keep on splashing; bounding over the water; two or three 
splashes before they go down." 

"We used to go out on the warships, 
CAHILgS and "bum" candles. The fellow would 

JSRICHO BEACH give us Bhort, thick candles; very 

thiok, very short. The candles had been used; they could not 
give us new ones, but, when we were going ashore, they would 
give us a big bundle of them in a sack as we went ashore, and 
then at night time, we would put them all along the tops of 
logs at Jerloho Beaoh, and light them, and they looked pretty 
in the dark; all along the tops of the long logs lying right on 
the Bandy beach. 



106 



94 

Vol. M, \>. H + 

CHIKALSBT "Jericho Charlie had a pot latch house 

" J5RICH0 CHARLIE " there before, and the gunboat pulled 

DtDIAK HOUSES It down, and put all the cedar shakes -- 

POTLATCH big thick long ahakes -- on the gunboat, 

and took It to England. The potlatoh 
houae was west of Jarry*a CoTe, not far, because there was trees j 
but they cut then down; it was eaat of air station. 

"It was a great potlatoh houae; it 
was about seven hundred feet long; as long as from the City 
Hall to Ash Street; and about ten feet high inside along the 
walls; and about eighteen feet to the ridge; it had ridge; 
suppose Squamish copied whitemans, and make ridge. There was 
fire men owned it. Chinalset was the head man; and Towhoqwamkee, 
Q,ulnah-ten, Chip-Kay-m, and Charltun; it was built all in one 
room, but each man had his section, and he's got hia mark to 
show where hie section is. Part of it fell down, but the rest 
was good, and you could eamp In it. We were there when the 
warships did their shooting. 

"Then, in addition, Chinalaet had a 
cottage on the end of the sand spit at Jerry's Cove; across 
the core from the end of the spit was Jerry Roger's house; 
it's the same site as the golf house is now. Chinalset 'a cottage 

waa on the tip of little sand spit, 
BPRHS Oj JERICHO and opposite Roger's house. 

IBDIAH WIY TiH Mf wwttbmew "Burns, that' s the only name I 

know him by, Burns waa a whiteman 
married to my sister Louisa, and, after he die, they "kick" her 
out; he had a six aore orchard there. But that's the way they 
do with Indian woman who marries whiteman; when their husbands 
die, they kick the woman s out — because she's "just a squaw". 
Burns had two girls; Maggie died, but Addie is living yet out in 
Kerrisdale; they hare a half brother, Dave Lock; used to be 
city policeman, but he's half Indian." (August deeply resents 
such treatment of Indian wires of whitemen. J.S.M.) 

OTDIAK HARRISES Major Matthews: "I was talking to 

OLD KIAPILAMO Mrs. Walker, eldest dai«hter of 

Joe Sllrey, of Gastown, "Portugese 
Joe" Mo. 1, and she told me that her father married an Indian 
girl at Muequeam, and that it was done with much ceremony; that 
Old Klapilano took "Portugese Joe" by the arm, and another 
chief took the Indian girl by her arm, and put them together, 
and aaid they were going to be man and wife, and then gave 
them lot of blankets, and then put all the blankets in a big 
oanoe, and sat Joe and his wife on top, and they set out for 
Gastown. What do you think of it?" 

August | "That's the way all 
Indians marry. S'pose I'ra got a son, and he wants to marry. 
I go to you and say, "My son want to marry your girl." And 
ha aays, "Alright, come on Tuesday", or some day like that. 



107 



95 
\/o|. i+ p.u-5 

And, they tall all their friends, and each one of them come 
with hie blanket; and the boy come with his blanket) and 
that's the way the Indian get married*" 

Ma.ior Matthews; "But they aaid it was not 
the proper way, didn't they?" 

August t "That's why I had to get married 
twioe. I get married Indian way at Hanaimo. I said "I'm 
an Indian; that's Indian way; I'se going to get married Indian 
way; I'm Indian." But everybodies kick, and say I'm not 
married, so I say "Alright. You'se want me to get married 
whiteman's fashion. Alright." So I'se married twice." 

01fl KIAPILAHO "Old Kiapilano was a Musqueam; that's 

LAHWA why he was at Musqueam to give the 

Indian girl to "Portugese Joe"; Just 
like me; I have home at Squamlah; I have home at Capilano. 
Old Kiapilano have three wives; one was Musqueam; one was 
Sechelt; one was Squamlah. Lahwa'e mother was Squamish." 



108 



96 



Conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano, son of Khay-tulk 
grandson of Chief Khahtsahlano, from whom Kitsllano takes its 
name. 

18th December. 1938 . 

JB&1BB Major Matthews: "August, what's Indian 

LANDING name for Hopkins Landing, Howe Sound? One 

man say its "Mowitch". 
MOWITCH 

August: (smiling incredulously) "you ask 
me before. I never hear the name, so I ask Louis Miranda- 
he's chief up there; he said "it's got no Squamish name". 
Then I ask Jimmy Jimmy, he's the oldest chief living. He says 
he don't know; never heard it. It's got no Squamish name." 

NOTE: The explanation probably is that the locality 
had no significance to Indians, and consequently they had 
no need for a name for it. whilst the Squamish used 
names for places no less frequently than white people use 
names for streets, at the same time the placeB they knew 
by names were such as white people would not bother to 
name, and vice versa. For instance, Stanley Park is 
without Indian name. There was nothing remarkable about 
Stanley Park to the Squamish. Nor has Burrard Inlet, or 
the First Narrows, an Indian name, but, on the other hand 
peculiar shaped rocks on the shore which the whiteman 
would never notice unless pointed out to him, have names. 



109 



97 



Memorandum of conversation with August Jack KhahtBahle.no , 
at City ArchiTes, 23rd January, 1939. Vol . t+. T 3 *+-7 

August came carrying an Indian wooden face mask, 
bored with holes for eyes and nose, a mouth with slantwise 
opening, and 3 patches on chin of burned ornamentaion — burned 
strokes. 

INDIAN MASKS Major Matthews : "Where did you get it? 

August : "Last week, up at Khaykulhun (Port 
Mellon) Howe Sound. Pound it in a deserted shack on that 
Indian Reserve. Mot very old mask." 



COIKS 1787. 1791. 1812 
on watch fob 



August : (displaying watch fob of 
four small coins linked together) 
"I find this watch fob same place, 
Khaykulhun; in the old grave yard, last week; just insiae 
fence. I was walking along, and it was lying on top of ground; 
I saw it shining. I give you. 

SO!S: The following is a description of the coins, each one 
being pierced with two holes, save the lowest which 
has one only: 

1. y. R. (monogram] 
OBTERSE: 2. C. 7. (monogram) DAK. KOR. VAN. GOT. REX. D. G. 

3. PRID IIII. D-. 
4* Georgius III, Del Gratia. 

1. 1812. 1 SHILLING DANSK, copper silvered. 

REVERSE: 2. 1787. 2 SHILLING DANSK, A. R. Silver. 

3. 17— 8 S. NOR VAN. GOT. REX. D. N. A. Silver 

4. 1791 T. B. et T. A. REX F. D. -AR.S.T.D.S.T.M. 

S. et C. Alloy silvered. 

(See photo No. C. V. P. Misc. 1, N. Misc. 2) 

Major Matthews : "August, how did they 
make a Squamish brave?" 



INDIAN BRAVES 
SECRET SOCIETIES 



August : "Took four days* ceremony. Don't 
let him know you're going to do it, or he might run away. 

"Ten men, about, seize him; take him in house, frighten 
him, make him scared; throw him up in air in blanket; catch him 
in blanket; make noise, make him think they go to do something 
terrible to him; frighten him good, 

"Then when he's frightened good, and he's tired, he's 
keep quiet (exhausted); he's stiff; lie him on ground, and cover 
him with blankets; two man alt on blanket what's covering him; 
don't sit on him, but on edge of blanket ke's'onder; on part 
what's left over; one man sit on each side, so's keep him warm. 

"By and by, in four or five hours, he gets better, and 
begins to sing. 



no 



98 



Vol. U-p.l+V 

"Hext day, put him in corner of house. Sit him down on 
low atool in corner, and throw water over him. First throw 
hot water, than cold water. Bight gallons. Hot water just 
hot enough to burn himj then cold; then he gets stiff again. 
Dash the hot water in he's face; then dash cold water; he 
does not get chance to breath; then he gets stiff again, and 
still(quiet); than wrap htm up in a blanket again, and sit 
by him; keep him warm. 

■Then, by and by, he wake up again. Then they dress him 
with a "Crown", and a big belt around his waist, and they let 
him out of the house early in the morning, let him go through 
the bushes; no trail; he runs around in the thick timber. 
Don't know why they do it that way, but it's the old time way. 
Pour men follow him through the bushes; all the reraainer of 
the men — maybe fifty or sixty men — stay in the house; Just 
waiting till they come back. 

•Then he stops running, and he looks around and he starts 
to sing. Then they all come back to the big house, and he 
goes around Inside a few times, and then he's a brave man; all 
the same as whltemans' eoldier; he's fit for war, and he's 
one of the Indian dancers. 

HtDIAH DANCERS t "Hot all Indians can dance Indian dance. 

All Indians can dance whiteman's dance, 
but not all Indians can dance Indian dance." 



ill 



99 



Memorandum of conversation with August Jack Khahtaahlano. 

who called at the City Archives tbia afternoon, April 20, 1939. 

Vol. <f p t+f 

3IAHLKY PARK Copies of the following letters, written in 

THOI-WHPT 1865, had been forwarded to August Jack for 

■SUPPLEJACK* peruaal, and he brought them with him. 
CAPT. STAMP " 

■Hew Westminster, 

June 3rd, 1869. 

8irt In accordance with your orders of the 31st of 
May, I proceeded to Burrard Inlet arriving there at 3 
p. m. and narking out Captain Stamp's Kill the same even- 
ing (June 1st). On referring to the sketch appended, it 
will he seen that the K. V. corner occurs in the centre 
of an Indian village to clear which would only give 
the sawmill about 90 acres; by the appearance of the 
soil and debris, this camping ground is one of the old- 
est In the inlet. The resident Indians seemed very 
distrustful of my purpose, and suspicious of encroach- 
ment on their premises. 

•The sawmill claim doea not in any way inter- 
fere with the proposed site of the fort. 

"I have 

The Honourable, (signed) 

The Colonial Secretary J. B. Launders. 



■I have the honour to state that a Squamish 
Indian called Supple Jack, has squatted for the last 
three years on the land in question. There are two 
male relatives now living near him. Capt. Stamp has 
no objection to their remaining where they are. They 
can at any time be removed, the ground does not belong 
to their tribe. 

(sgnd) C, Brew, J, P. 
The Honourable June 7th 1865. 

The Colonial Seoretary 



maj nr MatthewB t "What do you make of them?" 

August Jaokt t**"> lB 80n of Khay-tulk, or "Supple- 
jack )T^ThaT r iTTind of crooked work. Maybe they don't 
want to pay for the land. They forget that Supplejacks 
son, that's me, is there. They pay old "AunJ Sally" for 
land at Lumberman's Arch, but they do not pay me. 



112 



Vol. 14, P 5b 

Supplejack was living at Chaythoos long before the Hastings 
Sawmill come, and Chief Knahtaahlanogh lived there long before 
him (Supplejack). Chief Khahtsahlanogh at Chaythoos first; 
he come there because there's lots cedar there, and he makes 
canoe." 



100 



Major Mat thews t "What does this letter here, June 
7th, 1865, from C. Brew, J. p. to Colonial Secretary, about 
Supplejack, mean?" 

August Jack t "I don't know. Got himself mixed. 
Supplejack was at Chaythoos, not Whoi-Whoi." 

Major Matthews : "Well, what about the two relatives 
he mentions?' 

August Jack t "The two "male relatives" were probably 
Khay-tulk's two brothers, Ke-olts, and Kharl-uk- All their 
children are dead now, except Ke-olt's son 
KHAY-TOLK Alex Peter, and his daughter Lucy Miranda. 

KE-OLTS Kharluk'e children died, but his two grand- 

KHARL-UK children are living, Marguerite Baker and 

Michael Billy." 



STANLEY PARK 
PORT. PROPOSED 
HOMULCHKSOS 



Major Matthews ; "What about this proposed 
fort in Stanley Park? It looks as though 
they proposed to build a fort on the First 
Marrows, like the old Bastion in Hanaimo." 



Xurtuet «lack > "Veil, it was never built; 
the only fort on the Marrows was the Indian fort at Homulcheson 
(Capilano River)." 



CAPT. VANCOUVER 
SPAKISH EXPLORERS 
DO) IAN IMPLEMENTS 



Major MatthewB t "Wait. I want to read 
to you from Tom Maclnnes' radio address 
Mo. 21. He quotes from Chapter 7, Span- 
ish "Sutll-Maxicana" record what the 
Spaniards say about the Indians at Musqueam and Jericho* 



"From the south-west side of Point Langara, seven canoes 
came out and made their way toward the schooners...... 

They were clearly provided with many excellent weapons, 
such as spears with iron points half a yard long; sheafs 
of arrows with points of the same metal*" 

August Jack; "Well, there must have been 
other schooners in before that. Where did they get those iron 
spear 3?$ 

"I remember my stepfather Chinalaet (Jericho 
Charlie) say that when the whitman came to Whalwahl<y ten, that's 
Watt3 Point, Howe Sound, that the whitemen gave them some barrel 
hoops, and that's how, I think, they make spears out of iron." 



113 



Vol. *,|>.S» 101 

JSS r fLg* 85 Majffr Matth^, -What about your ho** at 

flATTLB unaytnooe and cows?" 

f££|S§ August Japkt "My father, Supplejack, bought 

SJH3. a cow and a horse In Hew Weatminstar, then 

♦»,.♦ _ w .. . , a oalf oaBe » and we "ad a bull » and after 
tnat we had twelve cows, a bull, twelve pigs, and two horaea, 
and one waa a race horse; Supplejack and George Black uaad to 
raoe their horses. The horaea always uaed ta have a big time 
on Jueen •■Day | race in Victoria, Westminster; Supplejack, my 
father, make lots of money winning raoe. 

_,. . _ "W»n we live at Chaythoos (end of Pipe Line Road 
on First Marrows) before the road around the park came, and 
cut the corner off our house, we kept the horses and cows in the 
stable at Chaythooa, and when we wanted to ride to town there 
was a trail, and we had to rids right around the head of what ia 
now Lost Lagoon; around by 3eoond Beach; there waa no bridge; 
there waa a trail through the forest from Chaythooa to Gastown. 

JSHL "The cows, at night, were put in the stable; in the 

.. d * y tn «y r*n loose in the park; or along the beaoh; 

«ot wild grass mostly — along the beach— but there was 
some Mngliah grass, not much, some, enough to carry us over the 
winter, and if there was not enough, lather bought hay from 
Blaok'e and Maxie'e. Mother (qhwy-wat) milked the six cows 
in the morning — the other six were dry — and put the milk in 
big high milk oans — about five gallons— and took it to 
Bastings Mill in the oanoe. Agnes milked the cows in the 
evening when mother was away, and next day it went with the 
morning's milk to Hastings Mill. Mather took the milk every 
morning, but I don't know how much she got for it. Louise, my 
■later, made the butter." ^ 

Major Matthew i 'Did you sell any settle to the 
butcher?" 

August Jaokt "Yea, to the logging oamp; dead, 
not alive. Ktaer uaed to shoot the steers, then butcher them, 
and send them to the logging camps." 

Major Mat thews i "That about pigs?" 

August Jaok i "The same; kill them and sell the meat, 
or salt them down and make corned pork." 

Major Matthewe t "Any sheep or hens?" 

August Jaok» "Mo sheep; had enough trouble with cows 
and horaea, and we did not have chickens until we moved to Jer- 
ioho, and then we had lots. But none at Chaythoos." 



114 



102 

Memo of conversation with Auguat Jack Khahtsahlano , who oalled 
at thai Cifjr Archives, 2nd June, 1939. Vol l+ ( b s 2 

PBTBR PLANT Ma.lor Mat thews » "Judge 

ADA YOUHO" Ho way 'write d in the 

Hftsf" fl tBDIHS. MOODYVILLa (reputed) "B. C. Historical Q,uarter- 

ggJSg ly". April, 1937, "Early 

Settlement of Burrard 
Inlet", page 111, that Peter Plant and Ada Young were the first 
to he married on Burrard Inlet. What about it, August?" 

August > "Peter Plant Harried Addie, a half-breed. 
Addie was my cousin; my aunt Khah-my was Addie* s mother, and 
Khah-my was cousin to Billy Heutaan'a mother. 

"Addie was daughter of my aunt Khay-my, who was my 
father's (Khay-tulk, or "Supplejack") sister. Auny Khay-my 
married a white man; he was, of course, my uncle by marriage, 
but I don't know his name, and havs not found out it anyone knows 
it. He, the white man -- my uncle -- was dead before I can 
remember, but he lived in Qastown. Their daughter Addie married 
Peter Plant. After her white man died, Khay-my married an 
Indian, Charlie Tse-nark of Musqueam. 

"X asked Billy Heuman (sio) the other day if Peter 
Plant had a father when he (Peter) ct»ae here, but Billy say "no". 
Billy said Peter Plant was a young man when he cams here, and 
Billy la now pretty close to 80. Billy was a longshoreman at 
Moodyville. Addie's mother was cousin to Billy's mother; Billy's 
mother died long ago; she was full Indian; his father was a 
Bull—Ill 

"Peter Plant and my cousin had five children; two 
sons and three daughters. Frank Plant, Jesse Plant, Lissle, 
Delia, and Lena; Lena was the youngest. The oldest son Prank 
was grown up but not married, when I was a boy; Delia was about 
the same age as myself. The two eldest Plant children, Frank 
and Jesse, went to sehool at St. Vary's Mission, Mission City, 
and I think these two boys also went to school in the United 
States. Two girls went to the Hastings Sawmill School in Gas- 
town. (See roll of pupils.) 

"My oousin Addie was so much older than I am that 
she had four children, Frank, Jesae, Lizzie, and Delia when I 
was a boy, and her children were at school. I think Lena is 
living yet; wife of a captain of a boat in Hew Westminster* 
Jesse was a foreman at a logging camp, and I think is working 
for the Hastings Mill people yet. 

(Vote. The roll of pupils at Hastings School, Deoember, 1886, 
shows "Vary Plant", "Jesse Plant".) 



115 



103 



Vol. H- f> 51 

I Major Matthawa ; "Who was Mary Plant?" 

August Jack : "Don't know; par nap a aha died." 

CHIS? MATHIAS JO E Ma.lor Matthawa : "Li a tan. (reads from 

artlolo in "Tha Beaver", a Hudson* a Bay 
Company magazine published in Winnipeg. June, 1939.) What do 
you think, August, of this description of the carving, and 
meaning, of the totem pole, Capilano family?" 

August Jack i (throwing himself back in 
chair, and laughing boisterously) "You oan't beat that; that's 
good!" (sarcasm in his voloa). 

lote by J. S» Mat thews t August Khahtsahlano cannot read nor 
write, but is today probably the best informed and most reliable 
Indian authority on Squamish Indian fact. He regarda Chief 
Mathlas Joe, sometimes, with auuaement; sometimes, with disdain 
and terms him "good show man"; good for tourists, alright ." 



116 



104 



Memo of oonTeraatlon with August Jack Khahtaahlano at City 
Archive a, June 30th, 1939. Vc | ^ h s^- 

IgAS JOB Au gust said t "Lahwa died In 1895. 

CAPIItAMO JOB. Chief St whlteaiana call "Capilano Joe" 

LAiflfA, Chief Joe, tout he's got Indian name too. 

SHaP-EUCK he* s Indian name Sahp-luck; that's 

what the Indians call him; he was 
Chief Mathias* father." 

(lots by J. S. M.t Originally, he appears to have been "Hyas 
Joe" (hyas, 1. a., important, fine); then pioneers knew him 
as "Capilano Joe"; he was giren the title "Capilano" at an 
Indian ceremony on Cambie Street grounds before his departure 
to see King Bdward VII. After his return from Buckingham 
Palace, he was known as "Chief Joe Capilano".) 



117 



105 



AUGUST JA CK KTUHTS AHLANO'S CHILDREN. (AS IN 

Mi. 1538 ) ' 

EMMA, married, now about 30. 
CELESTINE, married, nov? about 28. 
IRENE, married, now about 27. 
WILIBED, married, now about 24. 
LOUISE, unmarried, now about 22. 



A PORTRAIT IN OILS. KITSILANO HIGH SCHOOL 

AUGUST JACK KHAHTSAHLAHO , and MRS. KHAHTSAHLANO , beside an oil 
painting of the former, unveiled by Mrs. Khahtsahlano at Kits- 
llano High School, 27th October, 1943. An illustration from 
this photo appears, with artiele, in "Province", 28th October, 
1943. 

August, son of Khay-tulk, or 'Supple jeek», grandson 
of Chief Khahtsahlano gh (Kltsllano). Mrs. Khahtsahlano, very 
shy; only lady now wearing, habitually, a shawl. «e have 
tried for years to get her to be photographed. She did not 
know this photo was being taken. Her Indian: name is Swanamla. 

Oil painting by Charles Scott, of Vancouver art 
School (Board of School Trustees), and, by those who know 
August best, is considered altogether too huge and bulky a 
representation. August is comparatively well proportioned, 
with an inclination to be slender. And the face is of acme 
Indian, but not August Khahtsahlano. 



118 



106 

Memo of oonversat ion with August ..Jack Khahtaahlanq, at the 
City Arohive3, 24th August, 193 9. Vol <+, f> SS 

CHLSF CAPILASO J0£ Major Matthews ; "August , why do the 

HYA'3 JO-bi Muaqueaiu Indiana object to other Indians 

SAHP - LUK using the name "Cafilano"? 

ClTCgJ na-AP^A-LA-NO 

August ; "It's this way. The priest 
told Hyas Joe "you must go to Capilano Creek as post; not Chief 
but poet — you know what post is; you put i t in the ground; 
to mark a place by; a "post", he go to look after the people, 
not to be chief. After a while Sahp-luk — that's what the 
Indiana oall him — he want to be chief; he went to see the 
(Indian) agent at Hew Westminster. Agent ask him "you got a 
flag?" Hyas Joe aays "no". Hyaa Joe he come back and borrow 
the Indian flag from my auny Khah-my. (see conversation of 
June 2nd, 1939). It was the Khahtaahlano flag; it waa after- 
wards burned when Chief Matthias' house burn down, but it waa 
Khahtaahlano flag. Hyas Joe aays "when I am through with it, 
(the flag) I bring it back"; but he never did;lt was burned 
when Chief Matthias Joe's houde burn. The flag I have now is 
another one. I tell you all about it before." 

DTD IAN FLAG Ma.lor Matthews; "What haa the flag to do with the 
name Capilano?" 

Auauatt "Hyas Joe borrowed the name Capilano 
because he waa living at the creek where "Old Man" Chief Klap- 
a-lano used to live; long time ago, but the creek's name not 
Capilano; that's Homulcheaon, and Hyaa Joe's real name vaa 
Sahp-luk; that's what the Indians oall him. Whitemans call 
him Capilano Joe." 

CHLBF K I-AP- A-LA-NO Majo r Matthew s; "What sort of a man 

YdJhfo' "KI -AP-A-LA- HO waa "Old Man" Chief Ki-ap-a-la-no?" 

AYATAK ('FRAHK CHARLES 

Au^uatt "I never see hira, but they 
tell me great big man, black hair down to his shoulders; straight 
hair, no ourlBo" , , r _ , 

Ma.lor Mat thews ; "Who waa Ayatak's (Frank 

Charlie) father?" 

August ; "Old Man" Chief Ki-ap-a- la-no's 
Bon, Young Ki-ap-a-la-no. Young Ki-ap-a-la-no of Musqueam have 
four children; Ayatak, or Frank Charlie; Jamea, now dead; Mrs. 
Seymour Grant, and Andrew; all ohildren of Young Kl-ap-a-lano; 

only James dead." 

Ma.lor Matthews; "What does Lumtinat, 

and Khaltinat, mean?" 

LUMTIBAHT August; "They were sisters, Khaal-tin- 

KHAALTINAHT aht , not Khaltinat; it means "white"; 

~~ Lom-tinaht, not Lumtinat, I don't know 

what it means." (Note; Khaaltinaht waa Indian wife of Joeeph 
Silvey; Lomtinaht — see photo no. P. Port. 391.) 



119 



107 
Vol. *. f> 56 

UTg-AH-KPLIU "Kwe-ah-kultu; that's the way to aay It; ha 

THSB- TH f-LflK was at Whoi-whoi. Johnny Whee-why-luk, Chief 

SRlk-QUAHT at MUaqueam; don't know who Sumquaht was, hut 

say "Sua-kwa-ht." (Sea conversation, lira. 
Jane a Talker, July 17th, 1939.) 

CARIBOO TRACTOR (After looking at photograph 

JgRRY ROGSR'S STEAM TRACTOR received from Provincial Archives, 
LACROSSE BALL of photo marked "Steam to Cariboo, 

The Britiah Columbia", photographed 
frost illustration in "Colonist". 

Major Matthews : "That's not like the drawing 
you made for me of the tractor Jerry Rogers had in the woods out 
Kitsilano and up Little Mountain." 

August » (puzzled) "They' a fixed it. They must 
taken the front wkeel off, and put two wheels on. But the 
rubber here is cleats} it was solid rubber tire all around the 
wheels, not oleats, on the one Jerry Rogers had. I think they 
must haTe fixed It down Hastings Sawmill, btit don't know. I 
took the rubber for the lacrosse ball I give you from old junk 
as was lying on the beaoh at foot MaoDonald Street (English Bay.) 
They fcu$ the engine on a scow, and took it away; they were 
through logging. After that, oxen were used, and mules and the 
skid road — it was cheaper. They took the engine to the 
Bastings Mill. I don't know what they did with it." 

(Mote — by J. 8. M.t If Ayatak is grandson to "Old Man* Chief 

Ki-ap-a-la-no, and "Old Man" told Ayatak 
he saw first white man come down Praser 
River when he was a boy, about four feet 
high, how oould he be the chief who wel- 
comed Capt. Vancouver, as is frequently 
asserted, by Mathlas Joe?) 



120 



CONVERSATION RE ORIGIN OF FLAG 



■ uji^-ttf.t:**- 14* -«* •* csm ^n^ 1 



Convereatlon, August Jack Ihahtsehlaoo, at City Archives, 24th October 1940 

»«» f>ravreuJ Covrvevsafio-n 

INDIAN BIB. August said:- (abbreviated to auit this print) , 

nam i an .^ ^^ belonged to Yho-whahl-tua; he s j,ot 
BJMBswawcB81 no Inglish name; he was chief at ; whiteaans call it 

Aahlute (sio) ita way back of Squarish; twenty five alias. I dont 
know bow hs got the flag; aayba Roman Catholics at Naw Westminster give it to hia; 
long tlae ago; long long tlae. 

Major aatthewe»-*Well what does it meant 

August!- "then they cobs together; the church; the priest ask 
who is the chief, and they give each chief (on each reserve) a flag. Tho-whahl-tun 
was a miaister( clergyman); every Sundays people cob* to his house for prayer; they 
com* from Squamish; and away up the river. He died; we bury him his own place. 
Then, whea he was dying, he says to ay step father, Cfeinalset ("Jericho Charlie") 
"Tou keep tail flag; for ay country". Then ay step-father die, but before be die 
I see it in a trunk, and Chinalset said to me "When I die, you look after this 
flag; that's how I haws it now. 

"Tho-whahl-tun was the man who told the Squamish Indians that by 
and by* a woman will plant some trees; by and bye they will grow red berries; that's 
apples; no apples here then. And he told them "woman go outdoor and pick sons 
berries"; that's raspberries, but there waa no raspberries that time. Ho know*. 
But he newer travelled, but somebody tell him about places long way of, and he 
iistea. And then, in his house, he tell peoples what s going to happen. 

"Then, about forty years aj>, we bury himnin the ground. He was 
in a box, cedar box, and we bury him in the ground. His bones in the box was just 
like powder (dust) when we touch them with fingers". 

•Ea.vL Va.Tir'^^x*" V/t.ti.Tw 

DESCRIPTION OF FLAG. Bed (famed) margin, about seventeen inches 
wide on three sides; centre white (discolored with age). "ode of bunting. 

Length of flag seventy two inches, width fifty seven inches. 

LenAah of central white: fifty five by twenty sight and half. 

In centre:- an embroidered cross, reddish yellow. 
Above gross, embroidered word "RHJGIOir yJU-ui-^Jt ™<L 

Below cross. " " "CIVILIXATIOK*. Yellowish red(faded) 

Across cross. " " "TBIPI (cross) RANCXJ in green(faded) 

Corner of 1st quarter. Open Holy Bible, embroidered yellowish red. 
2nd * Crown(yellowish red) crossed keys (brown) 

3rd " Crossed axe and spade, in brown 

4th " A contrivance which looks like a steam govsrnor 

or valve, safety vale, in brown embroidery. 

Photo. No.TVrftJI'.V.'t'/. Considering age, in good repair, but faded with use 

** "T> Kkahtsalo.no-. j.SJCatthews 



120A 



TEMPERANCE FLAG 




120B 




120C 



INDIAN SALMON TEMPLE, 
CIRCA 1902 




From the album of Rev. Chas. M. Tate, pioneer Methodist Missionary to Indians. May 
be west coast of Vancouver Island. 



120D 



INDIAN STONE BOWL 
Fraser River, British Columbia 




"A narrow sinuous trail in the forest at Hope, B.C. led to the east bank of the Fraser 
River, where Mr. Alex Morrison, of Armstrong & Morrison, pioneer bridge builders, 
was constructing a bridge for the new Kettle Valley Railway. I sauntered in that 
direction, and met Mr. Morrison carrying, with both hands in front, a wet grey object. 
The conversation commenced "See what I've found." "Where did you get it?". 
"Digging the pier foundation". "How far down?" "About eight feet of boulders 
and gravel, then a bed of sand, where the gravel met the sand, we cut down a fir 
tree three feet thick before we started to excavate. I was on top when the men found 
it, and reached down for them to hand it up. How do you suppose it got there?" 
"What are you going to do with it?" "Take it up to the hotel and wash the sand 
off." "Better give it to the City Museum in Vancouver." 

J. S. MATTHEWS. 
Hope village is on a level flat of glacial deposit through which the mighty river flows 
20 or 30 feet below. The precise site is the east end of bridge. 
DESCRIPTION BY CITY MUSEUM— 

Length 10"; width 4'/2"; height 2"; weight 2V4 lbs. Grey sandstone with iron 

stains. Donated by A. Morrison, 1913. 



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Vol, i+. y Hi GSH3ALOGY 0? CAPILAKO FAMILY 

Prelude: Following a conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano 
(as recorded) Sept* 14th, 1937, In which he expressed bis opinion 
somewhat forcefully on certain statements In the "Province" 
attributed to Mathias Joe, chief, under the caption "INDIAN'S 
WORK DRAWS PRAISE", In reference to exhibits at Vancouver Exhib- 
ition, 1937, I wrote to F. J. C. Ball, Indian Agent, Vancouver, 
and this is what he replies: 



MRg. MART CAPILAMO 

Dear Major: 

■In 1937 the official age of Chief Capllano Joe's 
widow, as recorded by the Indian Department, Vancouver, is 80. 

1. Mathias Joe went to the coronation of King 
George V on hia own, and, not being selected officially to rep- 
resent the Indians, he had no credentials, and was not received 
by the King as his father had bean received by King Edward VII. 
Mathias was shown the Royal stables, and similar sights shown 
to overseas visitors, but he emphatically never "interviewed 
King George on behalf of the Squamiah Indiana"; that, like many 
other Mathias* statements, is a pure imagination. 

2. I believe the fire at Mathias' house took 
place in 1928, but it is not on record. There is a photo of 
Mathias Joe in this coat (or one like it) in the defunct 
"Morning Star" of Dec. 27th, 1928. He says, in that article, 
that his father wore it, but mentions nothing aboit seven gener- 
ations then. How can he go back seven generations when his name 
of Capllano Joe was only given by courtesy! He is a descendant 
through the female line of the old man Dtutichookahnura who 

met the first sailing ship at Watt's Point, and his son Keeahp- 
lahnoo met Capt. Vancouver in English Bay. Keeahplahnoo's 
half brother, Paitsmauk, left a son Kahukhultun, who had three 
children, via., Lauwhloat (Mrs. Joe Capllano), Gahlinultooah 
(Squamish Jacob), and another son, name unknown. Lauwhloat 
married Joe, who apparently adopted the name Keeahplahnoo from 
his wife's grandfather's half brother. Note: Kahukhultun's 
children may not all have been by the same woman. When Lahwa 
died, the surviving sister was agreeable to passing over the 
chieftainship to Hyas Joe, who apparently assumed the name of 

"Capllano". 

"The coat looks like a fairly modern affair, prob- 
ably bought by Capllano Joe from some interior Indian, but this 
is only my personal opinion. 

"Fredk. J. C Ball, 

Indian Agent. 
P. S. I have Dtutchookahnura* 8 family tree; have you seen it? 

F. J • C . B. 
(letter undated, but about Sept. 21, 1937) 
("Hyas" means "fine", "strong", "big", "Important". J. S. M.) 



121 



109 
Vol. M.,f*3H 

SUM2 "The old chief, Lahwa, who was chief before Chief 
CHAHTS Capilano Joe, (Mat bias* father) used to tell me 
two yarns about Sunz and Siwaah Rock. One yarn 
waa that if you started going from one to the other you had 
to keep on going, and that you could not otopj and the other 
yarn was that Sunz and Siwash Rock and some other rock in 
Stanley Park which I hare never yet found, formed a perfect 
equilateral triangle; I never found the other rock, so cannot 
•ay. 

CHIEF LABWA "I have known three Indian chiefs of the 

Capilano reserve. Mathias, the present 
one; Capilano Joe, hie father, and his predecessor Lahwa; 
you see the descent came through Joe's wife (commonly 
called Mrs. Mary Capilano). I think Lahwa was murdered; he 
had a long cut on the top of his head from forehead to crown. 
(Sote: The accepted story is that Lahwa was drowned through 
falling out of his canoe when it upset at Brockton Point. 
Khahtaahlano gives an account of the finding of Lahwa* s body, 
conversation Hov. Z3rd, 1936. August Jack Khahtsahlf.no also 
thinks Lahwa was murdered. See conversation of July 29, 1939.) 

WATERWORKS PLPB S "Mr. (H. J.) Cambie used to walk around 

the park, and one day I showed him the 
wear on the pipes, due to the sand on the bottom of the 
Harrows scouring back and forth over the top of the nipes 
with the tides; the iron had worn as thin as could be. 
The pipes were supposed to last twenty-one years, but 
actually they lasted seventeen; every now and then we would 
get a burst. 

"Mr. Cambie said those worn pipes — sections of 
them -- were "priceless" to civil engineers as illustrating 
the action of the aand, and that they should be kept, or 
suitably sized pieces, for samples, to show what the action 
of the sand was. But, the city authorities just broke them up.' 



122 



110 

Vol. U, f»22l 

In 1884, L. A. Hamilton, C. F. R. civil engineer and 
land commissioner, (Hamilton Street), painted a water color 
of the Indian trail -- wide enough for one man to traverse-- 
along the First Barrows shore, and depicted in the treea beaide 
it, an Indian above-ground "grave"; short alabB of wood, 
leaning against each other to form a small peaked shelter over 
the deceased. (See photo Ho. H. St. 15) 



August Jack KhahtBataario, son of Khay-tulk, grandson of 

Chief Khahtsahianogh, (Kitailar.o) , conversation, 
15th March, 1937. 

"Bd cemetery; no graveyard; JuBt come in boat with 
the deadmana; climb the bank, dig a hole". (He 
refers to Brockton Point in later days, but, in 
his Indian speech, converts the English plural 
deadmen Into deadmana, and tells of how his father 
Khaytulk waa buried in a "deedhouse", a small 
wooden mausoleum, the body lying in a small canoe 
Inside the "deadhouse", at the end of the Pipe- 
line Road, first Harrows.) 



Prom the whole, I deduce that, conversation between 
Indiana and pioneer whites, being carried on largely in 
Chinook, would include reference to the island; that the 
Squamiah referred to it as "memaloos Siwash illahie", "village 
of the dead houses on the island", and that whitemen would, 
unconsciously, interpret the expression to mean "Island where 
the dead are", i. e., Deadman's Island", or 

"DEAD IHIHAS LAMP " 

Yanoouver, B. C. 
Oct. 31st, 1939. 



123 



Ill 



Conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano , Vol* 5, p. 376, 
"Early Vancouver". 

NOTE: 

Much offence has been taken, especially by In- 
dians, to a serial article, appearing daily in the 
Vancouver "Sun" under the caption "ROMANCE OF VANCOUVER", 
by Alan Morley, which states in its issues of April 10th 
and 22nd 1940, that Supplejack, or Khaytulk, father of 
August Jack Khahtsahlano, was suspected of killing 
thirteen white men in or about Burrard Inlet, and that 
he died in Jail whilst waiting trial for the murder of 
the fourteenth, and that he was buried "in a tree" at 
Chsythooa, or Prospect Point, First Narrows. 

29th April. 1940. 



KHAT-TOTK Major Matthews: "August. Did your 
■SApp-JAlACE* father, Supple- Jack, murder about thirteen 
or fourteen men?" 



in Jail?" 



at Chaythoos." 



August: "No." 

Major Matthews: "Did your father die 

August: "No. He died in his own home 

Major Matthews: "How do you know?" 



124 



112 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 376. Khahtsahlano (cont'd). 

August: "How do I know? Why, my 
mother told me. My mother told me that he, my father, was 
sick one month and a half and he died. He wasn't sick; he 
got hit on the head, kicked by a cow. He had twelve cows 
and he was milking a cow, and the cow gave him a kick and he 
bumped on the wall of the stall. They got stalls where they 
keep cows." 

Major Matthews: "Did any Indian or 
whiteman ever say to you that your father died in Ja.il?" 

August: "No." 

Major Matthews: "Or that he was waiting 
a trial for murder?" 

August: "IIo. No. Don't put down 
anything like that. That's not true. That's all wrong. 
He was working with the red coats (Royal Engineers) in New 
Westminster for thirty years. Well, he came home and they 
gave him a cow, and that's what gave him a start." 

Major Matthews: "But the red coats 
were only over there for three years." 

August: "Veil, he was working for some- 
body with a red coat. He used to take them around in a canoe. 
He would take them around the Fraaer. Sometimes they wanted 
to go across, and sometimes they wanted to g> down, the river." 

Major Matthews: "Do you remember your 
father?" 

August: "No. My father died the same 
day I was born." 

(At this point 1 read to August from the "Sun" newspaper, 
"Romance of Vanoouver", issues of April 10th and April 
22nd, 1940. After I had read about thirteen killings 
and being in jail for the fourteenth) 

August: (ejaculating) "It's a lie. 
who told them that? 

Major Matthews: "That's what I am trying 
to find out. Would anyone say such things?" 

August: "I find out that people were 
saying that my dad was a killer, so I go to find out on 
Friday, and I go to see my aunt Polly, Mrs. Chief Harry. She 
said 'Tour dad died at your home, and he was no such a thing 
as killer.' She says 'Tour dad was a good man'. She was 
not there when he died, but she says he wasn't buried in a 
tree. He was put on a post (in a canoe inside a wooden 
mausoleum). She say, my aunt say, »Tour father got nothing 
to do with that dying in Jail. One Indian— his name "Tender 
Jim", he died in jail waiting his trial, but your father did 
not die in Jail. He got nothing to do with it." 



125 



113 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 377. Khehtsahlano (cont'd). 

"Well, there's another old man thers, the 
same age as my father, and, to make aure, I go and ask him. 
His name la Dick; one arm. I ask him if you could hide it if 
my Dad was a bad man. He say that he go to work at the Hast- 
ings Sawmill in the same canoe— that's how he lost his arm— 
and he says my father was never a bad man. He was working and 
doing things right, and sometimes when strange boats coming in, 
they take my father for pilot, and the old man he says that's 
all he knows." 

"TENDER JIM" Major Matthews: "Why did they call him 
"Tender Jim". 

August: "Too many Jims, so that call him 
"Tender". When I hear (note: he cannot read or write) about 

that in the paper that my father murdered 
ROMANC E Or VA»COU- white man, I was good and mad for a while; 

Van but I'm not so mad now. That man write 

VAN COUVER SUN , it, (Alan Morley) , he's Just crazy, that's 
Anril l0 th~tt~22nd. all; not much use bother about it. I go 
1M0 and see him with Mrs. Moore; just listen; 

*™"- ahe do the talking. I think the Squamlsh 

Indian Council going to ha T e a big meeting aoon, and they 
going to talk about it at the meeting. And, I think Mr. Ball, 
the Indian Agent, I think he look after it, too." 



"SUPPLEJACK, or SKAY-TULK:. WAS A GO OD INDIAN" 
"The Vancouver Sun*. Saturday. 4th May. 1940, 

55b i9. 

As a result of strong representations made by the 
Squamish Indians following a meeting held on the ovening of 
2nd or 3rd May, 1940, and also a visit by them to the "Sun" 
office a four column wide contradiction of the objectional 
statements concerning Enay-tulk was made by this newspaper. 

It states that Ihay-tulk died peacefully at the end of 
a useful life. 



126 



114 



Conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano . "Early 
Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 8. 

16th July. 1940. 

CHIN ATfiET Major Matthews: (reading from a slip of 

u J'&RICH0 CHARLIE", paper, photostated with three others, all 
BlBTH OF AUGU ST birth certificates) "August, what does 
jactt yTUHTSAHLAMO this mean?" (reading) "Auguste, fils 

de Shinaotset & de Menatlot, Squamishs, 
baptise a l'age d'environ 16 mois le 12 Fevrler, 1879." 

"N. Gxegone, 

O.M.I." 

August: "That's me: when I was a little 
boy they call me Menatlot. My mother marry Chinalset 
("Jericho Charlie") when I was little. I was born the same 
day my father died. But, the priest, he's got it all mixed 
up. My father was KLay-tulk, (or Supplejack), and my mother 
Qwhy-wat. Menatlot was Chinalaet's first wife, and my 
mother was Chinalset* s second wife, and he was her second 
husband. The proper way to pronounce it, if it is a girl, 
then it is Menatel-lot, and if it is a boy, Menahtia." 

KBAY-TULK (If August was 16 months old on or about 

SOPPLEJAC~K 12th Feb. 1879, and was bom the day his 

father died, then Khaytulk, or "Supple- 
jack", must have died about October, 1877.) 

CHIEF KHAHTSAH- "My grandfather, Chief Khahtsahlanough , 

LAN0UGS T"~ have sons, Khay-tulk, Khar-luk, Keeolat, 

PETER PLANT all brothers, and Khafe-my, their sister, 

Khay-tulk, my father; Khah-my, my aunt, 
marry white man; her half breed daughter marry Peter Plant. 

BROCKTON POINT (Looking at Photo No. P.St. 124, N.St. 25, 

being "53 looking north from Brockton Point, 

1885", photo by L.A. Hamilton; huge boulder on shore in 

foreground) . 

"Oooooh, yes. Just west of Brockton 

Point; gone now. Don't think it has an Indian legend to it, 

but we used to catch lots of devil fish under it, (octopus); 

nine legs; lots; pretty nearly every day we go back catch 

more." 

OCTOP03 Major Matthews: "wnat for"? 

fapIiMf FOOD 

August Jack: "Cook'um; boll; the part 
you eat is the legs. But, you got to wash'um good (well). 
Don't know why they wash, but they do it, after he's boiled. 
If you don't do it (wash them) theys tickle (tingle) your 
mouth like needles; Just like when your foot "goes to sleep"; 
you get "needles." Don't do you no harm; he's Just "strong", 
that's all, but you gets "needles" in your mouth if you don't 
wash him after he's boiled. 



127 



115 



"Early Vancouver , Vol. 6, p. 9. Khahtsahlano (cont'd). 

CHANTS (Siwash Rock»3 kitchen) "Chanta? It's 

fr ttttfg H a kind of flat sandstone on the beach; 

5TJ53B~bOCK holes in it; all shape holes. On the 

beach its covered with water when the 

tides in." (See "Early Vancouver", Vol.2, p. 20). 

(Looking at very close-up photo of 
Siwash Rock, marked "Siwaah Rock", "Devine", "Vancouver" and 
two men concealed on left hand aide of rock; part way up. 

LAHWA. CHIEF "That cottage on far shore is (left of 
*^Wt~TIcT' r rock) "Navvy Jack's", and this one (right 
of rock) is Lahwa's. He lived on the 



west bank of Capilano Creek; there is little creek there runs 
into big one; and he lived on the point. Then, after bis 
father ("Old Chief Ki-ap-a-la-no ) died, he moved over to the 
east bank at Homulcheson". 

15th Sent. 1940. 

PIGE0N3 Major Matthews, City Archivist: "August; 

GREAT TIRE Fitzgerald McCleery, the first white man 

B ] %flg to 3ettle on the site of Vancouver, down 

— -" ~ on the Marine Golf Course, North Arm, 

Fraser River, says in his diary, March, 1865, I think, that he 
"shot pigeons"; that's all, just "shot pigeons". *nat did 

he mean? 

August: "I don't know. I don't think 
any pigeons here before white man came. I never heard old 
people talk about them; lota duck, goose, but no pigeons." 

"The first pigeona I can remember waa 
after the "Big Fire". (13th June, 1886). There waa a big 
flock of them flying about. I don't know; may ba somebody 
turn them loose. Then they get more every year. I see 
some over Capilano Creek last April; on the Capilano Indian 
Reserve; Just wild. Suppose theyse Just somebody's pigeona 
got loose some time. No pigeons here before white man come. 

"There's lots of pigeons up at Squamish, 
Just flying around wild. Got looae I suppose. No pigeons 
I ever hear of up there before white man come." 



128 



116 



"laxly Vancouver", Vol, 6, p. 36. 

Conversation with August Jack Khahtaahlano , son of Khay-tulk, 
(Supplejack); grandson of Chief Khahtsahlanoogh, who called 
at the City Archives and shared ay lunch and a cup of tea at 
my desk, and came carrying a small parcel. He has been in- 
vited to lunch with His Worship the Mayor, Dr. Telford, in 
his office, City Hall, on Monday, Oct. E8th, 1940. 

24th Oct. 1940. 

— .Qg August said: "I bring this flag to show 

fl T ElAN CHISJS you. It very old flag; it belonged to 

C kltf TO-wTgHL-TgH (Chief) Yho-whahl-tun. He's got no 
5B1M aI3ET English name. He was chief at 

"JjJIUCUO CHARLIS" whltemana call it Aahlute (ale). It's 

^ way up twenty five miles back of Squamish. 

Hot on the Pacific Great Kastern Railway; that turns off at 
Ten Mile Point. I don't know how he got the flag, but, maybe , 
the Roman Catholics at New Westminster give it to him; long 
time sgo, long, long time. 

Major Matthews: "Well, what does it 

mean August: "Well, you know, when they come 

together, the church, the priest ask who is the chief, and 
they give eeoh chief on each (Indian) reserve a flag. Yho- 
whahl-tun was a minister (clergyman); every Sundays peoples 
come his house for preyer; they come from Squamish and away 
up the river. He died; bury him up his own place. Tben, 
when he was dying, he says to my step-father, Chinalset, 
("Jericho Charlie*) "Tou keep this flsg; for my country". 

"Then my step- father he die, but before 
he die. I see it in a trunk, and Chinalset said to me, 'When 
I die, you look after this flagi" That's how I have it." 

INDIAN BORIAIS "Yho-wahl-tun was the man who told the 

fltoP B SsTlS " Squamiah Indiana that 'bye and bye, a 



B>PL& AND RASP- woman will plant aome trees. Bye and 

Sm| bye they will grow red berries; that's 

■ ■ apples, no apples here then; not that 

time. Indians know nothing about apples. And he told 
them 'woman will go outdoors and pick aome berries'; tnat s 
raapberries but there was no raspberries that time. He 
knows! Bat he never travelled, but aomebody tell him about 
places long way off, and he listen. And, then in he's house 
he tell the peoples what's going to happen." 

•Then, about forty years ago, we bury him 
in the ground. He waa in a box, cedar box, but we bury him 
in the ground. His bones in the box was Just like powder 
(dust) when we touch them with fingers." 



129 



117 



"Barly Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 37. Khahtaahlano (cont'd). 







PIGBONS _ "I have dinner with my Aunt Polly. She 

Uvea back of the church (at North Van- 
couver Indian Reaerre). I aak her if 
there waa pigeona here when ahe was young. 
She say, "Tea, wild". She'a old; ahe 'a 
alater to my aether qwhy-what; that* a three alatera. 
Qwhy-what, my mother, who waa the oldeat; then Haxten, ahe 
died abort time ago; then Polly, ahe'a the youngeat of the 
throe. She 1 a got Indian name but we call her "Polly". I 
forget Indian na 



QA33T JACK'S Win "Madeleine (Gaaay Jack* a wife) ahe go up 
Squemiah; not come back yet." 

MQXlL lb* fl*g !■ eeTenty two inchea by fifty aeven; 
broad red margin on three edges, white oblong centre 
with croaa and embroidered worda "Religion", "Civiliz- 
ation", and "Temperance", and corner ornamentation of 
bible, crown, and keya, apade and aze, and governor. 

See photo No. C.V. P. In. 47, N. In. 27. 



"laxly Vancouver". Vol. ft. p. 57 . 

PB3CBIPTI0N Of TLAG . 

Bod (reded) margin, about aeventeen inchea wide on three 
•idem; centre white (discolored with age). Made of bunting. 

Length of flag eeventy-two inchea, width fifty-aeven 
inchea. 

Length of central white, fifty-five by twenty-eight and 
• half. 

In centre, an embroidered croaa, reddlah yellow. 

Above croaa, embroidered word "RELIGION", yellowiah red. 

Below croaa, " » "CIVILIZATION", yellowiah 
red (faded). 

Acroaa croaa, " * "TJMPI (oroaa) RANCB", in 
green (faded). 

Corner of let quarter. Open Holy Bible, embroidered 
yellowiah red. 

Corner of rmd quarter. Crown (yellowiah red) croaaed 
keys (brown) • 

Corner of 3rd quarter. Croaaed aze end apade, in brown. 

Corner of 4th quarter* A contrivance which looka like a 
•team governor or valve, safety valve, In brown embroidery. 

Conaiderlng age, In good repair, but faded with uae. 

J.S. Matthews 



130 



us 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 142. 

Conversation with August Jack Kbahtsahlano. 14th Oct. 1941. 

"JERICHO ' glBtfJLfl Major Matthews: "Tell me about the 
CANOE. canoe, August." 

INDIAN CANOES August: "I got a canoe; very old one. 
CHINALSET* Its (27) twenty seven feet long and (5) 

five feet beam. It was brought down from 
the west coast. Get a map, I show you, here, Cape Flattery, 
Neah Bay, rough water, in United States." 

"Ten women brought that canoe to Victoria. 
They were looking for their husbands. Their husbands go out 
sealing in a achooner and they did not come back; they were 
drowned. The women sell the canoe, and my step-father, 
"Jericho Charlie", (i.e. Chinalset,) he bought it, in Victoria, 
for one hundred dollars; cheap because it was second hand. 
Chinalset was down there for a big potlatch on the Songhees 
Reserve; across the harbor from Victoria. He was there s 
month; potlatch all the time. I was with him; all one 
month potlatch. I was sbout nine year old then. My mother 
^rhy-wat, and Willie Jack, (Khay-tulk, the second) my brother, 
and old man Tom; white man call him Tommy, but he's Indian 
names' Chsrl-tun, and Charltun'ci wife, and there were others. 
We all go oyer in "Jericho Charlie's big canoe; the one he 
used to take the hay and barley from Hastings Mill Store out 
to Jerry Rogers' camp at Point Grey. No kicker (gasoline 
engine), paddle all the flay—take us three dsys False Creek 
to Victoria— cook our meals on the beach; dig clams. Finally, 
when we got there, lots of Indians. Chief Michael was giving 
a potlatch. We started from Snauq., False Creek; Chief 
George from Seymour Creek, and others from Capilano Creek." 

POTT-fTCH "Then, after the potlatch, we come back; 

— all the same people, but two canoes Instead 

of one. Three peoples get in the smaller canoe my step- 
father bought, and the rest in my step- father's bigger canoe 
we go over there in; may be six in the bigger canoe. "Big 
George", Chief at Seymour Creek, he was at the potlatch too, 
but he go in his own canoe. And, Policeman Tom; his Indian 
name was Tah-hay; different Tom from Charl-tun. It took 
us four dsys to get back with the two canoes. The ten women 
not find their huabands; they had been drowned. So the 
women went back to their own west coast in a big canoe with 
others when the potlatch was over. 

INDIAN GRAVE YARDS P. 143 : "We use the canoe Chinalset 

SIJTTTO" bought to take some dead to Squamish to 

— " be buried; all graveyards got to be moved 

from Snauq, long time ago, after Vancouver bum; bury them 
again Squamish. Then the biggest csnoe smashed up at Snauq; 
big wind, big wave, foot of Cypress Street; exposed place 
below Chinalset •• house; same plaoe, but not same canoe as 
in your photo. (C.V.P. In. 35, H. In. 17) A photo of the 



131 



119 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 143. Khahtaahlano (cont'd). 

actual canoe Chinalaet bought from the ten women la In Dunn 
& Rundle, photo supply store, Granville Street. After 
Chinalaet smash his big canoe he never fix It again; all 
split up into kindling, no good; but the smaller west coast 
one, he use it to gu Squamish, fish, carry freight to 
Squamish; twenty five miles up river; pole it up the river." 

"Then Jericho Charlie die, and we put the 
canoe away; keep it in boat shed up Squamish; keep it dry. 
Then fifteen years ago I bought motor boat engine. I have 
canoe, so I put engine in canoe. The canoe is now over at 
my home in Capllano." 



do with it?" 



Major Matthews: "What are you going to 



August: "I was going to pull it out of 
the water and keep it, but the Parks Board want it, and 1 think 
I might sell it if they want to put it in the park for peoples 
to look at." 

Major Matthews: "How Old was it when 
your stepfather bought it from the ten Indian women?" 

August: "1 don't know; it was seonnd 
hand then. Cedar canoe last long time— maybe two hundred 
years. If you paint them all the time they keep." 



BT'S TATHBB 



vrzmr>H3zm 



three a trend. 



"Jericho Charlie's father was Chinalaet, 
too; he shoot the biggest grizzly bear 
up at Squamish. The bear must have been 
twelve feet long; cut him in half across the middle, and use 
the "hide to cover the frame door to the cedar alab house; 
long before whltemsns com*. 

15th May. 1942. 

CEDAR BARK ROPK . P. 160 : 

~ leh, NOTE: I explained to August that, due 
to the capture of the Phlllipine Islands 
by the Japanese, there was s ahortage of 
■anlla fibre for making rope, snd that someone had suggested 
we make some in British Columbia from cedar bark as the In- 
dians did before the whiteman came. That Mr. B. V. Leeson, 
formerly of Quatsino, now of Point Grey, had loaned me a 
twenty fire foot length, three eighths, three strand, and I 
got it from the glass case and handed it to him to inspect. 
I told him that me had had it photographed, that the negative 
was in the cabinets, and that it had been published as an 
illustration in the "B.C. Lumberman" monthly magazine a month 



ago. 



J. S. M. 



132 



120 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 166. Khahtsahlano (cont'd). 

Major Matthews: "August, who made this 
rope?" 

August: "Oh, women folks make it; make 
it fine; make it small; make it big; all sizes. It's wet 
when they are working. Women roll the strand from cedar 
strips; roll it on their knee with the palms of their hands; 
just same you roll things. 

Major Matthews: "Yes, but that's the 
strand; there's three of them. How do they put them to- 
gether? Doesn't the strand unravel and get all over the 
place? Have they got a post or something they tie it to, to 
keep it tight so that it does not unravel? 

August: "They' a got baskets. The (rolled 
up) strand falls into a basket beside them when they sitting 
down rolling it. Then they put the baskets over there, and 
they's got a knothole high up above them, and they poke three 
strands through it, and it comes down onto their knee and 
they roll the three strands together just same way as they 
roll threads into a strand. They's got no post; just a 
knot-hole high up where the strands come through from the 
basket other side." 

Major Matthews: "Well, don't they keep 
the rope tight while they are rolling? Doesn't it all get 
messed up and tangled?" 

August: "Oh, the childrens keep pulling 
it away." 

Major Matthews: "Is it any good? 
Would it wear out if it was run through a block in a pulley; 
a pulley block?" 

August: "Indians got no pulley block." 

Major Matthews: "How long do the 
women make the rope?" 

August: "As long as they want it." 

Major Matthews: "How long is the 
thread; that's the strip of cedar bark. <*hen do they get 
the bark? In the fall or spring?" 

August: "The cedar strips may be eight- 
een inches, may be three feet, may be four feet. They gst 
the bark in the spring when the sap is running. Bark no 
good In the fall." 



133 



121 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 167. Khahtaahlano (cont'd). 

Major Matthews: "What did they use it 
fort To hang people with (joking)? Didn»t it wear out? 
It doesn't seem it would wear very well; not like manila. 

August: "What doea anyone use rope for? 
Indians not use it to hang people with. It's whitemans 
what hangs people. Indians don't hang people. Use the 
rope for anything you want; tie canoe to beach. It not 
wear out if you are careful. Old Indians very careful. 
When canoe come near beach, bow man Jump out, pull canoe on 
beach very carefully so as not to damage it. Same with rope. 
Old Indians awful careful with rope and canoe. 

Major Matthews: "The Japs captured the 
Philllpine Islands and we cannot get any manila fibre to make 
rope for ships. Some whitemans say "make cedar bark rope, 
same as Indians"; How about that?" 

August: "Where's you going to get your 
cedar bark. Whitemans cut down all the cedar trees; all 
gone; no cedar trees. 

INDIAN LAW AND August: "Are they going to hang four 

ORDER young men for killing a Japanese?" 

PPNISBMSNTS 

HANGING Major Matthews: "I don't know. When 

four men go into a store and one has a 
revolver, if storekeeper gets killed, that's murder; some- 
body going to hang." 

August: "Indian not do that. Suppose 
two Indian fight; they's quarrel first, then fight. One 
gets scratched nose; gets his hair pulled; other man gets 
him down; gets on top. Chief comes along and stops it. 
The man who wins got to pay. He's got to give man what's 
beat a present; may be paint his (the loser's) face for him. 
Man what wins got to pay (the loser). 

balTlt 



Note by JSM: August is a splendid character, and that 
la about as fine a thing as I ever heard him say. He 
has not full command of English words, and the proper 
interpretation of his meaning comes by inference to 
those familiar with Indian life. 



134 



122 



ConTeraation with August Jack Khahtaahlano , of Homulchesun 
Indian Village, Capllano Creak, First Narrows, VancouTer. Ha 
Tery kindly called for a short chat, and says that this last 
Christmas was a poor one for them; no money, everything green, 
Just like summer. Doesn't look like Christmas at all; looks 
more like spring. 

30th Dec. 1941. 
NARVAEZ. 1791 Major Matthews: "August', tell me— when 

you were little boy you go out with Chinal- 
set (Jericho Charlie) in hia canoe to Yalmu (Jericho Cove). 
All about English Bay all trees, no houses, no smoke, no ships. 
Just forest everywhere all along shore. Well, now suppose you 
had been down Point Roberts and come up coast in canoe. You've 
never bean up English Bay before; don't know anything about it; 
don't know there is an English Bay north of Point Grey, but 
you can see Point Atkinson beyond Point Grey straight ahead. 
Wall, you come up till you're alongside Point Grey, and then 
keep on going north. You don't know there 'a any Indian houses 
at Jerioho or anywhere else; don't know anything about it. 
Well, how far out into the channel towards Point Atkinson 
would you have to go before, on looking back, you could see 
the Tndian houaea at Eyalmu (Locarno Beach) or E-eyelmu (Jerry's 
Cove ) . ■ 

BYALMO August: "About more than half way from 

JERICHO Point Grey to Point Atkinson. About the 

same route aa the steamers take, outalde 
the bell buoy on Spanish Banks, or about there. You would 
have to be within a mile and a half of Point Atkinson." 

Major Matthews: "Why would you have to 
go ao far out?" 

August: "Because the houses at Yalmough 
(Locarno) were back from the beach aa far as from here to 
across the street and mora— aa far aa from the City Hall to 
the Model school from the beach— and there was a big clump 
spruce, hemlock and crab apple trees out on the point at the 
foot of Imperial Street, and the houses was hid behind the 
trees. You would have to go a long way out towards Point 
Atkinson before you could get far enough out to see the 
Indian houses behind the trees. The houses were east of 
Imperial Street and well back from the beach." 

HOMULCHSSUN Major Matthews: "Well, how about over 

here at Homulchesun; how close would 
you have to go to Homulchesun before you could see the 
Indian houses?" 

August: "About a mile. Almost into 
the Narrows." 



135. 



123 



August JacK Khahtsahlano (cont'd). 

Major Matthews: "Why so close? Couldn't 
you see them if you were In your canoe or ship away out by 
Spanish Banks?" 

August: "No. You couldn't see anything 
from out there. The houses was dark wood, no paint, no 
whitewash, Just dark wood; old, been out in weather long time, 
and hard to see from a distance. And they wasn't very high; 
Just a few feet. Could not see them from four or five miles 
away. Rave to come close, and they was hidden in the trees 
on east bank of Homulchesun river (Capilano Creek). Lota of 
short spruce, and crab apple trees down there. They hide the 
houses. Crab apple grow about twenty feet high. To see the 
Indian houses at Homulchesun from a canoe right out in English 
Bay you would have to come as close as Ambleside. Those 
Indian houses at Jericho must have been about nine hundred 
feet long; about eighteen feet on the front side and fourteen 
feet on the low side. But the Indian houses at Homulchesun 
were smaller, sixty or eighty feet long, and not so high, and 
the short spruce and crab apple trees were between them and the 
river. The spruce and crab apples grow on the edge of the 
river, both banks, and nobody could see through them and they 
hid the houses on the east bank." 



FIRST NARROWS 



Major Matthews: "In those days was the 
entrance to the First Narrows hard to find?" 

August: "Must be, to a stranger." 

Major Matthews: "What about False Creek?" 

August: "Well, Just the same. Supposing 
you was out in English Bay looking in, you'd think False Creek 
was Just a little bay going in." 



136 



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136B 



FELLING CEDAR TREE WITH STONE TOOLS 




Indian method o f felling cedar tree wifh stone axe and 
stone chisels; yew wood ordeev /torn wedg es. 



I asked August if Squamish cut cedar slabs from standing tree. He grasped this sheet 
of paper on my desk, and with a lead pencil drew a few hasty strokes. After his 
departure I traced them over with India ink. He neither reads nor writes, and never 
had a drawing lesson. 

J. S. MATTHEWS, July, 1943. 



136C 



SUPPLEJACK'S GRAVE 




"Supplejack's Grave" Chaythoos, First Narrows, circa. 1888. An ancient Indian 
clearing, Chaythoos, i.e. "high bank" at Prospect Point at end of Pipe Line Road, 
Stanley Park. Here stood the lodge of Chief Khat-sah-la-nogh, (Kitsilano), built of 
cedar slabs split with stone hammers and horn wedges by the greatest natural carpenters 
in North America. From this settlement Indians probably watched Capt. Vancouver 
pass, 1792. Its precise location appears on the first map, made by Royal Engineers, 
Feb. 1863, of "Government Reserve." Khaytulk or "Supplejack," son of Chief Khatsah- 
lanogh demolished the lodge, and replaced it with a cottage, as shown, of sawn boards. 
Khaytulk had two horses and twelve cows, and supplied milk, daily by canoe, to Hastings 
Sawmill. Some cows wandered into the forest and became wild, and, after the Re- 
serve became Stanley Park, frightened people, and were shot. The progenitors of the 
herd given to Khaytulk, for services, by the Royal Engineers. Khaytulk died here, and 
was buried, with ceremony, in a small canoe within a mausoleum, our first, of wood on 
posts. Its glass windows were curtained with red blankets, as shown. Here, beside 
the tomb, on 29 Oct. 1889, stood His Excellency Lord Stanley when he christened 
Stanley Park, and, throwing his arms to the heavens, dedicated it to the use and enjoy- 
ment of peoples of all colours, creeds, and customs for all time. The surveyor and 
rodman, as shown, are surveying for Park Road around Stanley Park, and have cut 
notch in corner of cottage, which together with barn, were demolished to permit road 
to pass. Khaytulk's body remained some years, then removed by canoe to Bracken- 
dale and finally to Po-kwi-la-sun, and tomb destroyed. In 1944, at the request of his 
friend, Major J. S. Matthews, August Jack Khatsahlano, who cannot read or write, son 
of Khaytulk, painted this from memory. He tells that the tomb was about ten feet 
long, six feet wide, stood on cedar posts, and had hand split cedar shake roof. See 
"Early Vancouver", Vol. Ill, etc. 



136D 



Chay-thoos. StankyTartt. 

S^uaMitn tongu<^. e'ki'gK I>otK*» Pvoafrtct Point. 



FtohK Mvrtfs'fcwtt, »*ferj»o*K* ea,v«c«A*v.. 

W+Ur fifty. . ..... 

"ftnk roadto lummifc of Citay-tkoos(ft'osp«ctP'^-: 

Jlitt/e Yoorui fAfiteT^v s«Tnme*koui«aten«iof^i^</ineroa<i._ __ . _ . — _ _ 

Concrete (.ovttoT^dtmKmg t>oi«jk^ovkor.s««s -«Y«ct«t kjo . x^Jwv^jooi. cri»tei>^n.ttteoMr«is. 

Were TtUL^orOpptnheimer o^cn«£ St«n/«y &,iK,Se^NB86,ane(.iowLS£anJ*y dtditattd. -Oct £B9fl. _ _ _ _ ^wyi. 
>*V*r«tK'5 0RAvC(io»p/«jacKJonnou»o/ewniof ^-oott witfc canoe eontftiniflj jKxi^(lL*<<ie 

Ckay-t^OQS, an ane/e^lncd'a-K. clearing. 

XWian Aeuje j/to*n in survey by fork Timn^ Ttoyal EnginffTS.fit'b->hAV. I?bv 
Oil tvn one tit Jri<A<.i a cftai mg, ffoutt 0»g< natty o/ l£ane MJ.t »fa t>&, ixilf fay ^ n '*£x"'*P' 
Haatia lak-tiogk, but Ha<j-tulK($uppltj<uK f kit JOn.)wJiifst wot* rug at 
^aittno* Sawmill, pdfltd! oM fiouie<{o«*n.,aTiolT<b«(/tit«»tk**rf5x^ J>^ 4 _^ to *-<>«- to '* 
Lmixy, Su*veyoT*«fio^^«^ two boa id s tnnoWJttaftrorwj 
Batn about; 23f**t/rom»«rbooae.^reeki«.Ti. 
On* of thlt* 9£r*ami skown. L-n R.E.sunty itky 



lb*/*, 



ft* 

5o^/ejacX'i(Wa^-tulK) ba-Yno^cetfar/^^SkaWes. 7We hoisnlwtlx* CO»'j^*<A.y&/ja- ^,.^-J 

OittkfaiLwWi-t*Stan'eyTaYk^^^^'"9kieneoi J»«o^/e,an<i wrrt<£tj£Toy«4. «->, 



<£*; 



/fay- Cut ks URave."s U f.[>iejack'. 
JiaatscL-Uk-vogiii home. 

Stanley "Pa-rk opening, I 8SB, 
Stanley Tat /f dedication.; 1 869 

Ceremony of opening Stanley fttffc tookblac e. 
on sma/l clearing of crass beside Supple jack's "mausoleum! 




" f pft jflfl 



(TtuyafO^nlni'mrf) Sej>t 1898. Vesication, Ott.i 88a ; loni 5tan/ey. 
5ee conversations 'Early Vancouver' th^hi,,,,. 






drawing by August Tack Haatsa-la.no \ 

Tu/y. Z£ I<fi7, 



3kave1 La.t(t 
ita.nfc\jTa.lK 



%>W. \i\ 

~£ea*£L^ZZ ^ InK tiattii. over pencil 1.1 

sKetckty AunuitTaelt Wa»i»ai«n.o,»ono/.Hay- Y\ 
tul K,gxm*l(o7i of CVef ^/oatialadnogfl^i'NifaJio) I 
■Ki/fcl" sitlNno in. my garden tki\ evening, At a. 
boy about e i^Ktj K.e was living in lusfai fieri 
K«ute(rtau-tu/>t'r) Wien suyv«v°Ti zkopptj.. coH-l 
ner o/j^vi^iJitsi/iveynigfoibropoMd "Pa-*k Roa.4. 1 



/ 



136E 



AR-MAT-SE, WEARING HAT AND DRESS OF CEDAR BARK 




Quatsino Indian maiden, 1900. Hat and dress entirely of cedar bark; trimmed with 
fur. Shell necklace, bracelets and anklet, and wicker "shopping" basket. 

136F 



FAITHFUL JIM, DROWNED IN FRASER RIVER, 1902 




136G 



BURRARD'S INLET, 1868, 
NOW LOST LAGOON, STANLEY PARK 



Georgia st 



Robson St & 




Coal Harbour, 1868, looking magnetic north from Robson Street produced Squamish 
Indian huts, built with cedar slabs, split with stone hammers and stone chisels by the 
greatest natural carpenters in North America. Squamish always built roofs with one 
slope only. Six canoes, one long fishing spear. Canoes crossed from Second Beach 
at high tide and are safe from storms. 



136H 



124 



THE WORD "SHUSH" The epithet "Siwash", i.e., sauvage, the 
French for savage, ia highly resented by 
most Squamish Indians, and always has been. 

AUGUST JACK KHAHTSAHLANO (Eitsilano) says 
he feels no resentment. 

Sept. 4th. 1942 . 

In conversation with Mrs. Ifasie Armitage-Moore, over the phone 
today, she told me of a conversation she had just had with that 
fine Indian, August Jack Khahtsahlano , in the honor of whose 
grandfather Eitsilano is named. 

Mrs. Armitage-Mbore: "What do you think 
August has just told me. He says that when whitemen 
call him Siwash, or he hears other Indians called by 
that name, he does not feel hurt." 

"He says that when the wind is in the tree 
tops that it sighs (i.e. 'Si'), and that when the waves 
dash on the shores it washes (i.e., 'wash'); hence, 
'Siwash*. Don't you think that a pretty story?" 



NOTE: Indians were, contrary to general belief, much 
given to washing themselves. One old pioneer told me 
they 'always seem to be on the beach bathing*. further, 
they are great students of nature—have a high regard for 
the forest and its mysteries— and the 'songs' the wind 
sings in the tree tops. It seems to me that August's 
Interpretation gives a delightful and romantic atmosphere 
to "Siwash Rock", about which 'the wind sighs and the 
waves wash.' 

J.S.Matthews. 



137 



125 



CONCERNING AHRIVAL OF NARV^Ky. , 1791. AT VANCOUVSR. 

Conversation with August Jack Khahtaahlano 

who came to wish us a Merry Christmas 
at City Archives. 

19th December 1942 , 
NOTE: Mr. Khahtaahlano la now about sixty-seven years old. 
He la a very responsible Indian, a fine character, and la prob- 
ably the best Informed Indian now living on early Indian his- 
tory of Burrard Inlet. He is a natural born historian, and, 
though he cannot read or write, he can draw, and even paint 
well in color, and alao understands charts. August spent the 
day after the "fire, 1886," looking over the ruins of Van- 
couver. His father waa Xhay-tulk, who, about 1876, was hur- 
ried with great ceremony in a mausoleum of wood at the end 
of the Pipe Line Boad, Stanley Park, Later, hia mother, 
Qwhy-what, married Chinalset, or "Jericho Charlie," another 
fine Indian, who was employed by Rogers, and afterwards Eras- 
er, of Jerry's Cove (Jericho) to freight supplies to the 
logging camp from the Hastings Sawmill atore, and August 
made countless trips with his step-father in the big five 
ton freight canoe. Both Chinalset and Q,why-what told August 
much early history, and August, with an excellent memory, 
waa deeply interested. 

MAJOR MATTHEWS ; (With Narvaez'a chart, photographa of 

Jericho, admiralty charts, and modern 
maps of Vancouver apread before August) "August, tell me 
about Jericho and Capllano in early daya. Suppose you were 
on the beach below the cliffa at PolntGrey— looking east- 
could you see Indian houses at Capllano and Jericho; at 
Homulchesun and EyalmuT" 

AUGUST; "No. You can't see through a hill; nor 

trees. You'd have to go a mile—more than 
a mile— out Spanish Banks before you could anchor. If you stay 
on beach you can't see Jericho. You can't see through all them 
trees. And, Capllano (Homulchesun), that'a too far away. 
Houses too small, wrong color, to see. You could see where 
they was, but couldn't see them. That's long time ago." 

| mm MTTHEWS : "August, you know Imperial Street. Look 

at theae photos." (Leonard Frank, No* 
13975 and 13983, Sept. 1930) "This is the golf course look- 
west from the Club House, twelve years ago; looking west 
from the old cove towards Locarno Park cedar and fir trees. 
Tell me, where waa the old potlatch house? The great big long 
one the Indians lived in before the white men came— the one 
the warship pulled down and took part of it away." 



138 



ise 



AUGUST; "It nas about two hunted feet back from the 

beach, on the sand heap. It was orer 
there (pointing), somewhere back of where they built the first 
air station, back from the beach. They cuts down a lot of 
trees though, what used to be there. The warship pulls the 
old pot latch house down. But when I was a little boy I used 
to "ride" on what they left; roof pieces, long thick slabs 
of cedar — forty feet long, six Inches thick and eighteen in- 
ches wide— very thick cedar. They was in the water and I got 
on top and paddled with my hands* But on this side (east 
side) of Imperial Street there wasn't many trees— all muskeg 
and swamp and bushes. " 

MAJOR MATTHEWS ; "Well supposing you were out in English 

Bay, over in the middle, just sailing about. 
How far would you have to go east of Jericho before you could 
see back at the potlatch house hidden behind the trees at the 
foot of imperial Street?" 

AUGUST; "You'd have to go right over to Point At- 

kinson, and then go east. You 'couldn't 
anchor nearer than a mile off Point Grey and then you'd have 
to go east to about a mile off Siwash Hock, about opposite 
Hollyburn, before you could look back and see the old potlatch 
house. Because the trees at Imperial Street would hide them." 

HL7 W MftTTHEWS; "Well, this chart, here (Admiralty Chart, 

1893) shows Indian houses at Jerry's 
Covsj right here on the west bank of the core — across the 
core from Angus Eraser's camp, Just a few yards." 

AUGUST; (annoyed) "Oh, that's not where the pot- 

latch house was* That's my step- father's 
house and Burns'. (Indian). My step-father's house, Charlie, 
about sixty feet long, and made of sawn boards from the Hast- 
ings Sawmill, and white; whitewashed. That's not the old 
Indian houses. The old potlatch house was away west of that; 
west of the core three or four hundred yards, on the sand 
bank, about two hundred feet back from the water. Very old 
cedar slab-house. Nobodies lives in it. Long time ago 
everybody live in it. First white man that come never see 
Indian house st Jerry's Cove. It's not there. It's not 
built." 



HOMOLC 



wmaiim ^ 




MAJOR MATTHEWS; "Well, we're out on the 
beach at Point Grey and we're looking to- 
wards First Narrows. Look at this chart* 
Look at this photo from Point Grey. See 
how Ferguson Point sticks out very prominently and you can't 
see Prospect Point at all. Suppose you didn't know there was 
an entrsnce there, what would you think if you've never been 
there, and never seen before?" 



139 



127 



AUGUST; "Well, If you didn't know about First Nar- 

row* you'd think it was a big bay, and 

that Siwaah Bock waa a aharp point." (cape) 



MAJOR MATTHB»3 ; 



"The chart aaya the Indiana' houaea are on 
the eaat bank of Capilano Creek." 



AUGUST; "That'a where they were. Only Lahwa (Chief 

Lahwa), he had hia houae on the weat bank, 

but it was white— -whitewashed, aawn boards from Hastings saw- 
mill. But if you were at Point Grey you couldn't aee the 
Indian houaea at Hoaulchesun. Could see where they were, but 
they too far away. Tou could aee where they were better if 
you were half way to Point Atkinson." 



MAJOR MATTOBKS: 



"And they were only one atorey, very low. 
What color would they bet" 



AUGUST ; "Cedar color, old cedar color, no paint. 

Not quite black, kinda reddish. They not 

very high, only about twenty feet or bit more. Nobody could 
see them from Point Grey. If tiiey was white- you could aee 
white spots, but theya almost black. The first white men to 
come must have come pretty cloae to old oedar houses at Homul- 
chesun. Tou would have to go close. They was hidden by the 
crab apple trees. Indiana don't cut crab apple trees on weat 
side of Capilano Creek. They keep those trees for shelter 
from the wind. What time of year was the first white man 
here?" 



MA JOR MATTHEWS : 
AUGUST; 



•July." (1791) 



•Oh I 



He couldn't aee those houses at 



Homulchesun. He must have come pretty 

nd the 



close. In July the leaves would hide the houses, a 
houses was old cedar color. He must have come close . " 



MAJOR MATTHEWS: 



"But he didn't find the opening to the 
Narrows." 



AUGUST* "May be. What would he want to go into 

"^ Hollyburn wharf for?" He's Just sailing, 

around. He sees a big bay with Indian houses in the middle. 
He thinks its Just a big bay. He know nothing about First 
Narrows, and trees all down Prospect Point. He thinks its 
just another point, so be goes away." 

"Good. Thanks. Just what I wanted." 
(Gives him #1*25 for to buy himself a 
tt to his liking.) 



TOR 
Christmas 



'August is a charming man, one of nature's gentlemen. 1 



City Arohives, City Hall, 
Vancouver, 19th December, 1942. 



City Archivist. 



140 



128 



"JERICHO CHARLIE '3" INDIAN CANOE IN STANLEY PARK 
End of Pipe Line Road. 

Excerpts from letters (as to the date thia canoe waa brought to 
Vancouver from the Bonghees Reserre, Victoria.) 

May 85th. 1943. 

Letter, W.A.. Newcombe to Provincial ArchiTes: 
"A. possible date la Sept. 1803, when the belongings of 
Chief Scomlak, who died the previous year, were distrib- 
uted." 

"Chief Michael was chief of the Songish for many years." 
"In 1887 the "Active" was lost with 28 Neah Bay Indians." 
"in. 1895 another schooner was lost . " 



May 29th. 1943. 

Letter, Provincial Archives to City Archives: 
"An account of the death of Chief Michael Cooper says 
that he became chief in 1894." 



As August Jack Khahtsahlano was born about the 
end of 1877, and aa he says he was a 'boy about nine* when he 
rowed up from Victoria to Vancouver in the canoe, the canoe 
must hsve come to Vancouver about 1887, which would co-incide 
with the loss of the "Active", and the consequent ten widows 
who sold the canoe to Jericho Charlie. 

Or, they may have kept it until 1893, when 
Chief Scomlak, having died, Chief Michael was distributing the 
belongings. 

In any ease, the Neah Bay, Cape Flattery, canoe 
could not have been brought to Vancouver before 1887 . 



141 



129 



"Early Vancouver", vol. 6, p. 179. 
Conversation with August Jack Khahtsehlano. 
kindly brought me a basket of blackberries. 



August very 



City Archives, 
9th July 1943. 



Major Matthews: "How much?" 
August: "Four pounds; all you're going 
to get this year. No blackberries; all 
I go all along .Vest Vancouver; that's all 1 could 
No more. a No blackberries this year. And cherries. 
No cherries; just few." 



BLACKBERRIES. 1943 

*E3T VANcawte — 



gone 
find 



MAKING CgTlAR ST.ABS 

' J& Cedar caN6e 



Major Matthews: "August, did Indian cut 
cedar slab without falling tree; cut cedar 
slab from live cedar tree?" 



August: 



"Sure they did. 



Major Matthews: 



"How?* 



August: "Well. Tou see this. (taking 
pencil and drawing). They pick a good cedar tree; the one 
they want; it leans a bit. A'ell. They put in an under 
cut, like this. Cut about half way through to the middle. 
Then they drive a small wedge; small wedges; yew wood 
wedges, or deer's horn. The tree begins to fall. It splits 
right up." 

"Tou see, it split open while its standing 
up, and then it falls. Drive in the wedges; then the tree 
split right up to top, and then it breaks when the split goes 
so far. It goes so far till it gets there, and then it 
breaks." 

"Don't you see? The whole weight of 
the tree is on the uncut half; the half they did not cut, and 
it breaks away up. Then the piece the Indiana want hits the 
ground. About half the tree — other half remain standing up, 
like spike. Then they cut the piece what's on the ground 
Just the length they want for canoe; for anything; for cedar 
slab. For what they want it for, such as shakes, cedar 
shakes." 

INDIAN CANOES Major Matthews: "First time I ever 

heard about this. Do they do that when 
they want log for canoe?" 

August: "Kh, eh. Yes." 

Major Matthews: "Is it big enough?" 



142 



130 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 180. Khahtaahlano (cont'd). 

August: "They's alwaya pick the right 
sized tree. The canoe is only half the log, and they's got 
the best part of the log on the ground, and they'a cut off the 
part they want for the canoe." 

Major Matthews: "How long would it take 
them to cut it down with a stone hanmer and stone chisel?" 

INDIAN MY QT August: "May be one man one month and 

LABOR canoe finished— if he works every day from 

daylight to sunset. No eight hours in those Indian days. I 
remember, not my grandfather — he died before — but another man 
old enough to be my grandfather. I see him put a handkerchief 

around his head. Then he's got a little 
INDIAN TOO IS basket like that, with all his little 

wooden wedges in it, and he go off to work." 

Major Matthews: "Whst sort of a chisel?" 

August: "Well, they's used to use ohale — 
like slate, it's hard, but when I»se a boy they»s got iron." 

Major Matthews: "//here did they make the 
canoes?" 

August: "Any place where there»s a good 
tree. '.■"hen the canoe made, take it to the beach—not take the 
log to the beach. Ho horse, no mule, all hand power." 



NOTE BY J>g»M. 

Mr. Khahtsahlano (August Jack Khahtaahlano is his 
legal name, and as such is registered under the "Change 
of Names Act", Vital Statistics Record Office, Parliament 
Buildings, Victoria) shows in his drawing that, after a 
suitable tree was selected, a cut was put in severing the 
trunk to s depth of about half way through or more. 
Wedges were then driven in at a point where the cut was 
deepest, on both sides of the trunk, with the rssult that, 
due to the weight of the leaning trunk on the uncut portion 
of the tree, asaisted by the force of the wedges in creat- 
ing the commencement of a split, the split ultimately 
ran up the trunk, and this caused the half which had beam 
cut through to swing out at the bottom, and the top of the 
tree to lean still more until, finally, it toppled over. 
The uncut portion broke near the top when the pressure and 
weight exceeded its strength to resist. At the conclusion 
of the operation, the log lay on the ground with most of 



143 



131 



"Barly Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 180. 

the branchee of the tree still attached, and the uncut 
portion still stood upright as a tapering spike broken 
at the top. 

City Archives, J.S. Matthews. 

City Hall, ath Aiipiat 1945. 

Vancouver. 



144 



132 



"Early VancouTer", Vol. 6, p. 225. 

Conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano, who came this 
morning to the City Archives bringing with him a painting 
on a piece of paper depicting "Chaythoos", at the end of the 
Pipe Line Road, First Narrows, Stanley Park, the former home 
of hia father, Xhay-tulk, or 'Supplejack* and showing the 
cottage, barn, and Khay-tulk'a Mausoleum of wood on cedar 



posts. 



25th March, 1944. 



lYTHOOS" Major Matthews: "What's this, August? 
PPLSJACK'S Did you draw it for me. Chaythoos? 
OT Fine. Very good of you; tell me. 



August: "That's my father's grave at 
the end of the Pipe Line Road; at Chaythoos. This lean-to 
on the left here is the stable where we kept twelve cows, 
and two horses; two pigs, no sheep. And in the middle is 
the house; our house, made of old fashioned boards, one by 
twelve (inches). 1 suppose we got them at the sawmill; 
old boards from some sawmill. And this on the right here 
la my father's grave." 

glAKyg ^* Bir "One morning, when we were having break- 
PARK ROAD fast, somebody hit the outside of the 

house, and my sister Louise— she la older 
than I waa, and 1 ran out and said to a whiteman, 'what are 
you doing?' I was quite a big boy then. The whiteman aald 
he waa going to build a road. There were two of them. They 
were surveying and they had a surveying rod with them. They 
cut off the corner of our house; just a little bit, ao that 
they could see where to put their survey line. You can see 
here, 1 have marked it in the peinting, and here la the man 
with the thing he cakes the survey with. They cut a notch 
in the corner of the house. You can see it here. And the 
man between the house and the grave is holding the survey rod. 
The man said that when the road goes by here you are going to 
have lots of money. They said 'Pay to go through your 
place'. But they have not paid yet." 

"The house was covered with cedar shake 
shingles, hand split. And the grave where my f ether was 
burled, it had a cedar shake roof, too. And it was on cedar 
posts. it waa about ten feet long, and about six feet wide, 
and lota of room inside for a coffin. And there were glass 
windows all around. The coffin was covered with a red 
blanket. (It la strange, but, previously, August has always 
told me hia father waa burled in a canoe.) I don't remem- 
ber them building it becauae I waa born the day my father 
died. The road around the park did not touch ny father's 
grave, ao they left it there, but when it came we had to move 



145 



133 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 226. Khahtaahlano (cont'd). 

away. We had to move out of the houae and they tore It down, 
but they left the grave for a long time; until after Lord 
Stanley named the park. Then they took the coffin up to 
Squamiah. 

RE-BURIAL OF "They took the coffin up to Squamiah, and 
'SUPPLEJACK* he waa buried at Brackendale, at flrat, 

and then we had to move him again to 
Pookalosum (sic) at Squamiah. The reason waa that the water 
came in and waahed away part of the cemetery at Brackendale, 
and we had to rebury the remains at Pookaloaum (sic); two 
miles above Brackendale." 

"The red curtains on the windows of the 
grave at Chaythoos were blankets. Tou could see through the 
glass into the inaide, but you could not see the coffin be- 
cause the red blanket was over it." 



8th May. 1944. 

P. 227. 

PLACE OF BIRTH August came carrying with him his framed 
CHAYTHOOS. NOT 3NAUQ copy of his declaration of, 1 think 1938, 

anyway before the 'Change of Names Act' 
came into force, in which he renounces the name of August 
Jack, and assumes for himself and his descendants the name of 
August Jaok Khahtaahlano, which name was formally sworn to 
under oath before a notary public, and lodged with the Vital 
Statistics branch, Vicgorla. It atates that he declares 
that he was born at Snauq, an Indian Village at the False 
Creek Indian Reserve. He now wishes to retract this, as he 
says "everybody tells me I was born at Chaythoos", Stanley 
Park, (an Indian clearing where his father lived, also known 
as "Supplejack'a Grave"; where Lord Stanley dedicated the 
park.) 

"I explained to August that he had sworn 
to a place of birth under oath, and it would take another oath 
to alter that, and that copies would have to be lodged at the 
record office in Viotorla, and that our frames would have to 
be undone and fixed up again, and that I was not pleased with 
the prospect of proving that a man who was, in fact if not in 
name, Chief Kitallano, was born in Stanley Park; it would be 
■ore in keeping if ha was born in Kitallano. Whether August 
caught that paint or not I do not know, but finally he said 
•too much bother* • He decided not to have any change made. 

INDIAN MEDICINES Then I asked him to tell me about Indian 

medic inea before the white man came. 
So he said: 



146 



134 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 227. Khehtsahlano (cont'd). 

August: "It depends upon the kind of 
sickness you have got as to what medicines the Indians took 
before the whltemen came." 

"If its rheumatism, you use nettles roots; 
nice and clean. Get a hammer and smash them up, and boll 
them — don't boil them too much— and wash your aching leg with 
the water and the roots (he indicated rubbing both hands up 
and down his thigh, as though rolling a poultice of hot roots 
and water.) ITash the legs with the roots and water before 
you go to bed — hot, not cold. Rub them up and down, good 
rubbing, and rub, too, all over body, shoulders, sides, all 
over. It'a good for rheumatism." 

"If you got cold; use vine maple and 
soft maple roots. The roots which go east are the biggest; 
may be four Inches thick, and use the bark; vine maple and 
soft maple bark off the roots, not off the tree. Boll them; 
strain them good. Put them in something to hold the liquid, 
and drink it. Drink it whenever you want; every four hours; 
any time you want a drink, drink it." 

"If you got stomach ache, use devil club. 
Take the bark and boil him; you got to beat him all the 
time; keep the liquid. Throw away the devil club and keep 
the water. Then drink it. Lots of people, when they eat, 
everything too sweet. Cannot eat. Then they use that too, 
devil club." (Note: See Dr. Carter's remarks.) 

"If you got headache, and are too hot, 
Jump in the cold water in the creek. That'a what the Indiana 
do. If you go to a creek and get in, you get cold slow and 
easy; not fast like a shower bath. Jump in the creek, get 
in and get out again, but your clothes on, and go for a fast 
walk." 

"Lumbago. I don't know, but theys got 
stuff in the mountains, hard to gst, high up, it grows like 
corn, the leaves are just like corn leaves, but there's no 
corn on the stem. Away up in the mountains." 

"Dry it, and use saw to cut it up, and 
it comes out sawdust from teeth of saw. One spoonfull of 
that stuff. It has big roots, bigger than your thumb, and 
they dry it. Don't use the leaves; just the roots. Use a 
saw; have paper underneath to catch the sawdust. Save the 
sawdust, and then put it in hot water; you don't have to 
boll him. It's poison; you cannot drink it; just rub It. 



147 



135 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 228. Khahtaehlano (cont'd). 

I got it at home. My wife uae it all the time for lumbago; 
uae it for bruiaea. You remember, long time ago, they play 
lacroaae in Stanley Park (Brockton Point Ground*). Well, 
you get hit. Rub him on; do good." 

fISH OILS Major Matthews: "Did the Indians use 

OILS AS MEDICINE fish oila as medicine before the white- 
mans come?" 

August: "Never use fish oil; never in 
my tribe, the Squamiah, never use fish livers. Up north the 
Indians use lota oollchan oil, but not down here with the 
Squamiah. I cannot think of any part of a fish they uae as 
medicine. 

(NOTE: At thia point I 'phoned Dr. Neal M. Carter of 
the Dominion Fisheries Experimental Station, and reminded 
him that some time ago—about a year— he aaked me to find 
out something about Indian notions of the efficacy of 
fish oila aa food. After some discussion he aaked me to 
ask August two queationa. ) 

1. Did the Indians consider that fish oil had any ef- 
ficacy in the prevention of colds; did they take ooll- 
chan oil with the idea of preventing colda? 

Anawer by Auguat: "No". 

2. Did he know what a rat flah was, and could he say 
if the Indiana, before the whltemen came, uaed to rub 
it on their limba, and so on to relieve stiffness or 
bruiaea. (After aome discusaiona aa to whether Dr. 
Carter meant catfish, and August demonstrating with 
hia hands a fish about 12 inches long, whioh he said 
waa 'pearly* outside, and Dr. Carter replying that it 
waa 'pearly' and had a little white bulb on its noae, 
which Auguat aaid he did not recall on a catfish, and 
aome uncertainty as to what Dr. Carter meant by rat- 
fish). 

Anawer by Auguat "No". 

Major Matthewa: "Then what do you put 
on when you get hurt, and when you're atiff after long time 
paddle in canoe?" 

Auguat: "I juat told you; that stuff 
we gat up in the mountains— that corn stuff." 

NOTE: Tears ago, August told me that, when the first 
whltemen came they gave the Indians molasses, and the 
Indiana, not knowing that it was good to eat, rubbed it 



148 



136 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 229. Khahtaahlano (cont'd). 

on their legs to relieve the stiffness after long time 
paddle in the canoe. iihich provea that August is like 
other men, and makes mistakes, forgets, and has all the 
weakness of Indians and whites alike and common, re- 
gardless of color of skin. The Indians undoubtedly 
mistook the molasses for oollchan oil. 

At this point Or. Carter asked me to ask him about 
devil's club* So, as August had just been speaking of 
devil's club, and I had typed what he said as he said it. 
I read the forepart of this where devil's club is men- 
tioned. 

Dr. Carter replied: "Just exactly what I wanted, 
and with this advantage, that he has made the statement 
before my question waa asked. Tou see, that condition 
of sweetness to the taste is a condition of diabetes; 
things taste too sweet, and here your Indian friend 
confirms something I'll tell you about which may in- 
terest you. Do you happen to remember that same years 
ago two Prince Rupert doctors claimed that devil's club 
was a good treatment for diabetes. That, apparently, 
is what the Indiana asserted long ago; anyway, that, in 
effect is what your Indian friend says by inference." 



P. 230. 
GOAT HAJB HLANKET3 At this point Dr. Raley came in, and 
STAITWOUK. [blue mud) asked August if he had any goat hair 

blankets and how the Indian women 
wesved them. 

August: "They takes mud, and rubs 
it in the goat hair (demonstrates making a 'pie' of goat hair 
and mud), and then when it's still wet, they rolls it (into 
yarn) on their knee." 

Major Matthews: "Tou mean Second 
Beach; it's name "Staitwouk", where they used to get the 
blue mud and then make it into a big ball of mud, and put in 
fire, and after ita burned it turns white, and is like talcum 
powder?" 

August: "That's the stuff, Staitwouk. 
Afterwards, not wash it out of the blankets. It gets dry; 
shake the blanket, and its drops out like dust. That's how 
the womena makes goat hair blankets; mix the hair with mud. 
The mud separates the hairs, and then the women can roll It 
(into goat hair yarn). 



149 






137 



ConTersatlon with August Jack Khahtsahlano, son of 
Khay-tulk, grandson of Chief Khahtsahlanoough, in whose honor 
the suburb of Kitsllano is named.. August came, unheralded, to 
the City Archives, carrying a big brown paper bag, which he set 
upon the floor. 

80th February, 1947. 

INDIAN atQBfflHft . Major Matthews, (seated at his desk), 

Miggg, INdTanT "Hello, August 1 1 sit down". 

MiWUMi. MAJOR J. S. 

IT. (August, smiling but silent, seats 

ID. GOV-GEN. himself at the other side of his desk. 
TSILANO BKACH. ~ ~ He looks tired. His face is palid, 

almost white. For some extraordinary 
reason, August has been losing his Indian brown complexion. 
Tor years it has gradually been getting whiter and whiter, until 
he is now whiter than many Europeans. August remains silent, 
Just smiling.) 

Major Matthews: "What have you been 
doing to yourself, August, you look pale. Have you been 
using whitaman's soap again and washed all the brown off your 
face. That's what you've been doing, August, You've been 
washing yourself with soap and you've washed all the color off; 
washed your face white. How do you feel?" 

August: (Smiling) "Oh, alright some- 
times. 1 * 

Major Matthews: "What are you up to 
n0W',Auguat? 1*11 bet your up to some trick. What's in the 
paper bag?" 

(August goes over, picks up the bag, 
lays it on the table, and, delving into its depths, brings 
forth an Indian headdress, new; one he has made himself, a 
thunderbird'e beak adorned with colored markings and cedar 
bark for hair down the baok.) 

Major Matthews: (With much intel- 
ligence, he knows by experienoe the proper thing to say), 
"How much?" 

August: "Twenty dollars." 

major Matthews: (Protesting) "Oh! 
August, have mercy, only fifteen last time." 

Miss Nina King (interjecting) "Will 
you have a cup of tea and some cake?" 

August: "Please." 



150 



138 



Major Matthews: (Trying on head- 
dress) "Miss King, have a cheque for fifteen dollars made 
out. August, this is like the one they put on Lord Alexander, 
Governor-General, down at Kits llano Beach last sumaer. Miss 
King, bring me the photo of the mask they gave Lord Alexander." 
(Miss King brings it.) "Look, August, not quite the same 
markings} same shape, different markings. I'm glad; I don't 
want the same as given Lord Alexander; not right." 

August: "I make mask from memory. 
If I have that photo I make same as Lord Alexander. I work 
from memory; six months." 

Major Matthews: (Holding mask on 
his head) "When I've got this mask on, August, am I a Chief?" 

August: "Skwa-yoos." (All present 
laugh). ("Skwa-yoos" is the Indian name for Kitailano Beach 
where Major Matthews lives.") 

Major Matthews: (Holding mask on 
head, rising and walking about). "Alright, August, after 
this, when I've got this mask on I'm 'Chief Skwa-yoos."* 



151 



139 



May 1st, 1947. 

KHAHT3AHLAN0 . This afternoon I asked my assistant, Miss 
AUGUST JACK. Nina o. King, to call on Mrs. Armitage-Moore, 
I.e. 'Massie', at the Standard Bank Building, 
and pick up some 'NATIVE VOICE*, newspapers; the new publica- 
tion of the native Canadians. (Indians.) When she arrived 
my old friend, August Jack Khahtsahlano, was sitting there 
waiting. Kiss King spoke to him. He was just sitting, in 
his calm quiet way, 'wearing* as usual a most benevolent smile. 
Kiss King tells me the conversation was interrupted by some one 
who asked of lfr. Khahtsahlano, "What are you doing these days?" 

August answered, slowly and softly, to this 
common-place question, "Sating, sleeping, working". And then 
he smiled again. 



(The old Indian, a born gentleman, is always 
very lucid, wise, precise and concise. He has been busy 
lately— 'these days*} "eating, sleeping and working." 
Which is precisely what he has been. J 

J.S. Matthews 



152 



INDIAN MISSION, NORTH VANCOUVER, 1889. 
SQUAMISH NAME "USTLAWN" 




"The Mission" Church and assembly hall. Lamp posts with coal oil lamps, 
dugout canoes, many not visible. Lamp posts with coal oil lamps. 



Eleven 



152A 




152B 



CHIEF KHAHTSAHLANOGH'S MASK. 
(THE GREAT GRANDFATHER) 





In 1942 owned by great grandson, August Jack, of Homulchesun. Old man Chief 
Khahtsahlanogh's mask. See "Conversations with Khahtsahlano", 12th June, 1942. 



152C 



CHIEF KHAHTSAHLANO'S MASK 
(THE GRANDFATHER) 




152D 



KHAY-TULK'S MASK 




In 1942 owned by his grandson, August Jack, of Homulchesun. See "Conversations with 
Khahtsahlano", June 12, 1942. 



152E 



KHAY-TULK'S MASK 




152F 




UPPER: POTLATCH AT QUAMICHAN 

Waiting for the potlatch to commence, when the Chiefs distribute blankets seen on the 
stage. 



LOWER: POTLATCH AT QUAMICHAN 

Blankets being thrown from the stage. 




152G 





^ 



UPPER: SWY-WHEE 

or Death Dance, Quamichan. 



LOWER: POTLATCH AT QUAMICHAN 

Death dancers, masked. 




152H 



140 



Conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano, my old friend 
of years, who lives at the Capilano Indian Reserve, his home 
almost directly under the First Narrows Bridge— to the east 
of it, where he lives with his demure little lady and wife, 
Mary inn, or "Swanamia". 

August Khahtsahlano will be 72 next November, (1949). 
The longer I know August the more respect and admira- 
tion 1 have for him. He is as kindly a gentleman— 
and a wise one, too— as ever I knew. He came strol- 
ling in this morning to see me; nothing special on his 
mind. 



KHAHTSAHLANO. 

AtTg Q ST JaCkT 

MANATIA 

MENATALOT 



May 16th. 1949 . 

Major Matthews: "What does this mean? 
It says here on this Baptismal certif- 
icate of yours signed by Father Fregonne 
in 1879, that you are the son of Shinoat- 
set (Chinalaet) and Menatalot. When you 
were a small boy didn't they call you 
Menatalot, because you were a baby, and had not been named yet?" 

Khahtsahlano: "I don't know positively 
who Menatalot was. She must have been a godmother. If so, 
she must have been a Sechelt woman. When I was a very little 
boy I was called Manatia, Man-at-ia. Menatalot might have 
been a half-sister." 

Major Matthews: "Pretty name." 

Khahtsahlano: "Then, when I was about 
twelve, they called me Stay-maulk, Stay-maugh, Staymaughlk. " 



give up.' 



Major Matthews: (Impetuously) "Oh, I 
(He had been trying to repeat August's pronunciation.) 



Khahtsahlano: "Tou'll have to get your 
tongue set right; so that it will click like mine." (Fin- 
ally, the best Major Matthews can do is "Stay-maulk. " ) So, 
after a time, they may, "Tou getting tired of that name? 
Tired of Stay-maulk t We'll give you another name. So, 
they had a potlatch at Snauq., False Creak, and called me 
Khahtsahlano • * 



153 



141 



Conversation with Mr. August Jack Khahtsahlano, of 
Capllano Indian Reserve, where he lives with his wife, Mary 
Ann, or Swanamia (her Squamish name) who very kindly called 
at my home, 1158 Arbutus Street, Kitsllano, this afternoon, 
for a chat. We took easy chairs and sat out on the lawn 
under the trees. Mr. Khahtsahlano, grandson of Old Chief 
Khahtsahlanogh, In whose honor (♦Kitsllano' , Vancouver, is 
named, will be 72 next November (1949). He was born on the 
False Creek Indian Reserve, son of Khay-tulk, or •Supplejack', 
and his wife Qwhy-wat. He is six feet tall; his hair has 
been Jet black. Although he does not read or write, he is 
the best informed Indian I know of, and his remarks on Indian 
life, customs, and lore are very reliable. J.S.M. 



21st May, 1949. 

KHAHTSAHLANO, Major Matthews; (Fingering August's hair 
AU6tfsT Jac YT - as he sat.) ""What's this, Khahtsahlano? 
White hairs?" (Just a few.) 

August; (Smiling.) "I must be getting old." 

Ma j or Ma 1 1 hew s ; "Good gracious I What's 
happened to your hands? They're whiter than mine. What have 
you been doing to them?" 

(Mr. Khahtsahlano' s hands were formerly as brown as any Indian's 
hands, but are now as white as any European's.) 

August : "Been using too much whiteman's soap, 
I guess, and washed all the color out." (of his skin) 



INDI AN BABIES . Major Matthews; "August, you tokd me once 

WTO OT.' that from three to five thousand Indians 

lived in and about Burrard Inlet and Howe 
Sound before the whitemans came. How many Indian babies do 
you suppose would be born in twelve months — one year? Do 
you think one hundred babies would be born?" 

August ; "One hundred! More than that; 
more than one hundred. Healthy babies, too." 

Major Matthews; "They had no hospitals, no 
doctors, no nurse. What did they do when a baby came? 
Whitemans got hospitals, doctors, nurses; big fuss when baby 
come. Nurses got white clothes, tie something over their 
mouth so's baby no breathe nurse's breath; got to look at 



154 



142 



baby through glass window up at Grace Hospital. flhat do you 
think about that?" 

August; "Indian womans not have baby in 
house. When Indian womans going to have baby she go out. 
Too much noise in house. Go somewhere where it is quiet; in 
house too much noise. No doctor, no nurse, but lots friends. 
Another woman's help." 

Major Matthews: "Well, where did she go? 
Go out in the cold; go out in the rain?" 

August; "Klis-kwis. Make klis-kwis. In 
some quiet place. Maybe, if Indian woman what's going to 
have baby is strong, she make klis-kwis herself. Have baby in 
klis-kwis. Quiet." 

(A klis-kwis is a sort of tent, made of poles covered 
with closely woven mats of cedar bark, etc., commonly 
used when Indians travel, especially In summer.) 

Major Matthew; "You think many baby die?" 

August; "Nooooooo. Baby healthy. Now, 
babies got T.B. But those babies healthy. No. T.B. Not 
feed baby out of bottle; no bottle. Not get milk out of 
can. Theys got no canned milk. Theys give mother stuff to 
drink; make it from herbs* They put hot water on her breasts. 
Make it (Poultice) with cedar bark; that's to make milk come. 
No bottle for Indian baby; theys healthy. Now all the time 
T.B." 



PIGS0N3. WILD . Major Matthews; "August, I've been reading 
a book written long time ago — 1862— nearly 
hundred years ago. ( "TRAVELS IN BRITI8H COLOMBIA. " 1862. by 
Capt. C.E. Barrett-Lennard . Page 160: "Vast flocks of wild 
pigeons are occasionally seen." ) And it says that there 
used to be lots of wild pigeons. Tou remember telling me, 
long time ago, about wild pigeons? How big were those 
pigeons?" 

August; "About as big as a tame pigeon. 
One time lots of pigeons. They not stay; they just feed and 
go on to next place. Where there be lots of berries they 
come; lots of pigeons. Then, after they eat berries, they 
go. They go some other place where there are more berries. 
Pigeons not stop in same place all the time." 



155 



143 



Conversation with August Jack Khahtaahlano, of Lower Capllano 
Indian Reserve, who, in response to my invitation to check 
the genealogy sheet of the Capllano family which I have pre- 
pared, called at the City Archives. 

Mr. Khahtaahlano came carrying a long duck spear, a pole 
seven feet and three and one-half inches long, of wood 
with a finger piece at one end, and a three pronged 
fork of three iron spikes, eight and one-half inches each, 
and with each spike jagged, at the other end. He laid 



it down. 



August 15th. 1954 . 



SPEAR TOR Major Matthews: "What's this, August?" 

ptfcfed 

Mr. Khahtsahlano : "Duck spear; for 
spearing ducks. It too long, so I cut it short so can bring 
it in bus. Willie made it. It been standing outside long 
time, standing in the earth, and the ends rotted, so I cut the 
rotten end off and put the iron spears back and bind them on. 
See how I bind it!" (He used cherry tree bark). 

Major Matthews: "How much did you cut 
off? How long was it before you cut it? Sorry you cut it." 

Mr. Khahtsahlano: "I cut off about fif- 
teen feet. It was about twenty-six feet long when Willie 
made it." 

(Note: Willie was his brother, Indian name Khaytulk, the 
same as their father Khay-tulk, or as known to white men, 
Supplejack.) 

Major Matthews: "Use it in canoe? Sneak 
up on duck at night, with little pitch fire on platform with 
mud on the bow?" 

Mr. Khahtsahlano: -Yes." 

Major Matthews: "Give it a twist and 
break duck's neck?" 

Mr. Khahtsahlano: "No. Just spear him." 

Major Matthews: "How much I owe you?" 

Mr. Khahtsahlano: "Nothing. I owe you." 



156 



144 



CAPILANO FAMILY GENEALOGY. 

August 13. 1954 . 

pMULCHETON Major Matthews: "August, Andy Paull 

CAiULANO CREEK writs a lot of silly stuff about the Capil- 

ano family. About how "Old Man" Ki-ap-a- 
la-no met Captain Cook in 1782; three years after Captain was 
murdered. They put up a big gravestone at the North Vancouver 
Indian Cemetery to Mrs. Chief Tom, that is, Tutamaht, with a 
lot of historical rubbish on it. What do you know about all 
this?" (explains it to him as August cannot read.) 

^SI m ^ Ur ' Khahtaahlano: "I don't know who was 

mm. uhiE ? TOM the Indian chief who met Captain Vancouver. 

No one does; too far baok. I do not re- 
member "Old Man" Ki-ap-a-lano; never see him. ix>n»t know 
anything about Paytsmauq, brother to the old chief, or half 
brother. I remember Chief Lahwa. He drown— somebody's push 
him overboard. Mary Jane's father, and Edith's, her sister, 
was a white man. They not full Indian. Chief Mathias's son 
Buffalo, has no Indian name. Mathlas say he has. I say he 
has not. He never given an Indian nam." 

H gHE'?gJgl JJ ]f WMM BA11 nonsense about Capilano Creek not 
HOMOXCEEaON CRggg having an Indian name. The Indian village 
was Homulchesun, and the creek was Homulch- 
esun Creek. Squamish not separate them and give one name to 
the creek and another to their houses. That would be silly. 
The village and the creek Just one place—Homulchesun." 

IgSSipiLmE "Nobodies much live at "The Mission", 

N0 R ™ VANC OUVER North Vancouver, until the train came. 

gANCH-EglB (Canadian Pacific Hallway.) All the 

HASTIN03 SAWMILL peoples who work in the Hastings Sawmill 

live in their cabins on the beach east of 
the sawmill, (about the foot of Campbell Avenue, and known as 
the "Hancherie.") They have their houses down there, and 
have Indian dances in them. Then, when the train come, they 
told they got to go away. The railway go right through 
their houses. The rallwaymen pull their houses down. Thev's 
no place to go." 

OOgFGgORGE "So they ask Chief George of Seymour Creek 

ajsxi&HJK CREEK if they can go there and he say, 'No. You 

not belong here.' So they goes to "The 
Mission," North Vancouver." 

CAPILANO GEN- Major Matthews: "Well, what about the 

KALOGT family history of Capilano I have pre- 

pared? What shall I do with it? I give 



157 



145 



a copy to Tim Moody. He promised to examine it and let me 
know if it ia correct. I write him, phone him; he do noth- 
ing and won*t send it back." 

Mr. Khahtsahlano : "You give me. I take 
it home and find out." 



Note: August's children are scholars. One can use a 
typewriter. He will probably show it to them and I shall 
hear from him. He cannot read nor write himself. Very 
splendid man, reliable, and never makes up "fancy" Indian 
stories, good only for tourists. 

J, S. Matthews. 



158 



146 

THE NAME "KITSILANO" and"KHAHT3-SAH-LAH-NO " 

I have always claimed" that the true meaning la 
"Man of the Lake", i.e., as we use titles Prince of Wales, 
Duke of Connaught, Earl of Derby, etc., etc The following 
more or leas confirms It. Irom "TRAVEL AND ADVENTURE IK 
ALASKA" 1866 . by Whymper. Co py in City Archives, blue bind- 
ing, gold letters, page 47 . "The Indian name for C owl cEan 
Lake la "Kaatza." . 

The Cowlchan Indians and tha Indians at the mouth 
of the Eraser River were closely allied. If then "lanough" 
or "lano" means "man", then Kaatzalanough, and Khahtsahlah- 
noough are so similar as to be indistinguishable whan convert- 
ed into letters of the English language alphabet. Besides, 
no two Indians pronounce their own words exactly alike. 



THE WORD "SIWASH" 

From "AMONG THE AN-K0-MB-NUM3" by the Rev. T homas 
Croaby. 1907 . Copy in City Archivea. Page 10: 

"The Coast Indians are spoken of, generally, as 
Si washes, a term which the more intelligent resent, and which 
Is taken from the word "Indian" in the Chinook or trade jargon." 

"There is some doubt, however, as to the origin of the 
word "Siwash". By some it ia thought to be a corruption of 
the Branch word "Sauvage" (barbarian) as applied to tha Indians 
by tha Northwesters generally. But, in all probability, it is 
a corruption of the generic term "Salish", which is given by 
ethnologists to the whole family". 

(With which reasoning I am in entire disagree- 
ment. It's Just "savage" changed to suit.) 

J.S. Matthawa 



159 



147 



MEN-AH-TIA 
HONORARY CHIEF CHARLES WARREN CATES. 
Of 
NORTH VANCOUVER. 



At an Indian ceremonial festival held near the 
Keith Road Bridge, North Vancouver, on the evening of July 
1st, 1950, Captain Charles Warren Cates, pioneer, of C. H. 
Cates Sc Sons, Ltd., was created Chief Menahtia by the North 
Vancouver Squamish Indians. Simon Baker, Indian, was 
Master of Ceremonies. Captain Cates was presented with a 
talking stick by his sponsor, the very estimable Indian 
gentleman, August Jack Khahtsahlano. Mr. Khahtaahlano, in 
his youth, was known as Menahtia, which is the masculine of 
Menatlot, or Men-atel-lot, the name of his stepmother. 
"Squamish Indian Names", p. 2, Matthews. 



See 



According to Captain Cates, he was told by Mr. 
Khahtaahlano, that, in the beginning, the world was 
without life and empty. Then a tree grew out of the 
ground - a single tree. It had a stem, and two large 
leaves, one on either side of a flower. Ultimately the 
flower turned into a man's face; the two leaves changed 
their form into arms, the trunk of the tree split in 
two to form two legs, and thus waa c reated the first 
who was Menahtia. 



As told to me by Captain Cates this afternoon, 

J. S. Matthews, 
31st July. 1950 



160 



148 



THE THREE SQ.UAMISH INDIAN MASKS 
1CHAHTSi.HLAN0 FAMILY 



These three masks are the only three Indian masks, 
still extant, known to have been used by the Squamish people. 
The Roman Catholic priests instructed Indians to destroy their 
■asks as they were paganish. There is no actual record of 
any destruction of masks. The three Khahtsahlano masks were 
hidden in the attic rafters of August Jack Khahtsahlano's 
house at Capilano Creek for half a centnry, until in 1942 
Major Matthews persuaded August Jack Khahtsahlano to alios 
them to be photographed by a professional photographer in 
Vancouver. 

Subsequently Major Matthews purchased two of them; 
one for fifty dollars, a second for twenty dollars, and they 
are now (1954) in a large glass show case in the City Archives. 
Mr. Khahtsahlano would not part with the third, giving as a 
reason that it "belonged to the peoples". 



KITSILANO, a suburb of Vancouver, derives its name 
from Chief Khahtsahlano, who died early in the nineteenth 
century. A broad interpretation of the name is khahtsah, 
a lake, and lanough, a man, -hence "Man of the Lakes", a 
form of nomenclature somewhat similar to the British 
peerage titles, as in Prince of Wales, and Lord of the 
Isles* 



In June, 1942, these masks were the property of 
August Jack Khahtsahlano, Indian, of Capilano Indian Reserve, 
Lower Capilano Post Office. Mr. Khahtsahlano was born at 
Snauq, False Creek, Burrard Inlet, about 1878, and is the son 
of Khay-tulk, or "Supplejack", whose wife was Qwywhat (buried 
at Snauq about 1906), and her father was Quat-say-lem. Khay- 
tulk lived at Chay-thoos, or 'high bank', Prospect Point, First 
Narrows, Stanley Park, in a very old Indian lodge built with 
stone hammers and stone chisels of cedar slabs, and at his 
death the day August, his son, was born, was entombed in a 
canoe, placed in a mausoleum of wood on four short posts — and 



161 



149 



The Three Khahtsahlano family Squamlah Indian Masks (cont'd). 

windows — his body being wrapped in blankets. The mausoleum 
of wood and its remains were in position at Chaythoos on the 
day in October, 1889, when Lord Stanley of Preston, His Excel- 
lency the Governor-General then, dedicated Stanley Park to the 
use of all people of all colors, creeds and customs, for all 
time, and His Kxcelleney stood beside the tomb; the first 
tomb in Vancouver. August Jack Khahtsahlano is six feet tall, 
and although he cannot read nor write, is the greatest and 
most accurate historical authority of his tribe today, and is a 
splendid specimen of a man. Khay-tulk, his father, was six 
feet two and wore his long black hair down over his shoulders. 

At Khay-tulk»s death, his widow, Qwywhat remarried, 
her second husband being Chinalset, or "Jericho Charlie", a 
well-known and esteemed Indian of consequence, reliable and 
God-fearing, end he was a step-father beloved by his step-son 
August. Before Chinalset 's death he charged his step-son to 
always treasure the three masks. Chinalset died over a half 
century ago, so that the masks have been in Mr. Khahtsahlano* s 
possession that length of time. He says that for many years 
they were hidden in the rafters of his habitation owing to the 
Roman Catholic priests having suggested that they should be 
burned. He also says that his step-father and his own mother 
told him that the oldest of the masks belonged to "Old Man 
Chief Khahtsahlanogh", father of Chief Khahtsahlano, who was 
father of Khay-tulk, who was August's father. August was 
also named Khahtsahlano, by Indian rite, at the vanished vil- 
lage of Snauq, False Creek, when he was a youth, and at a 
special potlatch called for the oeremony. Let it be repeated 
to clarify. The oldest mask belonged to the great-grandfather, 
the next to the grandfather, the third to the father. As for 
the son, August, he remarked "I have no mask", and added "I've 
already got three." 

"Old Man Chief Khahtsahlanogh" lived at Took-tpaak-mik 
(sic) an Indian village some distance up the Squamish River, 
and, early in the 19th century, two of his sons migrated to 
Burrard Inlet. Chip-kay-m, or good Chief George, established 
himself at Snauq, False Creek, and remained there until approx- 
imately sixty years ago. Chief Khahtsahlano, his brother, took 
up his abode at Chaythoos, an Indian ancient clearing at the end 
of the Pipe Line Road, First Narrows, Stanley Park (where Lord 
Stanley dedicated the park), and was succeeded by his son who 
was not a chief. Khay-tulk died there as the result of a 
kick of a cow in his barn. The progenitors of his cattle which 
roamed in the park, and ultimately became wild and were killed 
by order of the Park Commissioners as they were dangerous, had 
been given by the Royal Engineers for services rendered them 



162 



150 



The Three Khahtsahlano Family Squamiah Indian Maaks (cont'd). 

by the Indiana, a cow and a bull calf. The offapring in- 
creaaed to a herd. The milk was taken by Canoe, daily, to 
the Haatings Sawmill store and settlement. 

It ia not known exactly how old the oldest mask ia. 
It ia aaid to be 'very old', and differs from the other two 
of cedar wood as it is of British Columbia vine maple and 
very strong. This mask has never, previous to 5th June, 1942, 
been on the site of the city of Vancouver. It has been hid- 
den away and never used nor displayed; nor have any of the 
three masks, previous to 5th June, 1842 , been photographed. 
On this date, in the presence of Major J.S. Matthews, City 
Archivist, and August Jack Khahtsahlano, the three masks were 
photographed by W.J. Moore Photo Co., 420 '.Test Hastings Street, 
in six positions, and in two of them Mr. Khahtsahlano is wear- 
ing Khay-tulk's mask. The negatives are in the City Archives, 
City Hall, Vancouver, and are copyright by Major J.S. Matthews. 



1. PHOTOGRAPH NO. 1. 

*0Tb MAN CHIEF KHAHTSAHLANO 'S" MASK, the great grandfather . 

The two upright feathers, top half black, lower half 
white, are from the tail of an eagle of a species found high 
up in the Rockies, but rarely seen on the B.C. coast. On each 
side they are flanked by the heads and beaks of two eagles. 
The whole mask is of British Columbia vine maple wood. More 
recent masks are usually cedar wood. This mask is said to be 
•very old', but Mr. Khahtsahlano cannot guess how old. Below 
and between the two carved eagle's beaks is a whirl of white. 
This represents the revolving world. The checkered black and 
white markings on the masks represent daylight and darkness. 
The wooden eyes protrude about three inches. The apron, with 
its lace, are modern, but is of the original shape; but the 
original apron decayed, and it is not known what it was made 
of. But in some cases the apron was made of cedar bark cloth 
overlayed with feathers neatly laid, and in others was covered 
with the fur and skin of the chipmunk squirrel. Where 
feathers were used, they were laid up and down; not across. 
Mr. Khahtsahlano states that the lower portion — beneath the 
nose, and horizontal checkered black and white bar — divided 
into three panels has, so far as he knows, no especial signifi- 
cance. He says, "Just made that way, that's all." 



163 



151 



The Three Khahtsahlano Family Squamish Indian Masks (cont'd). 

2. PHOTOGRAPH NO. 2 . 

cTffETraAHTSABLAhO'S MASK, the grandfather . 

In the place of two upright feathers this mask has 
two plumes or 'brushes* made of a great number of smaller 
feathers fastened to two long wooden pegs, inserted, and remov- 
able, in top of mask. The feathers are multi-color, and pre- 
sent a gorgeous appearance, being of brilliant yellow, blue, 
white, black and red, each feather wholly one color. There is 
no green. Originally the plumes were of feathers solely blood 
red in color, and the fragments which have been preserved have 
so faded that they are now cerise (cherry color). The multi- 
colored feathers described were purchased in Victoria about 
1913, and are presumed to have been colored by modern dyes. 
Mr. Ehahtaahlano aays that he does not know what the plumes 
are emblematic of — he forgets — it is so long since he was told. 
He adds that so far as he knows there is no especial reason for 
two plumes. 

On either side are two eagle's heads amd beaks. In 
the centre is a design similar to a short piece of sharpened 
pencil. Mr. Khahtsahlano does not know what it means, but on 
either side is a design similar to a laurel leaf. Both of 
these mean death. The two angular designs on the outside of 
the leaf designs mean marriage. The eyes protrude about three 
inches, and the beak, lower down, even farther, and is in front 
of a carved out recess. Beneath the eyes is a horizontal band 
of dark color, interrupted by the recess. Mr. Khahtsahlano 
says this means birth; and below it, the final ornamentation 
of checkered black and white means daylight and darkness. 
There is no especial meaning to the lower portion of panelling. 

The apron is modern Scotch tartan cloth, and is 
used due to the decay of the original apron made, as described 
in No. 1, of cedar bark or squirrel fur. 



3. PHOTOGRAPH NO. 3 . 

m^mE'S MASK, the father . 

This mask was photographed in four positions — 
frontal, side view, and worn sitting, and also standing, by 
Mr. Khahtsahlano. The side view was taken to demonstrate 
how the eyes and beaks protrude in all three masks. The 
fluffy white feathers on the ends of thirteen flexible slender 
rods, which quiver easily, are from beneath the tall of the 
wild goose. The sharpened ends of the thirteen flexible rods 



164 



152 



The Three Khahtaahlano Family Squamish Indian Masks (cont»d). 

are inserted— by pushing— into a circular, elongated bolster 
shaped bundle of dried folded reeds, tightly bound together, 
and the bundle tied to top of mask. The plumes are, as des- 
cribed in No. 2, of brilliant yellow, blue, white, black and 
red, but no green. Below and between the plumea ia a leaf 
design, meaning death, as in No. 2. Mr. Khahtaahlano could 
not explain the two 'question marks', one reversed, on each 
side of the leaf, but the four white markings, or 'eye-brows' 
mean the earth; and black and white checkering means day- 
light and darkness. The panelled lower portion of the mask, 
and the apron (which is modern) are as in No. 1 and 2. 

Mr. Khahtaahlano aays "NONE of the masks have 

MOUTHS." 



4. PHOTOGRAPH NO. 4 . 

This is merely a aide view of No. 3. 



5. PHOTOGRAPHS NO. 5 and 6 . 
KHAY-WLk's MASK. 

Mr. Khahtsahlano ia seated in one photograph, and 
standing in the other. The shawl and tunic are modern. Mr. 
Khahtsahlano says that originally the Indians used a blanket 
as a robe, and it was made from a fibre, the name of which he 
did not recall, but obtainable even today in the forest. It 
comes in long strings or fibres, and after drying becomes 
fluffy. Even today the Indians sometimes collect it, twist it 
into yarn and make blankets to go over the ahouldsrs. 

The girdle of white feathers are wild geese feathers, 
and the hose, or leggings are of same cloth material, patterned 
by some method which I failed to observe. Asked as to the 
reason for the girdle of white feathers, Mr. Khahtsahlano 
smiled and answered "That's the way they have them; why, I 
don't know", and added "the robe over the ahoulders. though 
hung like festoons." * 

Asked aa to why he carried a rattle of shells he 
said: "The shells come from the west coast, near Alberni, 
and cost me fifty cents each. They are rare. There are 

about a dozen of them and the Indian always carries his rattle 

to make a noise." 

"Whitemans don't wear masks, but he does the same 



165 



153 



The Three Khahtaahlano Family Squamish Indian Masks (cont'd). 

things. He wears robes all covered with gold embroidery. He 
uses canopies and carries staffs, and has a mace at the City 
Hall; it's all the same thing, all form and ceremony." 

"These masks are not made in this country. When 
Indian mans come down from the skies, nobodies know where he 
comes from, but he's got the masks on; these masks. And he's 
got the shells for a rattle, too. He's got the whole thing, 
everything on him. He land at Scjunk, that's the Indian 
Reserve at Gibson's Landing. 

"The eagles mean like when you blong to lodge. You, 
a freemason — you belong to lodge. That's the same; Indian 
lodge. That's what the eagles mean." 

"And about the daylight and dark, and the birth, 
marriage and death marks, and the world and the earth, the 
land about us. Masks were always used at first break of the 
morning and the setting of sun; sunset. And they use the 
masks at births, and at marriages, and at deaths. 



Major Matthews: "August, none of these three masks 
have holes for the eyes to see. How do you know where you are 
going when one is walking with the mask on?" 

August: "No holes for the eyes; Just hole for the 
mouth, here, under the beak, for you to breath through. And 
when you want to know where you are going you glance your eyes 
down through that hole. That's the only hole in the mask. 
I never use the two older masks but I often use my father's. 
I haven't got a mask of my own. I Just use my father's, and I 
have the other two at home. This is the first time I have 
shown the two older ones." 



Mr. Khahtaahlano is an exceptionally fine charac- 
ter. His wife, Swanamia (Indian name) is a very demure 
lady; the only one who retains the old custom of wearing a 
shawl. They have several children. 

J. s. Matthews, 
City Archives, City Archivist. 

City Hall, 
Vancouver, B.C. 
12th June, 1942. 



166 



154 



CHEAKMUS. 



(STATION. LAKE. aiYER, MOUNTAIN. GLACIER) 



Conversation with August Jack Khahtsahlano , Capilano Indian 
Reserve, at reception to Superintendent Larsen, R.C.M.P. 
at H.M.C.S. "Discovery". 



Major Matthews: 
August: 

Major Matthews: 

August: 

Major Matthews: 

August: 

Major Matthews: 

August: 

Major Matthews: 

August: 



"August I 



Wed. October 13. 1954. 
Whet does Cheakamus mean? 



"Basket; basket catch fish. Put basket 
in ripple in river; fish go inside; 
cannot get out. 

"How long? Long as this motor car?" 

"Oh no; not that long. About ten feet.' 

"How wide?" 

"'Bout so high (holding hand level with 
middle of thigh). 'Bout three feet." 

"Draw me sketch." 

"Alright. I draw it." 

"It could be called 'Fish Trap River 1 ?" 

"Why call it that when Cheakamus is 
better name. It's "Cheakamus", that's 
•basket catch fish.'" 



167 



155 



"Karly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 65. 

ATTTSRATION OF PRONUNCIATION BY SUCCEEDING GENERATIONS OF 

INDIANS 

Rev. CM. Tate, Methodist Indian Missionary, Aug. 
25th, 1932. 



"I have known of cases where there was a grand- 
father, a father, and a grandchild; the father would have 
to interpret the grandchild's speech to the grandchild's 
own grandfather. Professor Hill-Tout is right." 



Professor Hill-Tout explains that the interpre- 
tation of sounds as herein given by him are from notes 
made by him over forty years ago, a somewhat difficult 
taak, and further, surviving Indians of the generation 
amongst which he labored inform him that the present gen- 
erations of Indians do not invariably pronounce words as 
did their forefathers, and suggests that perhaps these two 
facts account for the alight differentiation between auth- 
orities. 



Tim Moody (Yahmas), a North Vancouver Indian, 
whose forehead is flattened in his babyhood according to 
former Indian custom, probably 60 or 70 years old — anyway 
old enough to recall the Hudson's Bay steamer "Beaver" 
lying on the rocks at Prospect Point in 1886-1892, that is 
over forty years ago. I had come to ask him to pronounce 
the Indian names because, I said to him, "Young Indian aay 
differently old Indian". 

In reply he looked up, his eyes glistened, and 
he gesticulated concurrence, and said "Eh, Eh". (Yes, yes) 



Remark by Prof. Hill-Tout: "The epithet "Siwash" 
is a corruption of the French word "Sauvage", i.e., "wild, 
savage". (See Uhillahminst, Jim Franks). 



168 



156 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 130. 

Conversation with Rev. Charles Montgomery Tate, Dominion Day, 
1932, and subsequent days during July and August, 1932. The 
following statement, after successive typings, is as finally 
approved by The Rev. CM. Tate. 

Other comment : Prof. Chas . Hill-Tout : "I am returning 
the M.S. Taking Mr. Tate's statement as a whole I think 
you are doing good work in making a record. I shall be 
glad to look over your final proofs." 

Rev. W. Lashley Hall. Whiterock. B.C. : 
July 7th, 1932. "I am glad to discover a man who be- 
lleves in accuracy. Therefore, let me offer my congratu- 
lations on the story you have compiled. The best compli- 
ment I can give is that it brings Rev. Mr. Tate before me, 
and? accords with all I know of him. 1 know Mr. Tate 
very well, and I am sure I could rely implicitly on any 
statement he makes of things happening within his own ken. 
Whatever he presents would, ipso facto, command great 
respect." 

rot t nwABT.re i m. TATS: July 1. 1932. 

INDIAN CHURCH AT "The first church in Granville stood on 
GRANVILLE the boulder and seaweed strewn shore of 

Burrard Inlet; on a blunt point of land 
jutting out into the water at the foot of what is now Abbott 
Street. Together with the Rev. Thomas Derrick, I dedicated 
it in 1876," remarked the reverend Charles Montgomery Tate, 
Wesleyan Methodist Indian Missionary, once a butcher boy, now 
a venerable cleric of pioneer days, resident with his nephew 
and niece, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Watson, Lilfred Apartments, 
Cornwall Street, and today, despite his eighty years, a pic- 
ture of physical and mental activity, and will be, this after- 
noon, a guest of the city of Vancouver at the opening of the 
Burrard Bridge which passes over the Indian village, or rather 
its site, where once he preached In its potlatch house. 

FIRST CHURCH IN "The tiny house of God," he continued, 
VANCOUVER - "was a little box of a place, perhaps 

thirty feet long by twenty wide, built 
on the edge of the low bank, perhaps three or four feet high, 
of the shore, surrounded by a bit of clearing in the forest, 
say half an acre, more or less, at a point where the shore 
line bulged outwards. It was so close to the shore that 
the Indians used to tie their canoes to the front steps. 
This position gave it a certain prominence as a landmark in 
a marine and forest scene which, in all directions save per- 
haps the First and Second Narrows, was s verdant forest 
covering, as a green blanket, everything from mountain top 



169 



157 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 130. Rev. C. M. Tate (cont'd). 

to water's edge. In the immediate foreground, the shallow 
shore lay littered with large and small boulders, kelp, sea- 
weed; in the background a narrow fringe of bushes, stumps, 
etc., and behind that, within a very few yards, were the tall 
timbers of the woods, wrapping the little grey edifice and 
its parsonage in a frame of green. The coloring was en- 
hanced by a number of maples, trees vrfith a light green foliage, 
which, in the sunlight, gleamed against the darker green of 
fir and cedar. It was a pretty scene in summer." 

"To the west, the branches of the firs and 
cedars overhung the shore, and at high tide, the waters of the 
inlet almost touches the lower branches. To the east were 
the few houses, curved along the beach, forming the townsite 
of Granville, in all nine or ten small buildings scarcely 
visible from the parsonage because of the intervening small 
trees and bushes. Granville was reached by a single plank 
laid on the earth from the parsonage." 

THE INDIAN P. 131; "The outward appearance of the 
CHURCH Indian church was Just boards and a hand 

shaved shake roof. Above wqs a small 
bell tower, a sort of cupola with a bell, and I can still 
hear its solitary toll tinkling out over the silent waters 
of Burrard Inlet calling the worshippers, principally Indians, 
to Sabbath morning devotions. There were a lot of northern 
Indians working at the Hastings Mill, and they, as also those 
from Stanley Park, Cepilano, and Seymour Creek, came in their 
canoes. The location was most convenient for the Indians 
coming by canoe and was the reason for its belne built in 
th9t location on the shore. It tss equally convenient for 
the preacher, who did most of his work by boat as the only 
means of getting about; all landed almost on the steps of 
the church or parsonage." 

PASTORAL TRAVKT3 p. 132; "People would not believe it 
AH6M6 tBE INDIANS now, but the fact is that the district 
under my care was from my headquarters, 
which were supposed to be in Nanaimo, down the east coast of » 
Vancouver's Island as far as Victoria, then all Victoria, 
then over to the Musqueam Indians at the mouth of the Eraser 
River, and thence up the Eraser River as far as Tale, and an 
occasional side trip to J^ooksahk in the territory of rfash- 
lngton." 

"I first saw Granville in 1872. The 
Rev. MT. Turner lived at New Westminster, at the parsonage 
there, and used to come out from New *estminster and return 



170 



158 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 132. Rev. C.i.:. Ta~te (cont'd), 

the same night. I came with him sometimes. My duties de- 
manded periodical trips from .estniinster to Hastings. Some- 
times I walked, sometimes staged; to tell the truth I pre- 
ferred walking to riding in the bumping stage, and then took 
ferry to I.foodyville where I preached to the Indians working 
in the sawmill there. Then I would cross to Gastown by 
canoe and sometimes traverse the woods to the False oreek 
reservation, or, as we know it now, the Kitsilano Indian 
Reserve. Bear in mind, I was itinerant preacher to the 
Indian tribes. Mr. Turner was itinerant preacher to the 
English speaking people. I had plenty of opportunity to be- 
come familiar with the Indians, their trials, triumphs and 
customs." 

THE FALSE GREEK "I often visited the Kitsilano band in 
VILLAGE. the '70s. They were a hospitable lot, 

and I was entertained by Chief George 
and his band in their community house. Old Chief George's 
community house (potlatch house) was right under the present 
Burrard Bridge, which we have opened this afternoon. I be- 
lieve a stone dropped from the bridge would strike in the 
centre of the site on which the village stood." 

KITSILANO INDIAN P. 134; "At the end of the meeting I 
RESERVE would call out asking if anyone hadany- 

thing to say, or sometimes old Chief 
CHIEF QgQHOE , George would do it himself. In any 
Indian name case he would usually get up and make 
Chlp-Kaay-am . some remarks, giving the young men some 

good advice as to how to deport them- 
selves and the proper things to do." 

NOTE: In reviewing the M.S. Prof. Hill-Tout margins 
"I spell the name •KhStsalanoogh*". (see below) 

"What do I mean by 'entertain'? Oh, 
well, something to eat, and the privilege of gathering the 
people together for services; probably some bread baked in 
the ashes, and a cup of questionable tea. The teapot was 
not always cleaned out when tea was scarce. In fact, when 
tea was very scarce the Indians used the leaves of some 
swamp shrub which grew with a kind of thick leaf, "Hudson's 
Bay" tea, we used to call it. The tea was commonly made in 
a tin "billy", a small tin pall with wire handle for carry- 
ing it by, and a lid with a wire finger ring in the centre 
of top. Chief George, of the False Creek Reserve, Snauq 
was the Indian name for it, was an Indian of the best sort, 
and his band were a most hospitable lot. His wife was a 
Nanaimo woman. There was quite a settlement at Chief 



171 



159 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 134. Rev. CM. Tate (cont'd). 

George* a False Creek Reserve, probably a dozen houses , built of 
split cedar, sawboards and slabs, and the big community house; 
a total population, perhaps, of fifty persons all told. It 
was a settlement of consequence. There were no Indians liv- 
ing further up the creek." 

HAAT-3A- T - AB -N0UGH "Kitsilano", as pronounced by the Indiana 

of that reserve, was Haat-sa-lah-nough, 
the last syllable being given a shorter and more gutteral 
sound than "nough" in "enough"; more like Scotch "lough" 
(loch), but actually there is no sound in the English tongue 
akin to it. "Haatsa" means swamp or lake." 

"I have heard that Professor Ghas. Hill- 
Tout, well versed in Indian custom and lore, explains that 
'Kitsilano" was the hereditary name or title of the chief of 
the tribe, or some such thing, and perhaps this is true, but 
the first syllable is geographical in its meaning. The 
place always has precedence over the man. The chief's name 
is usually taken from the place. A similarity is the 
British baronial system of nomenclature for titles of 
nobility." 

CHIEF KHAT-SAL-ANOOGH 

Hajor Matthews: "What did August Jack 
mean, Aug. 24th, 1932, when he said that his father, Khay-tulk, 
son of Chief Haataa-lah-nough, was buried in a little glass 
house and red blankets at Chay-thoos?" (Prospect Point in 
Stanley Park) 

"Oh, that was a deadhouse. The Indians 
had them all along the coast, used them for putting the dead 
in. Some of the deadhouses were quite pretentious, even 
fixed up with doors and windows, and, in some cases, even 
had easy chairs, sofas and such, and such (significant pause 
and resigned nod) "for the repose of the soul" of the dead. 
On the west coast of Vancouver Island they put the dead in 
the trees; rolled the body up in a blanket or mat, tied it 
up with a rope, and as soon as the person was dead, and 
(significantly) very often before they were dead, hang the 
body up in a tree. An Indian, Joe Smith of Claoquaht 
(Clayoquot) told me with his own word of mouth that he had 
been wrapped up in a blanket and put in a cave. After he 
had lain there a day or two he became conscious, and managed 
to untie the ropes and walked out. When he walked across a 
bare piece of land he met another Indian who accosted him 
with ".Vhat are you doing here, you're dead?" "You go away, 
or we shall have no food for winter, no salmon", Joe pro- 



172 



160 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, P. 135. Rev. C.?.:. Tate (cont'd). 

tested that he was not dead, but the other Indian ran off 
and got a rifle, and returning, raised it. Joe protested, 
•Don't shoot, don't shoot, I'm not dead'. Joe told me 
that himself; at Claoquaht." 

"If August Jack is the grandson of Chief 
Haatsa-lah-nough, he is moat certainly entitled to be known 
as August Kltsilano in English." 

TISITS TO unsqrnoAM "From the False creek Reservation I 

walked by Indian trail through the 
forest to Musqueam where Thit-see-mah-lah-nough was chief. 
The names of many of the chiefs ended in 'nough'. I cannot 
say exactly how I got from Granville to False Creek, but my 
impression is that it was by a trail which ran from some- 
where about Abbott Street through the forest cross country 
to the foot of Granville -Street. There I crossed False 
Creek by canoe, and struck out for the north arm of the 
Fraser River by logging trail. There was one good logging 
trail which led to Rowlings Landing, (Mr. Tate omitted to 
state from where), another to Eburne, that is, to the McCleery 
farm near Eburne, and from there down to the Musqueams there 
was a pretty well-beaten track. It is doubtless difficult 
for people of Vancouver to picture the dry well-drained site 
on which they live as, in parts, a wet, soggy swamp. Be- 
hind the Kltsilano Beach was a muskeg of twenty, or more, 
acres alive with muskrats; much of the high land in the '.Test 
End was very swampy. The Royal Engineers noted that on 
their first maps. Another very large peaty area was what 
I think we call Dunbar Heights now, and, of course, behind 
Jericho there was an enormous area of swamp. And there 
were others." 

"After preaching to the Indians in Chief 
Thit-see-mah-lah-nough *s house at Musqueam, I returned to 
New Westminster either by canoe, or to Granville, via Main 
Street (North Arm Road) as we call it now, then across the 
False Creek Bridge to Hastings Mill, and on by Steven's 
ferry to the 'end of the road' at Moodyville Crossing 
(Hastings) where I took Lewis's stage, or walked — which 
actually I preferred to staging over corduroy roads in a 
vehicle swung on leather straps instead of springs — to New 
Westminster." 

INDIANS AT "As a side trip I frequently took a 
STANLEY PARK .aND rowboat or canoe to the First Narrows 
CAPILANO" to visit a small band living in Stanley 

Park where the Lumbermans Arch (Whoi- 
tfhoi) now stands. Chief Thomas, of the Squamish tribe, 



173 



161 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 135. dev . J.I.:. Tate (cont'd). 

lived there. There was a community house at Stanley Park, 
and I should not be surprised If the posts are not there yet, 
beneath the surface. They were probably chopped off level 
with the surface '..hen the buildings were demolished. The 
biggest community house there was probably one hundred feet 
long by forty feet wide. The Indians did not live in sep- 
arate homes, but in one long community house." (See 
Indian Villages and Landmarks, and Mr. Tate's remarks there.) 

INDIA:! BUILDINGS IN "The Indian building in Stanley Park by 
STANLEY PARK , the Luinbermans «rch, indeed most Indian 
("<noi-..aolT " buildings, were constructed by first 

placing four tall posts in the ground, 
two at each end, and connecting each set of two end posts 
together with a stringer twenty or more feet from the 
ground. A long beam vras then laid at right-angles from 
stringer to stringer, and served as a sort of ridge pole and 
carried the roof; but the buildings were not peak-roofed, 
they were lean-to's. The roof had just one slope. The 
floor, of course, was just bare earth. The walls were gen- 
erally made by driving a couple of small poles or stakes, 
close together in the ground along the line of the wall, and 
slipping or dropping boards, usually split cedar boards, 
very thick, between the two stakes, and then tying the two 
stakes, lashing them, together with some sort of cedar rope. 
The roof was also made of split cedar shakes, split with a 
wooden maul and deer's horn wedges." 

"There were no real doors. Usually a 
mat was hung over the opening which served as an entrance. 
,Vhen they wanted light they poked a stick up, and slid aside 
one of the roof boards and let the light in that way, and 
the same thing when there was too much smoke. The smoke 
went out through the roof. These buildings have all been 
cleared away now." 

Note by Prof. Hill-Tout on :.'.S.: See example of one 
in Hill-Tout's "The Far ..est", p. 50. 

CHISF LAH-.VA "Then there was Chief Lah-wa of the Cap- 

ilano band, and several of his members 
who were our earliest converts. Chief Lah-wa, poor fellow 
was drowned while crossing the xlrst Narrows in a canoe. It 
is ^resumed tr*at someone had given him some liquor, with 
tragic result. He had been baptised and married in the 
little Indian church at Gestown. Another small band lived 
in a community house at Seynour Creek, near Moodyville Saw- 
mill." 



174 



162 



"Sarly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 136. Rev. 0.;:. 1'ate (cont'd). 

ORIGIN OF ".."here the Squarish Indians came from is 

5 QUaUSH Tl-.I BE a question of conjecture. On one of my 
visits to the Indians at Nooksahk, ..ash- 
lngton, I asked if they could give me any reason for their 
.Language beinr similar to that of the Squamish Indians. They 
said to me 'They are our people*, and told me the following 
legend." 

"*. long time ago hen the salmon ..ere 
very nlentiful about Point Roberts and Seniahmo Bay, a nurber 
of our neoole went flshinc with sunken nets, called sv.ahlah, 
when a heaw south-east storm came up and carried them a-ay 
north. The storm keot up dav after dav which made it im- 
possible lor them to return to the mouth of the Nooksahk 
river, so, finding it o>>ite c^l"i under ! .he shelter of Point 
Grey en-, in j2n~listl Bay, they ent on shore and made them- 
selves comfortable in a temporary camp. Finding plenty of 
food, and abundance of cedar timber for building purposes and 
to make their canoes, they decided to remain permanently. " 

"Cedar was very useful to the Indians, 
and cedar always grows more prolificly in swamps than else- 
where. I think it must have been, in part at least, the 
cedar which attracted and kept the Indians in the neighbor- 
hood of Burrard Inlet and iinglish Bay. The reason why they 
are scattered about in small bands is the common reason with 

all Indians — petty jealousies, family 
REASON FOR SMALL quarrels, disagreements between would-be 
BANDS chiefs, and many other causes. Hence 

the little band at Seymour Creek, another 
at the head of Howe Sound, in Stanley Park, Qapilano, False 
Creek, and other places. The Indians at Worth Vancouver are 
accounted for from the fact that the ^oman Catholic Mission 
was established there in early days, and the Indians have been 
encouraged to build their homes in the neighborhood of the 
church. The two key words in the Nooksahk tongue which par- 
ticularly attracted my attention were the words "haatl" and 
"sneetcham" , meaning "good", and "language or talk". After 
long experience with Indians and their languages in various 
parts of this country, the Nooksahk explanation seems reason- 
able enough to me." 

INDIAN CONVERTS "Among our converts at the little Indian 

church at Granville was a husky fellow 
from Bella-Bella named Jim Starr. I think he must have been 
named after old Captain Starr. Jim probably worked for 
Capt. Starr on his boat, and after a time became known as Jim 
Starr. It was in some such manner that most of the Indians 
got the names by which they are known today." 



175 



163 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 136. Rev. C.I,'.. Tate (cont'd) 

(NOTE: Johnny Scow of Alert Bay was named by Mr . Munn. 
cannery man of .7estmlnster, after Johnny had saved the 
lives of Indian woman and children adrift on a scow in 
a storm at Steveston. There are now many Scows at 
Alert Bay). J.S.M. 

"Shortly after his conversion Jim Starr 
went to Victoria Indian Mission, and married a Klt-a-maat 
woman named Esther, also of the Victoria Indian Mission. 
They were about the happiest couple I ever met. Very soon 
after their marriage they went north together and sought to 
lead their tribes people in a Christian way. Jim and 
Esther both died several years ago, but their names are still 
fragrant at Bella-Bella, and the Indian Church at old Gastown 
must be long credited as the spiritual birthplace of one of 
the most saintly men British Columbia has ever known." 

(A continuation of this narrative of Rev. C.I.:. Tate*s 
experiences with Indians in other parts of the province, 
etc., etc., will be found elsewhere.) J.S.M. 



^{KV C.l'. TATE , "Gold brought me to British Columbia. I 
Meth odist Indian was born in 1852, and my first work was 
Miss ionary ! as a butcher boy. I recall very vividly 

~ the long miles I used to walk to get 

cattle, sheep, and pigs for my employer. They were terribly 
long walks, but I suppose they fitted me physically for the 
work I was destined to do in British Columbia. I was 18 
when I came out, via the Panama to British Columbia to go to 
the Cariboo goldfields. There is a long account of it en- 
titled "Fifty Years .Vith the Methodist Church in British 
Columbia" which I have written, and Ahich is published in 
book form "Review of the United Churches in British Columbia," 
1925. But on arrival in Victoria it was clear that there 
was no sense in eolng to the Cariboo; all the miners were 
returning, some of them starving. I got a job in Hanaimo 
looking after a bit of a donkey engine which, when sailing 
ships were not in for coal, hauled the coal cars up a slope 
from v-hich the coal was dumped into the coal bins. Thus it 
was ^hat when I first came to British Columbia in 1870, I be- 
came associated with the .Vesleyan Methodist church at Nanalmo, 
and through them with the uninstructed Indians. The Indians 
interested me. I was little more than a lad, just 18, got 
talking to them, spent my evenings with them, started to learn 
their language, and ultimately suggested that they start a 
night school amongst themselves. "But", their reply was, 
"how can we get someone to teach us." The problem of a 



176 



164 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 137. Rev. CM. Tate (cont'd). 

teacher was seemingly, to them, an insurmountable difficulty, 
and no doubt they were a little astonished when I said "I 
will". So in the evenings I used to go down to the village 
and teach them, and, of course, when the strike came, it was 
a long strike of seven months, I was able to do it in the 
daytime. All voluntary, of course, no salary." 

"The strike ended, and I applied for my 
old Job back again, but Mr. Mark Bate — you have heard of him, 
he was manager of the coal mines — told me there were a lot of 
older men who wanted the job; men who were "up against it", 
and that I was a young fellow and could look after myself, so 
I was not taken on. I was "flat broke", had not a cent in 
the world, but kept on going for a week or two. Just then 
the superintendent of missions from Toronto came along and he 
said to the Aev. Mr. Crosby, who was in charge of Nanaimo, 
"Ally not start a school? Do you think you could find a 
teacher?" Mr. Crosby replied, "Yes, one right here, one who 
has been teaching them voluntarily", I got the appointment, 
at $300 a year and pay my own expenses." 

"My directions I got from the Mission 
Board at Toronto. My salary gradually rose until it reached 
$500, always without travelling allowance, and out of which I 
had to find my own horse, or canoe, or steamboat fare and ex- 
penses. Pretty hard going at times, with sugar at 25/ a 
pound and other things in proportion." 

"How did I obtain my ordination? Well, 
I can best explain that, perhaps, by relating the story of a 
question which was once asked me when travelling in eastern 
Canada. A gentleman enquired of me what college 1 had been 
in. 1 replied that 1 had been in most of the colleges of 
Canada and the United States, but that my collegiate training 
I got mostly in a canoe or on horseback. That was where I 
did most of my studying." 

"When it came to the actual ordination 
which was in Victoria at the time of the Methodist Conference 
of 1879, I had already passed ray examinations; but as a final 
teat, was required to preach a sermon before three examiners. 
My examiners and I repaired to the Indian church on Herald 
Street and with the three examiners and Indians as my congre- 
gation, I preached a sermon in the Ankameenum Indian language, 
that ia, the language of the Indians on the east coast of 
Vancouver's Island, not one word of which my examiners 
understood." 

"Next morning, to my astonishment, I 



177 



165 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 138. Rev. C.;.l. Tate (cont'd), 

listened to a moat glorious report upon my preaching given 
by my examiners to the conference, and — here Rev. Mr. Tate 
smiled — 1 was ordained." 



Dick Isaacs, (Indian name Qye-yah-chulk) , North Vancouver 
Indian Reserve. 

October 14th. 1932 . 

P.139: 
THE IMP I AN CHURCH "I remember old Indian Church over Gas- 
AT GASTQ.vN . town quite well. Little bit of place 

on shore. Not sideways to shore; one 
end nearest mater. No tower like over here North Vancouver, 
but just little bit tower and bell. Inside not fixed up 
like Catholic fix up church, Just plain, *bout thirty feet 
long, wide enough for three benches for us to sit on; all in 
a row across church. 

"Lots Indians go there from Whoi-'ffhoi 
(Lumbermans Arch, Stanley Park). Big settlement Indians 
Whoi-Whoi. Mr. Daylick (Derrick) was first minister I re- 
member, then Mr. Bryant. Mr. Tate come sometimes, too." 

"I remember old chief Capllano. I 
don't know how old I am, may be 60, may be 70. .Then old 
Capllano die his son Lah-wa be chief. Lah-wa get married 

in little Indian Church at Gastown to 
CHIEF CAPILANO Eraser River Indian woman. Lah-wa 
LAH-'.YA get drowned, then Joe Capllano chief-, he 

some relation old Capilano's wife 
(Incorrect). Chief Joe wa3 good Catholic, that's why they 
make him chief." 

PORTUGESE JOE "Portugese Joe waa the first whlteman to 
keep store at Gastown. He had store by 
Indian church. .;Tien Portugese Joe go there first Just one 
white man, Just Portugese Joe. He build store by Indian 
church before Indian church come. Ben -ilson, he build 
•tore Just behind Portugese Joe place." 

"My sister Aunt Sally, Stanley Park (a 
famous character). Puchahla name place where C.P.R.Dock 
now. Lota big trees, lots buahes, lots shade, not much 
sun at Puchahla." 

AUGUST JACK HAATSALANO: February, 1935. 

"The little church was, I should say. 
32 feet by 18 feet." J.S.M. (see above) 



178 



166 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 43. November 26th, 1932. 
Conversation with Rev. CM. Tate as he lay In his bed in- 
disposed after a too festive celebration two- weeks ago of 
his 80th birthday. Mr. Tate Is probably the foremost 
Indian linguist of today, and was an Indian missionary who 
knew all the coast, and up as far as Yale, In the seventies, 
eighties and nineties. He listened as I read the foregoing 
page. Then I remarked "Do you believe in 'Jack and the 
Beanstalk'"? 

Mr. Tate's reply was a smile, a nod of 
the head, and the laconic "Suppose we'll have to". Then I 
added quizingly "And the biblical story of the five loaves 
and the little fishes with which Christ fed the multitude?" 
Again he nodddd. "Then how can we point the finger of scorn 
and ridicule at the Indians?" 

Mr. Tate replied: "Well, cannot you see 
the stone at chulks; doesn't that prove it? You know that 
Mount Baker, in the State of Washington, is the 'Mother of 
All Indians', don't you? Well, Lot's wife was turned into a 
pillar of salt; what's unreasonable about the Mother of All 
Indians being turned into a mountain of snow, or Slwaah Rock 
being made from an Indian fisherman?" 

"Why, I remember," he continued, "one 
story they told me up at Bella Bella years ago. They told 
me all about the flood, the great flood which enveloped the 
earth; that the water was coming up and up, and the people 
went up the mountain to escape it, but the water kept on coming 
and coming until they were in fear that it would soon cover 
the top. So they cried out, and the people who had gone to a 
higher mountain heard their cries, broke off the top of the 
higher mountain and threw it across to them and saved their 
lives. Of course the top broken off landed on top of the 
smaller mountain just exactly where it was wanted to fall, 
and that was twelve miles away. They told me that in all 
seriousness. The mountain is there yet, top of It and all, 
just as it was thrown across". 

And then the Rev. Mr. Tate smiled again. 



179 



16? 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 148. Capt. James Cook's 
arrival at Nootka, Rev. CM. Tate. 



THE MOONMEN AT NOOTKA 
and 
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK'S ARRIVAL 
by Rev. CM. Tate 

Conversation, J.S. Matthews, Dec. 19th. 1932. 



Rev. CM. Tate, Methodist Indian Missionary, just 
celebrated 80th birthday, and suffering in bed in con- 
sequence of too many visitors, helped to consecrate the 
first (Indian) church at Granville (Vancouver) soon 
after his arrival in British Columbia in 1870, and 
afterwards served at itinerant missionary to Indians 
at various places. For instance, Fort Simpson, Bella 
Bella, Ocean Falls, Rivers Inlet, Yale, Mooksahk, Chil- 
liwack, Musqueam, Snauq, Nanalmo, Nootka, and Victoria, 
etc., etc. 



"Oh, I must tell you what they told me on the West 
Coast (of Vancouver Island). When I was over there, the 
West Coast Indians told me — that's quite a long time ago, too, 
in the 1870s or 1880s— that when their ancestors sew the first 
ships coming to Nootka, Capt. Cook's ships, they sent for the 
conjurers. Vflse men you can call them if you like." 

"I suppose the Indians first saw the ships far off 
on the horizon, anyway their sails were seen some distance out 
to sea, and with the hull half or completely out of sight 
owing to distance, would look rather mysterious to people who 
had never seen such things. The white sails were heaving and 
rising with the waves. The sails probably were not very 
white — anyway, they were very visible as the ships were tack- 
ing up and down in order to make the land. The conjurers 
said that the Moon men had come down and were using big snakes 
for a canoe, tacking backwards and forwards." 

"Alien the ships finally got to Nootka they dropped 
anchor, and, of course, as the anchor chains dropped through 
the hawse pipe, they made a great noise. The conjurerB 
said that was the moon men speaking, and the Indians fled to 
the woods." 



180 



168 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 148. Capt. Jamea Cook's 
arrival at Nootka, Hev. CM. Tate. 

"After a while", ao I waa told, "the voting men — 
the young braves — said 'You only die once, let's go out and 
see what It's all about; suppose we take a canoe and go out.' 
So they did. They wore sea otter garments; very valuable 
furs now, very valuable furs now, very valuable indeed, but 
quite common with the Indians at that time. Vhen they got 
out to the ships and saw the white faces of the men, why, 
that confirmed what the conjurers said about the moon men. 
It looked as though the conjurers were right. Finally they 
approached closer when some of the moon men came to tine 
edge of the ship and let down some eolored beads on a string. 
Some of the braver Indians went closer, and then beads were 
dropped into the canoe. Ultimately one or two of the moon 
men came down the ladder a little way and dropped some beads 
into the canoes, and finally three or four of the Indians 
were persuaded to leave their canoes and climb up the ladder 
to the ship's deck." 

"Everything pointed to confirm the conjurer's 
statements that these were the moon men. The moon men wore 
yellow. They had a brass band around their caps, they had 
brass epaulets and brass buttons. Then the captain of the 
ship came, and blew on the fur of their sea otter garments, 
and his features showed surprise at the fine furs." 

"One of the young Indians said to the other, *I 
think he wants our 'coats', and the companion replied, 'if 
you will give him yours I will give him mine too', so both 
did, and then the captain of the moon men said, 'you have 
given me your coats, now I will give you mine'. Then some 
undervests and underdrawers were brought and the Indians 
were shown how to put them on. They were well pleased." 

"Next, the two young men were invited down into 
the ship and the captain called to the steward, or someone, 
to bring some biscuits, and ship's biscuits, or something of 
the sort were brought on a pan and the captain pointed to 
his mouth. The two Indians looked at each other and said, 
in their own language of course, 'we never eat bones.* 
Then another pan was brought, this time with some red stuff 
on it, Jam, and the same performance of pointing to the 
mouth repeated. The two young Indians decided that these 
moon men eat blood and bones. One of the moon men took 
one of the 'bones' and broke it and placed a piece of blood 
(Jam), I think they told me 'dipped it in the blood', and 
ate it. The two Indians decided that they did not care for 
that sort of food and abstained." 

"The captain then sent for some new tin plates 



181 



160 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 149. Capt. James Cook»8 
arrival at Nootka. Rev. CM. Tate. 

from below. Theae were brought and held up to the light 
of the porthole, and, of course, reflected their facea, the 
celling and everything else. The two Indians now conclud- 
ed that the moon men had brought the atara with them. Fin- 
ally the tin plates were presented to the Indians." 

"Ahen the two young fellowa went on shore, highly 
delighted, they told the conjurers that they had seen the 
moon men alright; the conjurers were right, they were the 
moon men and they had brought the atars with them." 

"The whole incident", concluded Mr. Tate, "I was 
told, put the Nootka Indiana forever on a higher plane 
than any other tribe, and made them the most important tribe 
on the coast, for it was they who had brought the moon men 
and the atars to the Indians." 



"About their houses. I never saw a pallisaded 
Indian fort. Their houses were their forts. <.nen they 
were attacked they ran, I suppose, to their houses. They 
cut little holes in the thick sides of their houses and shot 
at their enemies with bow and arrow through those little 
holes. Then again, in many of the houses, the eat hern 
floor was two, perhaps three, feet below the bottom of the 
outside wooden walls and the ground level outside the house, 
so that when the Indians were squatted on the floor inside 
their heads were below the ground level outside, and that 
afforded still more protection from arrows, etc." 

"The tops of the four corner posts of their houses 
were grooved to receive and hold the cross logs or plates. 
Then right down the centre, longways down the middle, was a 
great beam to carry the roof. Inside, the four corner posts 
were usually ornamented with carvings. The sides of the 
building was of thick cedar slabs, split with deer*s horn 
wedges, and laid horizontally not perpendicularly one above 
the other to form the wall. (see Capt. Cook's Voyages, 
drawing of Nootka) between two upright stakes of moderate 
dimensions, and these stakes were lashed together with green 
cedar bark, or some such strapping, which held the stakes 
together, and thus kept the slabs of the wall in positlta. 
There were no windows; just an entrance without door, and 
usually there were no curtains or such protection from the 
weather across the entrance. The beams above the walls 
were very light. They carried little weight, only the roof, 
or such of the weight of the roof as was not taken by the big 



182 



170 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 149. Bev. CM. Tate (cont'd). 

beam down the centre. The walls supported themselves only. 
They had no part of the weight of the roof to carry. The 
light stakes holding up the walls were at Intervals, the hori- 
zontal wall boards or slabs slipped In between them, and then 
the stakes strapped together." 

POTLATCHES p.l50:"For use at the potlatch there was a sort 
of platform whfcTTTKey used to build in front of their houses. 
It was supported on four stout posts with the usual grooves 
at the top to receive the cross log or plate. The platform 
was high in the air — oh, perhaps ten or fifteen feet — and was 
perhaps five feet wide by fifteen or twenty feet long, just a 
very high platform from which they threw the blankets or 
other gifts at the potlatch. The name of the man for whom 
the gift was intended would be called out, and a blanket 
from the pile on top of the platform would be thrown, and 
come flying through the air to the crowd below. If the 
proper man caught it, well and good, but • it was quite a part 
of the proceeding for others to try and get it. There would 
be a sort of scramble. Some would have long spears and 
would spear the blanket as it came flying down. Then four 
or five would grab at it and aut off with a knife as much as 
he could of what he had grabbed. Thus, the blanket would be 
cut into four or, perhaps, five or more pieces and each man 
would retain whatever portion he had cut off. Afterwards 
the piece would be unravelled and the wool woven into a 
blanket more to their liking." 

GARMENTS . "The first Indians I saw were at Neah 

Bay, not far from Cape Flattery, in 1870. 
The garments they were wearing then were~a sort of sack ar- 
rangement with holes for them to poke their heads and arms 
through. Today you see local Indians wearing headdresses 
of Indian feathers, etc. I never saw those headdresses in 
the early days, and it is my opinion that they are innova- 
tions which the coast Indians have copied from the pictures 
they have seen of prairie Indians." 

(NOTE: Paull says they wore eagle's feathers in their 
hair; see photograph of 'Faithful Jim' drowned in 
Fraaer River, 1902). 

CANOES "You can always tell a canoe belonging 

to a Squamish Indian. No other canoes 
I know of have the straight stem with the projecting counter 
above it." 

(NOTE: Paull looked at a photograph of Vancouver 
"Before the Fire", panorama view of waterfront and 
Hastings Mill, and on which two Indian canoes appear, 
and said "Those are the canoes of our former enemies, 



183 



171 



"Early Vancouver," Vol. 2, p. 150. CM. Tate (cont'd). 

the northern Indiana". Both ends of the canoe sweep upwards.) 



A cup of tea, afternoon tea, waa brought 
in to Rev. CM. Tate as he lay in bed, and he continued: 

"Tea, the Indiana have certainly been 
valuable friends to the whiteman. They are a alncere, honeat, 
God-fearing race. To my own knowledge, up around Yale anyway, 
they succoured many a poor starving miner, and asked no re- 
turn, nor told what they did. (See Mr. Tate's remarks else- 
where). And as for honesty, why, I remember Mr. Aells, the 
celebrated dairy farmer up at Sardis and whilllwack telling 
me with much amusement how some man had come from eastern 
Canada to him for advice where to take up land, and he had 
shown him a piece near at hand, remarking that an Indian res- 
erve adjoined it. The man had replied "Oh, that's too bad, 
steal everything you've got." "Well", Mr. *ells told me he 
had replied, "you see that shed, it full of bacon and ham, 
and there is another one full of vegetables; never have I 
missed a thing, and as for locking the doors of our house, 
why, we simply never do it." 

"Then again, when I was preaching at 
Snauq, old Chief George's, (Chlp-kaay-am) community or pot- 
latch house under the present Burrard Bridge, I would call 
out at the end of the meeting asking if anyone had anything 
to say; or sometimes old Chief George would do it himself. 
In any case, he would usually get up and make some remarks 
of some sort; give the young men some good advice as to how 
to deport themselves, and the proper things to do. Old 
ChlaJT George was, as Jim Franks (Chillahminat) says, a very 
goott kind man, a fine Indian." 

"Then, when I was up at Bella Bella the 
Bella Bella Indiana contributed their mite to the help of 
the poor in London, England. I had told them of how people 
in the poorer districts of London, England, were starving, 
so they themselves took up a collection. My story had ap- 
pealed to them. They said to me "'Shy don't they come out 
here? Plenty of food out here if they would come." 

I suggested to the Hev. Mr. Tate that 
the stories associated around the various legendary 
rocks around English Bay, etc., had been wrongly 
stressed by writers as tales of romance rather than, 
as they should be, allegorical truths illuminating 

morality, and that my interpretation of the legends 



184 



172 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. £, p. 151. Z.::.. Tate (cont'd). 

of Chitchulayuk (fcoint Grey) and Slahkayulsh (Sl»ash 
Rock)— Indian men, in both instances, turned into atone 
for punishment — was that they were intended to be an 
exemplification of the truths of morality, and was, in 
the case of Chitchulayuk, for the purpose of illustrat- 
ing the folly of jealousy, and in the case of Slahkayulsh, 
the folly of greed. J.S.M. 

"Quite true", replied Mr. Tate, "You 
know, of course, that Mount Baker is the "Mother of All In- 
dians." The Indians said to me once "You say in your Bible 
that Lot's wife was turned into a pillar of salt. It's just 
as reasonable for the mother of Indians to hate been turned 
into a mountain of snow". It is a pity that the whitemen 
have not treated the Indians as well as the Indians have 
treated the whites." 

"The Indians are a splendid people if 
treated right. The New iiealanders fought for their rights. 
It might have been better if the Indians had done a little 
fighting. But old Sir Jamea Douglas was at the bottom of 
it. If he had not treated them squarely at the first we 
probably should have had a fight on our hands. He did buy 
a good deal of their land, but when he applied to the British 
Government for funds to buy land from the Indians for the 
settlers, the British Government said they had no funds for 
that purpose and that the proper thing to do was to sell what 
land he had to the whites, and with that money buy more land 
from the Indians. As an instance of what went on. .<hen 
the Indians were approached to sell the Songhees Reserve, I 
told them that if they sold any land they would sell it for- 
ever. I got a stinging letter from Helmcken threatening to 
put me in jail for resisting the government. I told him to 
go to it. I asked a man in Victoria how much the Songhees 
Reserve was worth, and he said three millions, but all the 
Indians got for it was ^400,000." 

".Vhich reminds me that the Indians got 
their flour from dried fern root. Saak is the word for 
fern. Sooke at Victoria is named after it. After it is 
dried fern root breaks up into a white powder. The Indian 
name is Swymuth for New iestminster. "Swy" means "to buy". 
The Indians gave it that name after they started to go down 
there to buy things from the traders. Ksquimalt is much 
the same interpretation. Both have the same meaning. The 
Indian name for the death dance was swywhee, quite different. 
Kokohpai on Marine Drive, now part of Locarno Beach, must 
have had a lot of crab apple trees there at one time. The 
Indian name for crab apple la kokwap. Just another illus- 
tration of how dialects differ. I am not sure about the 



185 



173 



"Early Vancouver," Vol. 2, p. 151. G.H.Tate (cont'd). 

meaning of "Stuckale" (Great Northern Cannery, .Vest Vancou- 
ver). It seems to me there must be a head or something 
there — a mountain. I once composed a hymn, and wanted a 
title for it, so I chose "Stuckale to Jesus", which inter- 
prets "head of all, chief of chiefs", or "Jesus, head of all," 
but I believe the local Squamish Indians have another meaning 
for it." 



FORT SIMPSON AND P. 152: "In 1874 I was appointed to 
NORTHERN INDIANS" Fort Simpson, now Port Simpson, for the 
purpose of opening up a mission in that 
district. I remained at Fort Simpson but a few months. I 
was exchanged with the Rev. Thomas Crosby, who was located at 
Chilliwack, and made my home at Chilliwack." 

THE "BITING MAN" "In 1880 we opened a school for Indian 
AND BET.T.4, BELLA youth — both sexes — at Bella Bella, and I 

was sent north again. It was at Bella 
Bella that my wife first remarked upon the sores upon the arms 
of the Indian girls and urged enquiry as to how they were 
caused. We had been giving the girls medical treatment for 
sores on their arms, lacerations of different shapes but 
mostly crescent-shaped, such as would be caused by teeth if 
the girls had been bitten, and some so septic as to be running 
sores. We discovered that certain of the male Indians be- 
longed to a sort of secret order whoee strange prerogative 
was that of biting people. This privilege was largely prac- 
tised on girls; rarely on men. The bites were on the thick 
of the arm, usually between the elbow and shoulder. The teeth 
made marks like brands, and, of course, bites from teeth which 
knew no dentifrice from birth to death might be expected to, 
and did, cause a good deal of blood poisoning. *e were fre- 
quently obliged to cauterize wounds; to poultice them. Let 
me illustrate the situation by an experience I had. It must 
have been in 1882." 

"I was going on a pastoral visit- to one 
of the villages near Ocean Falls — a place called "Kokite" — 
in a canoe with several Indians from Bella Bella together 
with their wives. .hen we sere about a mile distant from 
Kokite, '.ve caught the first sounds of the beating of Indian 
drums, gongs, singing, and the general noise of celebration. 
My Indian companions, both men and women, became alarmed; 
said it would be impossible to go on and proposed to turn 
back. I protested with vigor and said "No, we must keep 
on." 1 said, "the Great Father would protect all." With 
much trepidation they finally resumed paddling, and as we 
approached nearer we could see on the shore one of the 



186 



174 



"Barly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 152. C.lt. Tate (cont'd). 

dancers with a rope around his body making his way down 
the beach to the water's edge, and apparently dragging after 
him half a dozen men who were making pretence of holding him 
back. I learned afterwards that he wad the 'biting man'". 

"We landed and I accosted the 'biting 
man*, who immediately withdrew to one of the houses with 
those men who had been pretending to hold him back. They 
barred the door after entering. My own Indian crew promptly 
took to the woods. They feared something or other, prob- 
ably that the 'biting man' or his followers would attack me 
or us, or that there was going to be trouble. I protested 
to the 'biting man* and his companions against the manner 
of my reception. I told them I had come on a friendly 
visit and what did it mean that they received us in this in- 
sulting maimer." 

"The 'biting man* and his companions re- 
mained closeted within the house all day. On attempting to 
approach the building I was told that the 'biting man' was 
within, that I could not enter; no one was allowed to enter". 

CBREMDNY OF INI- "As explained to me, initiation into the 
TIATION secret order of the 'biting man' was a 

barbarous diabolical ceremony. I was 
Informed that the proposed Initiates first went into the 
mountains, washed themselves with mountain stream water, 
brushed themselves with spruce boughs, etc., etc., all to 
cleanse themselves. And then came back, and— almost too 
horrible to contemplate — went to a graveyard, or somehow 
procured a piece of putrlfylng human flesh, and knawed at 
that, after which they were admitted a member of the 'biting 
man* order. One chief told me that, if they could, they 
would get instead the rib of a piece of deer with flesh on 
it, or something of the sort, and tear away with their teeth 
at that; deception of course, he told me, but evidently 
they were not above avoiding the ordeal if they could." 

NOTS: Prof. Boas has written at length on this "order?. 

"My wife and I were teaching the girls 
at our school at Bella Bella, and, of course, ministering 
to their sores. When other tribes found that we were suc- 
cessful in our healing we were rather overrun with appeals 
to establish schools." 

BBMB BM AI "* nad another interesting experience at 
BELLA. COOll. Bella Coola. He were endeavoring to 

get the Indians to accept the Christian 
teaching. Tou see, my tenure of office was at • period of 



187 



175 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 153. CM. Tate (cont'd). 

time when the Indiana were becoming fairly familiar with the 
white man and hla habita. Prior to my period the Indiana 
had been left very largely to themaelvea; retained much of 
their old mode of living, kept very largely to old practices. 
But in my day they had had, from their childhood, some sort 
of more or less remote association with the whiteman; spoke 
broken English, had a general conception of whiteman's 
methods. On the other hand, the whiteman had left the In- 
dians pretty much to themselves." 

"But the natives had by no means loat 
their fear of their oldenemles. Times were not so remote 
that they could not recall soma of the terrors of the past, 
nor had they abandoned their precautiona to protect them- 
selves from the attacks of their native foea." 

"In responae to my pleadings I was told 
that it all sounded very good, but they enquired what, if 
they did as I asked, was to protect them from the attacks of 
their enemies. Their enemies would raid their vlllagea, 
carry off such as they could catch of their women and chil- 
dren. The wolf dance was a protection against these depre- 
dations. It would make their enemiea fear them. They 
agreed that they would be quite willing to accept our Chris- 
tian teachings if we would first aasure them of immunity from 
attack by killing off their enemies for them. Otherwise, 
what protection would they have?" 

THE WOLF DANCE "The wolf dance was a representation of 
the wolf. The Indians had a couple of 
shutters or clappers, which they clapped together, and at 
the aame time they howled 'whoaf, 'whoaf, in imitation of 
the wolf. The wolf dance had nothing to do with the 'biting 
i*. That was a secret order, entirely separate." 



"In this connection I might tell you that, 
whilst travelling with the Indiana — it was in the seventies, 
on trails about Nanaimo— I asked the reason for the mounda 
of sheila frequently to be seen deep in the forest. The 
reply was made to me, 'that is where our people have been 
eating*. What had happened was thia. When the enemy ap- 
peared the warriors sent the weaker to the wooda and aubse- 
ouently carried food, clama, fiah, etc., to them. After the 
foe had departed the weaker would return again from the wooda. 
The Tuclataws were the most dreaded tribe on the coast. They 
were not satisfied with killing their enemies, but, so the 
Indians informed me, cut off the heada of the vanquiahed, 
stuck taa head on a pole, faatened the pole upright in the 
canoe, and proceeded home in triumph." 



188 



176 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 153. CM. Tate (cont'd). 

OOLICHAN GREASE "A* you know, the Indians are very fond 
of oollcban grease, a rather disgusting 
edible for Europeans to whom it has a most repulsive odor. 
But Indians will smother it over all kinds of food and smack 
their lips. I recall one instance when I arrived very late 
one night at an Indian fishing village. I was Immediately 
ushered into the chief's house, and his wife began to prepare 
food for me. A fresh lot of halibut had Just come in and she 
began to cook. Out came her oollchan box and the big horn 
spoon, a sort of great ladle made, I think, from the horn of 
the big horn sheep. Of course, the more grease— they valued 
it— the greater the honor to the guest. I protested that I 
was unworthy of so much grease, but without avail. To my 
chagrin she was lavish, and simply showered her esteem on me 
by smothering the halibut with the grease. I never acquired 
a taste for it. I am hopeless— wJhout hope— that I ever 
shall." 

"I recall, most vividly, the first time 
I consented to eat with an Indian family. It was in 1871 in 
the community house at Nanaimo. I happened to arrive just 
as the family gathered around a large wooden platter of boiled 
cod. I aaked the privilege of dipping In with them, when, 
to their astonishment, they discovered that I was willing to 
eat with then. They seemed overjoyed." 

INDIAN FOOD- "The Indians had no gardens such as we 
GARDENS know. They got their livelihood from 

water and beach. Then, too, they used a 
lot of berries, shalal and other berries, which for winter's 
use they dried and made up in big flat compressed cakes on 
the same principle as our raisins. When wanted they would 
break off a pieoe, soak it in water, and cook. The Taimp- 
seans, in the north, preserved theirs in grease." 

INDIAN FISHING "Originally, before they got our nets, 

the Indians fished with frames of slats 
placed close together to keep the fiah from getting through— 
not small fish, but such as salmon. The frame was made of 
small round horizontal poles to which were affixed perpendic- 
ular slats of split cedar, fastened by rope or bark entwined 
so as to hold them to the poles and form a frame. The 
frames were sunk into the waiter, and put down in the gravel 
with stakes with sharpened points. 

(NOTE: See August Eitsllano's narrative explaining 
how the sandbar, where Granville Island now stands, was 
used to catch or trap fish by the Indians of Snauq, 
Burrard Bridge.) 



189 



177 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 154. C.M.Tate (cont'd). 

"The alata kept the fish from getting through. The Indiana 
put the framea right acroas the river, leaving out a slat or 
two in the middle where the water was swift. Above this 
opening they usually had an overhead walk, upon which they 
would stand and apear— or Jag with a hook — the fish, usually 
aalmon, aa they came through the opening. Sometimes they 
would have a canoe lying elongalde the frame to throw the 
fish into. At Bella Coola I have aeen a canoe almost sunk 
with the load of fish — generally salmon." 

"In later days the poor Indians felt the 
affects of the white mans fishing laws. They fined the poor 
Indian ten or fifteen dollara if he went out and caught a 
salmon in a stream from which, from time Immemorial, his an- 
cestors had caught their fish. Which reminds me that they 
took hia land aa well." 

■nraTiu T.AND QPBS- "I remember once an aasemblage of about 
TT6H one hundred Indians, mostly chiefs, — I 

~ ~" acted as interpreter for them — aaaembled 

at Victoria, and affcer discusalng their land complaints with 
Sir Richard McBride for about three hours, he replied saying, 
'Tou have no caae*. A big raw-boned Indian, a monster of a 
fellow from Douglas Lake, got up and said 'Tou say we have 
no caae?" 

"Then he made movements as though roll- 
ing up his sleeves and said, "McBride," — he did not even say 
Mr. McBride — "When men dlaagree they usually fight. • Sir 
Hlchard looked alarmed. •Now I want to fight you. I will 
fight you, not with our Indian law, but with your whitmans 
law. Ibr money you give title to lands. where did you get 
your title from? When people give title they must first 
have acquired it themaelvea. Where did you get your title 
from?" That waa pretty good reaaoning, eh?" 

"Another chief from up the coast said, 
»Tou aay you got your title from the Queen. What is the 
Queen's (Queen Victoria) title to us? Where did she get 
her title from that she can give it to you?'" 

SIB JAMBS DOUGLAS "The Indians thought a great deal of 

Sir James Douglas. That land which he 

got from them around Victoria he bought from them. True, 
he gave them only a few blankets, some biscuits and molasses, 
but he bought it. He once wrote to the British Government 
that British Columbia was filling up and that he wanted money 
to buy land from the Indians so that he would sell it to the 
settlers, otherwise there might be trouble. But the British 
Government's reply was that they had no money for the purchaae 



190 



178 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 155. CM. Tate (cont»d). 

of lands; that he had better sell a little and use the pro- 
ceeds to buy more. My opinion is that if the whole case had 
Jone to the Privy Council the Indians would have won out." 
See below.) 

TWTjTAp rt bpect FOR "The Iraser River Indians had a great 
BRITISH LAW respect for Judge Begbie. When the 

toughs from California bound for the Gari- 
JPDGB BBGBIB boo shot the Indians for sport, Judge Beg- 
bie came along with his blue- jackets, held 
court in the open along the Cariboo road, and the offending 
white man would be strung up without much formality soon after- 
wards. I remember, soon after the occurence, being told by 
white men how, at one of these open air courts, Judge Begbie 
had concluded his remarks to the offender whom he had sen- 
tenced to be hanged for shooting Indians (above Tale) in cold 
blood, by saying, "I wish you to understand that, under the 
British flag, an Indian's life is Just as valuable as any other 
life.'" 

KINDLY DISPOSITION (See above) "I quite agree with you that 
OF INDIANS" the Indian people are a splendid people if 

treated right. It's a pity the whiteman 
has not treated them as well as they have treated the whiteman. 
The New Zealand Maoris fought for their rights. It might 
have been better if our Indians had fought for theirs, but old 
Sir James Douglas was at the bottom of it. If he had not 
treated them squarely at the first we probably should have had 
a fight on our hands. He did buy a good deal of their land, 
but when he applied to the British Government for funds to buy 
land for the settlers from the Indians the British government 
said they had no funds for that purpose, and that the proper 
thing to do was to sell land to the white, and with that money 
buy more land from the Indiana." 

"As I found them, all Indians were a 
kindly, hospitable, joyful and entertaining people. Once 
you got on the right side of them there was little too good 
for their friends to whom they gave the best they had. Many 
of the miners returned down the iraser from the Cariboo "dead 
broke", and without food, and were helped back to civilization 
largely through the kindness of the Indians who frequently 
gave them supper, bed and breakfast— such as it was— asking 
no return, and in that way the miners got one day further on 
their journey to the coast." 

CHRISTIANITY'S Major Matthews: "Looking back over the 

MTSt£rI6US POffSR years, Mr. Tate, and with the mellowed 

judgment which long experience and white 



191 



179 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. J56. CM. Tate (cont'd). 

hairs give, do you consider your life's effort wasted?" 

"I should say not", vigorously ejaculated 
Mr. Tate in his indignant retort. There was no mistaking 
the meaning of the answer to the impertinent question. Then 
he continued: 

"Critics have often told us of the futility 
of trying to civilize Indians by simply preaching to them with- 
out first educating them, but experience has taught that It 
is much easier to educate the head after the heart is made 
right. Lawless barbarians have never become law-abiding cit- 
izens by book learning, but by Christianity we have seen the 
cannibal savage become a docile member of the community, and 
literally ask for the education that would enable him to com- 
pete with the educated people who had invaded his territory, 
and not be forever playing a losing game." 

"A lone result of missionary labor, - the 
smoke begrimed community house where a dozen families herded 
together under anything but moral and sanitary conditions has 
given place to the individual family cottage, the war paint 
has been washed from their faces, the feathers combed out of 
their hair, and modern clothing has supplanted the blanket 
pinned around the body with a wooden skewer. The canoe has 
given place to the gasboat built by themselves, and, so far 
as the Indiana are concerned, life and property is perfectly 
safe for the white man in any part of the country, largely due 
to the work of the missionaries, at least so said a government 
official to me a short time ago." 

MISSIONARIES MORS "Let me relate some of my experiences to 
VALUABLE - f HiK prove that contention. Some time in the 
iXftsaPS 1840s or 1850s the Bella Bellas made a raid 

on the Rivera Inlet Indians, carried off 
their women and children to be slaves, a most intolerable af- 
front and degradation. A couple of decades later It fell to 
me to persuade some Bella Bellas to accompany me down to 
Rivers Inlet on missionary work. After our arrival at Rivers 
Inlet, one of my Indian companions brought the alarming report 
to me that he had overheard a conversation— the two tribes 
speak the same language— to the effect that under cover of 
the night, the Rivera Inlets proposed paying the Bella Bellas 
back. During the conversation overheard, the question had 
coma up as to what was to be done with the white man, that 
was myself. The decision was that he would have to suffer 
the same fate as the rest of them to cover up the deed. When 
they first brought the report to me I said 'We are in God's 
hands; he will take care of us.*" 



192 



180 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 156. CM. Tate (cont'd). 

"After dark I got oat my magic lantern 
and elides, and we all went into the community houae , and 
there, whilst the Indians of both tribes were all seated 
together, I diaplayed the lantern slidea portraying the life 
of our Saviour and gave the necessary explanations. After 
the entertainment was over I saw the Rivers Inlet Indians 
wrap their blankets around them in that particular crouching 
attitude common to Indians, and one by one slide off out into 
the darkness, went to their own shacks, lay down and went to 
sleep. The Bella Bellas with myself stayed in the big com- 
munity house and did likewise. In the morning I said to my 
Indian companions, 'So you see how the Great father protects 
His children?" 

M0RDKB3 "Take the case of the schooner at Rivera 

Inlet whose crew was never again heard 
of. It is a legendary story and it was in speaking to the 
Indians about the past that they told me of it. I don't 
remember the name of the vessel. I don't know that the 
Indians knew it themselves. From what I could learn the 
schooner went into Rivers inlet to buy furs and an easy way 
to secure furs is to exchange liquor for them. The white- 
men offered liquor and the Indians scraped toghether all the 
furs that they could and got liquor in exchange. In due 
time the Indians said 'Give us more liquor*. The whltemen 
replied 'More furs, more liquor; no more furs, no more 
liquor;' The Indiana had no more furs, so they found a way 
to get the liquor. They murdered the crew to get it; but 
those whltemen, indirectly, murdered themselves." 

"Then again, down at Victoria, I have 
seen the Tuclataws, and their old enemies from Cape Mudge 
and Campbell River sitting on the same bench singing hymns 
and praying— and the "XUclataws were d esperados. " 

BaTTBt THAN WAR- "No warships, nor half a dozen of them, 
TIS~ could have brought about changes like 

these. 'In the earlier days', an old 
friend said to me onoe,*a man's life was not safe beyond a 
few miles outside Victoria'; and then my friend added, per- 
haps a little cynically, but not much, 'now you are safer 
among the Indians than among whites." 



The Rev. Mr. Tate was a guest of the 
City of Vancouver on July 1st, 1932, at the opening 



193 



181 



"Early Vancouver", Vol, 3, p. 157. 

of the splendid Burrard Bridge which passes directly 
over Snauq, the Indian village where formerly he 
preached in the Indian potlatch house. He was a 
somewhat prolific writer. His works include "Our 
Indian Missions in British Columbia," published by 
the Methodist Church in Toronto; translated the Gospel 
of St. Mark into an Indian language, published a book 
of Hymns in Indian tongue, and a Dictionary of Chinook 
Jargon. Now over 80, he is a tall venerable gentleman 
of clear complexion, white hair, stately carriage, and 
kindly bearing. J.S.M. 

'Our dear old Dr. Tate*, writes Dr. F.C. 
Stephenson of Toronto, 'his life has counted for much. 
Any honor we can show him is small reward.' 



Also see " INDIAN V TT.T. a rues 4ND T. AMnMARTren 
Burrard Inlet and English Bay 
Before the Whlteman Came 



February 28th. 1933. 
REV. CM. TATE died at 9:00 a.m. today (whilst this is 
being typewritten) at the home of his nephew and niece, 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Watson, 1749 Nelson street, Van- 
couver; an illuminating instance of the wisdom of 
getting historical material while it is procurable. 

J. 3. Matthews. 



194 



182 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 461,. See pp. 36-39. 

Copy of letter from Qpltchetahl, (Andrew Paull), 

"North Vancouver, 
26th June. 1933. 
"Dear Major (Matth ew") 
K-[TST^ t 4 NO r The KHAYTULK 

district of. "The above ia right" (apelllng of 

Indian name for Supplejack, aon of Chief 
KHAYTULK. son of Haataa-lah-nough) . 

Chief Haataa-laE- "Re the elk— they used to hang 

nough . around the flata at the head of False 

Creek. The Indians killed a lot, and 
sold the meat by the canoe load to the whites in early days. 
See my narrative of Kits llano moving from Point Roberts to 
Snauq (False Creek) in your story in the "Province", (Mar. 
12, 1933). There was a great demand, which depleted them, 
and I suppose perhaps, too, they migrated to less molested 
pastures." 

Tours 

(Joitchetahl" 



From the narratives of Plttendrigh, 
Rowling, and Hunt, (see pages numbered as above) all of 
whom speak of finding elk remains, but who never saw a 
live elk near the Burrard Peninsula— -the two former com- 
ing here about 1870— it would seem that elk were form- 
erly fairly numerous about the lower Fraaer River, prob- 
ably formed a staple article of Indian diet, and that the 
cause of their disappearance so many years ago was prob- 
ably due to the fact that the whitemen who first ar- 
rived craved meat, and, being without beef, mutton, etc., 
encouraged the Indians to bring in elk meat to such an 
extent that the muskegs and natural grass prairies were 
soon depleted of them. J. S. M. 1935 « 



KHAYTULK Khaytulk, whose English name was Supple- 



iack, and whose grave was at Chaythoos 



(Prospect Point) Stanley Park, and well remembered by 
the earliest settlers on Burrard Inlet as a big "long" 
Indian, was the son of Chief Haataa-lah-nough, after 
whom Kitsilano is named, and father of August Jack 
Haatsa-lano, now a resident at Capilano River with his 
wife Swanamla, son and daughter. J. S. M. 1953. 



195 



183 



"Karly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 53. 

Conversation with Andrew Paull, secretary, Squamlsh Indian 
Council, since 1911, (and still acting — 1933), North Van- 
couver. 

December 15th. 1932 . 
^OITOHETaHL 

TH& AriHlTSI OF "It was the duty of the more responsible 
CAPT. VANCOUVER Indians," said Mr. ^oitchetahl, "to see 

that the history and traditions of our 
race were properly handed down to posterity. A knowledge 
of our history and legends was of similar importance as an 
education is regarded today among whitemen. Those who pos- 
sessed it were regarded as aristocrats. Those who were in- 
different, whether adults or children, were rascals. Being 
without means of transmitting it into writing, much time was 
spent by the aristocrats in imparting this knowledge to the 
youth. It was the responsible duty of responsible elders." 

"V,"hen I was a youth my father took me 
fishing Jlth him. 1 was young and strong, and pulled the 
canoe whilst he fished, and as we passed along the shore-- 
you know progress when one is rowing is very slow— it gave 
him ample tine, as we passed a given point; for him to explain 
to me all about the various matters of Interest of that lo- 
cation, which it was his delight to do. It was in this man- 
ner that the history of our people was preserved in the past. 
It was a duty for elders to attend to, equally as important 
as the schooling of our children is today. Then again, in 
1920, all was arranged for me to go to Ottawa to impart some 
historical information to some historical department there — 
I never went — but In preparation for it I went especially to 
Squamish to see the daughter of the "real? Old Chief Capilano, 
a sister to Frank Charlie, or Ayatak Capilano (Ayatak) of 
Musqueam." 

Note: Some mistake here; must mean granddaughter, 
Frank Charlie is grandson. 

"It seems that it wa.s a tradition among 
the Indians of early days that a calamity of some sort would 
befall them every seven years. Once it was a flood. On 
another occasion disease wiped out '.Vhoi-.hoi. Again, it was 
a snow storm which lasted for three months. The wise men 
had long prophesied a visitation from a great people, from a 
very powerful body of men. Capt. Vancouver came in 1792, a 
year which coincided with the seventh year, the year in which 
some calamity was expected, regarding the form of which there 
was much trepidation, so that when strange men of strange 
appearance, -shite, with their odd boats, etc., etc., arrived 
on the scene, the wise men said 'this may be the fateful 
visitation, what may it bring us*, and took steps to propit- 
iate the all powerful visitors." 



196 



184 



".iarly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 53. Andrew Paull (cont'd). 

"It was the custom among Indians to 
decorate or ornament the interior of festival or potlatch 
houses with v.hite feathers on festive occasions and cere- 
monials. The softer outside feathers from Beneath the 
coarser outside covering of wateffowl were saved, and these 
white eiderdown feathers were thrown and scattered about, 
ostensibly to placate the spirits, in a manner not very dis- 
similar to the decoration of a Jhristmas tree with white 
artificial snow at Christmas time." 

"Capt. Vancouver reports that he was re- 
ceived v.ith 'decorum*, 'civility', 'cordiality', and 'respect', 
and that presentations were made to him. I will explain to 
you the true meaning of this; always bearing in mind that I 
have come to know, it has come to me as knowledge, through my 
father's uevotion to the duty of elders to pass on by word of 
mouth the great traditions and history of our race." 

"As your great explorer Vancouver pro- 
cessed through the First Narrows, our people threw in greet- 
ing before him clouds of snow white feathers which rose, 
'.vafted in the air aimlessly about, then fell like flurries 
of snow to the water's surface and rested there like white 
rose petals scattered before a bride. It must have been a 
pretty welcome. Then there were presents of fish; all to 
invoke the all powerful arrivals to have pity on them — it was 
the seventh year. You see there was motive behind it. They 
were expecting a calamity and were anxious to do anything to 
avoid it. Read what Vancouver has to say about the conferences 
which took place, the meaning of which he did not understand, 
but which he reports as 'they did not seem to be hostile'". 

"I am informed that the ceremony of cast- 
ing the white eiderdown before him took place as Capt. Van- 
couver's ship passed through the First Narrows and was pass- 
ing '.Yhoi -<hol, the big Indian village in Stanley Park where 
the Luirber.Tians Arch is now. Whoi Vihoi must have been a very 
large village, for it spread from Brockton Point to Prospect 
Point. It must also have been a very ancient village, none 
know its age, but there :iust have been hundreds, perhaps 
thousand, living there at one time. Tradition says that 
Capt. Vancouver went on up the iijlet, spent the night on the 
shore but saw few Indians because none were living up there, 
so I am told." 

"I can quite understand that Capt. Van- 
couver reports Stanley Park as an island blocking the chan- 
nel, for in earlier days even I can r ecall that the waters 
of English Bay almost overflowed into Coal Harbor at Second 
Beach." 



197 



185 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 54. Andrew paull (cont'd). 

"Tim Moody — Timothy is a flathead, that 
Is, his forehead was flattened according to Indian custom 
when he was a child, and that is long ago. The sculptor 
Marega has made a bust model of his head and shoulders— Tim 
Moody tells you that all Stanley Park is called Paa-pee-ak. 
That is not correct. At the time of the court proceedings 
respsctin^ the ejection of squatters from Stanley Park I was 
called upon to replace Tim Moody as interpreter. Tim was 
expressing his own opinions instead of interpreting the wit- 
ness's remarks. During the proceedings I had to interpret 
for a very old Indian, Abraham. He continually and consist- 
ently referred to Stanley Park as Whol-'.vhoi. No; Paa-pee-ak 
is nothing more than an Indian way of saying park." 

"It may be interesting to record how my 
ancestors cut down a tree. In bygone days my ancestors cut 
down many cedar trees in Stanley Park for making canoes and 
other purposes. You can see the evidences of their attempts 
to cut down trees even yet. There are many trees in Stanley 
Park v. ith little holes in them, holes some feet up from the 
ground. Last year the Parks Board gave us permission to cut 
down a tree in Stanley Park to make a canoe, a racing canoe. 
There is one such tree, with a little hole in it, near the 
tree we cut down for the racing canoe, and there are many 
such throughout the park— right at the head of Beqver Lake 
trail. You see the Indian fellers had nothing but stone 
chisels and a big round stone for a hammer. Cedar trees 
expand in girth near the ground. Frequently they are hol- 
low or rotten in the centre. There would be disadvantage 
in cutting off at the -.idest diameter, for not only would 
the bulge have to be cut off again in making the canoe before 
the canoe could be shaped, and, too, cut off with a stone 
chisel, but the lower end might have a rotten centre. Too 
much extra labor. So they eliminated all this extra work by 
going a few feet up the tree trunk and, cutting in an explora- 
tory hole, ascertained if the tree was sound. If a rotten 
centre was struck the tree was abandoned. That is the mean- 
ing of those little holes in the cedar trees — they are aban- 
doned trees. Ask the park forester to show them to you." 

"Siwash Hock! Well, Chants is not only 
a big rock on the beach, that is symbolically Siwash dock's 
fishing line rolled up in a ball, but it also includes a big 
hole in the cliff nearby where Slahkayulsh kept his fishing 
tackle. You can see the hole as you come in on the Victoria 
boat. Stuk-tuks is too abrupt a pronunciation of the name 
for the little bay known as Fishermans ^ove. Abruptness 
destroys the sense of the root from ..hich the word is der- 
ived. The longer"Stoak-tux" is better. It means "all cut 
up". The rocks there are all fluted and cut up." 



198 



186 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 55. Andrew Paull (cont'd). 

"Dick Isaacs' Indian name is Que-yah- 
chulk, Tim Moody's ia Yahmas. Frank Charlie (Ayatak) of 
Muaqueam is quite entitled to use the surname Capilano. The 
Capilanos of Gapllano reiver and Frank Charlie of I.usqueam 
both acknowledge descent from the same blood." 

QOITCHETAHL, THE "My ancestor Qpltchetahl, the celebrated 
SERPENT SLAYER serpent slayer of Squamlsh was born at 

Stawmass, near Squamlsh. The aged Hasten 
tella me that he v,as the great grandfather of my grandmother. 
I was i;iven the name of Qpltchetahl at a meeting held in my 
grandmother's house on the North Vancouver Indian Reserve in 
1910 or 1911. All, every one, of the old chiefs of the 
Squamlsh tribe were present. My grandmother, being a direct 
descendant of the original Qpltchetahl, herself chose me as 
the member of the family to bear the name tyoitchetahl. " 

NOTE: The aged and wrinkled Haxten, seated nearby dur- 
ing the talk, is said to be 112 years old. It is 
fairly conclusive she is over 100. Her rapid and re- 
peated utterance of the word Qpltchetahl sounded, in 
English, much like ".Vhichtull", or "A'udge-tal". 

Haxten, or Mrs. Harriet George, North Vancouver, died 
February 8, 1940, see "Provinoe", February 9, 1940. 

A full report, somewhat different in detail to that re- 
lated by August Kitsilano, of the legend of Qpltchetahl 
is printed in Professor Chas. Hill-Tout's report on the 
Ethnological Survey of Canada, British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, Bradford Meeting, 1900, p. 
530. August Kitsilano 's account is given elsewhere 
In this record. 

Conversation .vith Andrew Paull. January 10th, 1933. 

"The story of Kokohaluk, and the burning 
of Homulchesun, is not legend but actual history," continued 
Mr. Paull (Qoitchetahl) "and ia in part verified by Haxten, 
(Mrs. Harriet George) my wife's grandmother, who actually saw 
the bodies of the slain. She ia now over 100 years old. 
It ia claimed that she is 112 years old, ao that it is prob- 
able that the incident occured about, say, ninety years ago. 
I will call her, and interpret for you." 

Major Matthews: "Ask her why they 
calleo. it Homulchesun." 

(Mr. Paull asks.) 



199 



187 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 55. Andrew Paull (cont'd). 

Haxten: "Ann, ahh, ahh." (Mr. Paull 
interpreting) "Vi'here they split the cedar trees and made 
them into a fence (fort or stockade), because of the enemy 
that used to come. In the stockade they had a northern 
Indian woman imprisoned, Kokohaluk. They had stollen her 
from the enemy and were teeping her In the fort. She had 
become the wife of a Squamish Indian and was an expectant 
mother." 

"Well, about eighteen warriors from the 
north came in a big canoe, and, at a moment when it was unde- 
fended, attacked the fort at Homulchesun, rescued Kokohaluk, 
burned the stockade, and made off with her." 

"'/hilst all this was going on three 
Squamish men, all brothers, were coming down in two canoes-- 
one large and one small — from Squamish to Coquitlam. They 
were proceeding via the North Arm of the FTaser. The canoe 
had just been completed by the three brothers, and they were 
taking it as a present to their sister who had married a man 
at Coquitlam. The smaller canoe was to take the three 
brothers back to Squamish after the presentation. The big 
canoe was very valuable." ("As valuable as a large ocean 
liner is to us today", added Mr. Paull.) 

"As th« raiders from the north, returning 
from the burned fort, were proceeding home again they and 
the three Squamish men met. Just where they sighted each 
other I do not know, but I think somewhere off Skaywltsut 
(Point Atkinson). The weaker force retired when they were 
attacked by the eighteen warriors. The fight took place 
somewhere about Kee-khaal-sum (Eagle Harbor). Two brothers 
were in the great canoe — hastened to the shore to defend it. 
The other brother took the smaller canoe, and took up a 
position behind the big boulder on the rocky shore. This 
brother's name was Skwa-lock-tun, He prepared for battle. 
He had his bow and arrow in a satchel slung to his side. 
One by one the attackers were either killed or wounded, 
largely by Skwa-lock-tun from behind the big boulder, until 
finally only two of the raiders and the woman Kokohaluk re- 
mained in the raider's canoe." 

"Then Kokohaluk said to her captors, 
•You had better stop fighting. That is a bad Squamish man 
you have met.' So the fighting ceased and the dead and 
wounded were dragged back to the canoe, which drew off in 
the direction of the north and disappeared." 

"After their departure, Skwelocktun, the 



200 



188 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 56. Andrew paull (cont'd). 

Squamish man, emerged from his retreat, and went to look for 
his brothers. He found both their bodies. Their heads 
were gone. Both large and small canoe were smashed to 
pieces. Skwalocktun alone survived; so he resolved to pro- 
ceed to Homulcheson and seek assistance." 

"From Keekhaalsum to Homulchesun he 
walked, and then related the story of the fight." 

"Payt-sa-mauq, half brother to "Old Chief" 
Capilano, said 'This fighting must stop.' Kokohaluk'a hus- 
band said 'I love Kokohaluk. I am going to Nanaimo, where 
there is a Nanaimo man married to a woman from the north. I 
will ask him to go with me and we will go as ambassadors of 
peace from the people of the south to the people of the north. 
I will ask them to let me have Kokohaluk. ~ In due time the 
mission proceeded north; their requests were granted, peace 
was declared, and" laughed ioltchetahl as he interpreted and 
then added "they lived happy ever afterwards". 

THE 3LAIN LI 2 III "A short time afterwards — how long she 
BUSHES AT GIBSONS does not know — Haxten was Journeying by 

canoe with her husband along the shore 
near Gibson's Landing when her husband saw some wild goose- 
berries, and drew them to her notice. Haxten disembarked 
from the canoe and proceeded up the shore to gather some, and 
whilst wandering midst the wild gooseberry bushes gathering 
the fruit, she 'stumbled upon' the bodies of the slain. They 
were covered with mats and badly decomposed." 

"After peace v.as declared, the ^quemish 
houses v.ere built on the short, and not concealed in the 
forest as they had been previously, and as Capt. Vancouver 
reports they were when he visited here in 1792. There was 
no longer fear from attack." 

NOTE: Assuming Haxten 's age to be 100, this, incident 
probably happened, approximately, about 1850. The 
dead would be heavy, and would be carried by a short 
distance, i.e., just beyond the actual beach. The 
Indians fought v. ith bow and arrow. Matthias Capilano 
says that "Old Chief Capilano had fought battles with 
bow and arrow, and lived to fight them with guns. The 
white mans rule probably accounts for the change in 
sites of houses. 

Paull continues the conversation; Haxten 
retires: 



201 



189 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 57. Andrew Paull (cont'd). 

"Some time ago I sat at a table opposite 
a Yucletaw Indian. He appeared uneasy, conscious of some 
emotion, and presently he remarked to me that my ancestors 
and his had been foes, and commented upon the oddity of two 
descendants of hereditary foes conversing, in amity side by 
side. And then he told me of the great holes which his 
ancestors had dug in the ground to protect themselves from 
the assaults of my ancestors, and mused on the labor he had 
been given, and smiled and nodded Ills head at the thought of 
it, of filling them up again. 'Some work' he remarked with 
irony, 'I had to draw about twenty wa»-on loads of earth to 
fill each hole up again'". 

INDIAN NOIpHJLA - "In studying the names on your map I think 
TURS ABOUT we should change some of them. Khachu 

ENGLISH BAY means 'a lake'; Akhachu means 'a little 

lake', and Beaver Lake iv Stanley Park is 
a little lake. Then Siwash .-iock is best spelt 'Slah-kay-ulah' 
to get the proper meaning 'he is standing up'. Be careful to 
spell Chah-kai v.ith the second *h' so as to distinguish it 
from Che-kai, i.e., Ht. Daribaldi. The mouth of the creek 
just west of ..allace's shipyard, 100 yards or so east of Lons- 
dale Avenue, should be spelt *Es-tahl-tohk* . It means 'a 
fine, large, pretty house built there*. The name 'Stait-wouk' , 
Indian for Second Beach in Stanley Park, is the Indian name 
for a clay material or muddy substance formerly obtained rlf-iit 
in the bed of a small creek right at Second Beach, which, when 
rolled into loaves, as the Indians did it, and heated or 
roasted before a fire, turned white like chalk. As you know, 
the Indian blankets were made from the woven mountain goat's 
fur, and staitwouk, after being whitened, was used to dust or 
powder them with to whiten them. I am told that Staitwouk 
was the only place known to the Indians where this material 
was procurable." 

NOTE: Rev. C.M. Tate says that Indians would come long 
distances to procure this white pipe clay. They came 
as far as from Vancouver's Island. 

"Sahix does not mean the site of the old 
Uoodyville Sawmill, which was east of Sahix. Sahix means 
•a polht' or 'cape*, and ie that prominent headland east of 
the North Vancouver ferry landing. If you will observe, 
you .-.ill see that the whole of t -e north shore from W«st 
Vancouver to Roche Point is low and flat save for the one 
point, Sahix, which rises to eminence, and appears as a bold 
bluff. It must have been still more prominent when the 
forest grew upon it. At Estahltohk, just east of Lons- 
dale avenue, there was a graveyard as well as a 'fine large 



202 



190 



*Early Vancouver", Vol. 8, p. 57. Andrew Paull (cont'd). 

house*. Lucklucky means a 'grove of beautiful trees'; and 
•Kumkumlye*. it is better spelt 'lye' then 'lai', means 
that there is a lot of 'maple trees* there (Hasting* Sawmill). 
In some of the photographs of early Vancouver you will see 
Indian canoes about the Hastings Sawmill waters — canoes with 
upturned prow and stern. These are the canoes of northern 
Indians. Probably they worked at the mill. The Squamish 
canoes is peculiar to itself. The stern is not turned high 
in the air, and the prow has a straight stem part way and 
then a projection, like a blunt bill, and almost horizontal, 
stioks out. 3mamchuze, on False Creek, brings to mind the 
system of Indian burials." 

INDIAN BURIALS "Our system of burial has progressively 

changed. One hundred years ago, per- 
haps, it was exclusively tree burial; and, when they could 
get it, on an island. Then changes gradually crept in. 
After the arrival of the whiteman they were told that it was 
not proper, not decent, to have bones lying on the surface of 
the earth, but as late as 1907, or 1908, I was on those two 
little islands Just west of Point Atkinson, south of 3agle 
Harbor, and found the remains of several bodies on the summit 
of one of them — Just laid on the bare rock) there is no 
earth on those storm-swept islets; and covered with split 
cedar slabs, about say 3" thick, 18" wide, and about five 
or six feet long, held down by their own weight — no stones 
on them. This will illustrate that, prior to the advent 
of the whiteman, Indians did not usually bury in the ground. 
I would not say that they never did. Defence Island, near 
Squamish in Howe Sound, is an old Indian burial ground, 
merely half an acre in extent. It was surveyed and given 
to the Indians in 1876, and again surveyed in 1881, but 
recently has been sold to private parties by the Provincial 
Government, and a deed for it actually issued. The new 
•owners' want #1200 for it, but it belongs to the Indians, 
and was an old burial ground." 

proiAN UNDBR- "Do not forget that, in addition to being 
GAHMBTTS useful for canoes, buildings, etc., cedar 

was used to make undergarments." 

(NOTB: Hill-Tout speaks of it being used for the fluffy 
lining of infant's cradles.) 

"Kee-khaal-sum (Eagle Harbor) which Prof. 
Hill-Tout refers to as having reference to 'nipping 
grass', and that the deer went there in spring to eat 
the tender young grass, really refers to the knawing of 
animals; you know, they have a habit of gnawing buds, 
and tender shoots in spring. It really means 'gnawing'". 



203 



191 



EICERPTS FROM CAPT. GEORGE VANCOUVER'S JOURNAL 
To fef read In conjunction with 
Andrew Paull'a (Qpltchetahl) Remark* 

1798 

"At five In the morning of June 13th we again dir- 
ected our course to the eastern shore." 

"Which in compliment to my friend Capt. Grey of the 
nary was called Point Grey." 



branch." 



"Prom Point Grey we proceeded first up the eastern 



"We passed to the northward of an island (Stanley 
Park) which nearly terminated ita extent, forming a passage 
from ten to seven fathoms deep (First Narrows) not more than 
a cable's length in width. This island lying exactly across 
the channel appeared to form a similar passage to the south 
of it (Coal Harbor) with a smaller island (Deadmans Island) 
lying before it. The channel (Burrard Inlet) in width about 
half a mile continued Its direction about east. Here we 
were met by about fifty Indians in canoes, WHO CONDUCTS!) 
THEMSELVES 7TITH GREAT DECORUM AND CIVILITY , PRESENTING US 
WITH SEVERAL FISH fiOOKED AND TJNDRESSeD 0¥""a SORT RESEMBLING 
SMELT. THE3K GOOD PEOPLE , finding we were Inclined to make 
some return for their flflffPTTp.TTY SHOWED MUCH UNDERSTANDING 
In preferring iron to copper." 

"For the sake of the COMPANY OF OUR NEW FRIENDS we 
stood under easy sail, which encouraged them to attend us 
some little distance up the arm. The major part of the 
eanoes twice paddled forward, assembled before us . and each 
time • conference was held. The subject matter, which re- 
mained a profound secret to us, did not appear to be of an 
unfriendly nature, as they soon returned, and, IF POSSIBLE, 
EXPRESSED ADDITIONAL CORDIALITY AND RESPECT." (See Andrew 
Paull'a explanation of this Incident). "Our numerous at- 
tendants, who gradually dispersed as we advanced from the 
station where we had first met them, and three or four 
canoes only accompanied us up a navigation which in some 

? laces did not exceed one hundred and fifty yards in width 
probably Second Harrows). 

"We landed for the night about half a league from 



204 



192 



"«arly Vancouver", Vol. 8, p. 59. SXcerpte from Cap*. 
George Vancouver's Journal (cont'd). 

the head of the inlet (about Barnot) and about three league* 
from the entrano* (Proapeet Point). Our Indian vlaitora 
remained with ua until, by algna, we gave then to underatand 
*• **'a going to reat, and, after receiving aome aeeeptable 
artiolea, they retired, and, by mean* of the aame language, 
promiaed AN ABUNDANT SUPPLY OP PISH THB NUT DAT, our aeine 
baring bean tried in their preaence with very little auceeaa. 
▲ great deaire waa manifested by these people to Imitate our 
action*, especially the firing of a musket, which one of thea 
performed, though with much fear and trembling. They min- 
utely attended to all our tranaactiona, and examined the 
color of our aklna with greet curiosity; they poaseaaed no 
Airopean commodities or trinket a, excepting aome rude orna- 
ments apparently made from sheet copper; thia circumstance 
and the general tenor of their behaviour gave ua reason to 
oonolude that we were the flrat white people from a civil- 
ised country that they had yet aeen." 

"Perfectly satisfied with our reaearchea in thia 
branch of the sound (fijgllsh Bay) at four in the morning of 
Thursday, 14th, we retraced our paaaage in; leaving on the 
northern shore a small opening (north arm of Burrard Inlet) 
with two little *aleta before it of little importance." 

"Aa w* paaaed the situation from whence the 
Indiana had visited us the previous day (probably Whol-lhoi 
or Homulchesun) with a small border of law marahy land on 
the northern ahorea intersected by sevet*-creeka of fresh 
water (Mosquito, Ifackey, Mission, Lynn, Seymour creeks and 
Capilano River) we were in expectation of their company, tout 
were disappointed owing to travelling so soon in the morning. 
Moat of their canoea were hattt.i^ up IN CBBEKS and two or 
three only of the natives could be seen straggling about on 
the beach. None of their habitations could be discovered 
whence wa concluded that their villages were within the 
foreat (see Paull). Two canoea came off aa we paaaed tha 
i aland (Stanley Park— canoea probably from Whol-lhoi) tout 
our boats being under aail I was not inclined to halt, and 
they almost immediately returned." 

"By seven in the morning we had reached the north 
waat point of the channel. Thia also, after another par- 
ticular friend, I named Point Atkinson." 



205 



:TWTIV\j 



193 



Conversation with Qpitchetahl (Andrew Paul), Horth Vancouver, 
"Early Vancouver", Vol. 3, p. 4. 

12th February . 1984 . 

>ROT PAUL . Major Matthew ; "Can you tell ae what 
Saaaamat means? I understand Galiano 
and Valdea aay that they called Burrard 
Inlet Jloridablanca, and that the natives 

called it Saaaamat— at leaat that portion up about Indian 

River. 

Andrew Paul ; "I never heard it called 
"Saaaamat", but l»ll find out from Haxten. It aounda to me 
like Taaa-tamat. Tou know Tea-atalum, the cool place out at 
Point Grey; well, both names are from the eame derivation, 
and I presume that the North Arm of the Burrard Inlet might be 
considered a »oool place,' especially around Indian Elver." 

proijJB "Tou know the story of the Qpitchetahl 

ARRI VAL OF FIRST (Serpent). Well, I have always been told 

C.P.R. VkjJfT that when the train first came down from 

Port Moody to Vancourer, the Indians along 

the south shore of the Inlet took fright and ran. A. great 
long black snaks of a tiling with a big black head came twirl- 
ing around the curves, blowing long blests, Hoooooo, Hoooooo, 
Hoooooo, and the Indians thought it was a Qpitchetahl coming 
back." 



206 



194 



•Barly Vancourer", Yol. 3, p. 18. 



BbgBArD_EEII)GS . 






In confer eat ion with Andy EauD, on the 
subject of the arbitration proceedings 
in connection with the Kitailano Indian 
Reserve and approximately eight acres of 
land expropriated for the footings of th* 
Burrard Bridge, he remarked upon the ex- 
treme length of the arbitration sessions of the three eom- 
ffllasioners, who sat for approximately twenty-eight days arr ly- 
ing at a deciaion aa to the ralue of the land; a matter whioh 
had already been considered by expert valuers on several prer- 
ious occasions. Qoitchetahl (Andrew Paull) ooncluded his 
remarks by saying, "The white man is too cheap to conduct a 
decent deal with an Indian." The figures as supplied by Mr. 
Paull are: 

City eosts, legal, etc, T 15,148.65"> „ „, 

Indian costs, Lawyers, etc., *«■■»»»•** 

(All charged to Indians) 13,T08.85j 

Balance in caah to Indians 16.154.06 

Total 144,968.68 

J.S.M. 



207 



195 

"Surly Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 278. 

Conversation with Chief Stogan, of Muaqueam Indian Beaerve, 
■ho called at tho City Archives, City Ball, about lat November , 
1938. In company with some one. Be stayed Just a moment; 
looked out of the windows, and promised to call again. 

I ahowed him the black atone round ball in 
the glaaa ease, mentioned and deaoribed in conversation with 
August Jack Xhahtsahlano, 11th July 1936. (Die. 4 lnchea; 
weight 3 lbs. 6f ounoea), and pointed to it aa it lay in the 
glaaa oase. He remarked: 

CC3T0MS | Major Matthews: (to Stogan) "Sea that 

black atone ball?" 
BOOST Chief Stogan: "Bi? Tea. Indian rugby." 

Major Matthewa: "Tou are Thltaimalanough?" 

Chief Stogan: "nh? Oh." 

Chief Stogan is a short, stalwart man of, 
possibly sixty} perhaps more, hardly leaa; and bright of eye, 
quick of movement , light copper complexion, and a nan of pera- 
onality and authority. I waa Impressed by hla appearance and 
the indication of intellectual oapaeity hia features and move- 
ment gaTs— e large, wrinkled faoa, lipa not so thick as most 
Squamish, square Jaw, Grecian rather than Bo— noae, broad, high 
forehead, and kindly smile. 

Her. C.M. Tate, "Barly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p.33: 
Th1t mam man lah nmigh waa chief at Muaqueam". 

(Also aee, p. 14, aa to different meanings given to "lanough" 
by Tate and Hill-Tout. The former says it mesna "the 
place of", or "the property of", and the latter aaya it 
means "man". Actually both agree aa to ita meaning, but 
put it in different words. A wide interpretation would 
be the "The Man of Thitseemaeh" , or, the "Prince of Thit- 

J. S. M.) 




iilOflJMJfl 
j&fi'i/Yajn 




"Marly Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 291. 

Conversation with Mra. James Walker, eldeat daughter of 

Joaeph 311 vey, pioneer, 1866, or earlier, of Gas town. 

SILVKT 0* 27th October. 1938. 

Mrs. Walker: "Joaeph Silvey, of "Qaatown-, 
JOg HO. I . waa my father. Hia real name waa Joaeph 

Silvey Simmons. I cannot aay exactly 

whether the name la spelt Silvey or 
Silvia, or how; nor can I aay where he was born, excepting 
that it waa in Xorope somewhere." 

"He came out to British Columbia with a 
lot of men for the Hudson* s Bay Co., Victoria^ and then they 
went prospecting for gold up the Eraser Biver, up at Tale or 
somewhere up the Cariboo anyway. That waa when he waa a 
young man and before he waa married* 



208 



196 



(cont'd) "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 291, Mre. Walker: 

"They had a lot of trouble with the In- 
diana. The Indian* were killing the whitamen of*. Then, 
one night, alx whlteaen ran away from the mine* at Tale, or 
wherever it waa, and eaoaped down to New Westminster In a 
oanoe. They could not atop where they were any longer aa the 
Indiana were killing whitamen off." 

"Trom Weatminater a report waa aent to 
Victoria— by telegraph I think, or somehow— if there waa a 
telegraph, aaking Victoria to aend a man-o-war, and a gun 
boat cane and went up the rlrer after the Indiana, and that 
tamed the Indiana down.* 

M03QDKAM INDIANS "Than ay father, together with the four or 

flTe whlteaen who had come down the river 
with hia, went on down the North Arm of the Fraser in the dug- 
out canoe, and, when they approached the Point Grey Indian 
Beaerre on the North Arm, they aaw a crowd of Indiana in front. 
They were frightened and claaped their handa together before 
their facea, aa in prayer, becauae they thought they would all 
be killed, and that the Muaqueam Indiana were like the Tale 
Indiana." _ _ . 

"But the Musqueama treated them with kind- 
neaa, and they aure were good (with emphaaia) to my father and 
hia companiona." 

P 292* 
CHIEF KiAPTT.Awn, "The big chief, Kiapllano, from Capllano, 
the old chief. happened to be at Muaqueam, and he atood 
56W aKS ARROWS, in the middle of the crowd of Indiana. 

All the Musqueama had their arrows ready, 

but Kiapllano, the ohlef, stopped them. He put up hia two 
arms oyer hia head, and that motion held the crowd in check. 
He waa ay great grandfather on my mother* a aide." 

"The old chief lived at Capllano Creek 
(the village of Homulcheaon ) , but he also had a home et 
Muaqueam,, His mother was a Muaqueam. I remember they used 
to take me to see the old chief Kiapllano— a great big man, 
fine tall man, grey hair* He was kind, and nice. I was a 
little girl. 

(NOTE: All accounts apeak highly of the old Chief 
Kiapllano. J « s - M ») 

"Ihther atayed a night with the Muaqueam 
Indians, and was treated so well there, and the next morning 
father and hia companions went to Victoria in the canoe. He 
waa in Victoria for a while, and then he came back. He was 
at Point Roberts with a man named Mr. Dublin, or some name 

like that. That waa before father waa 
JOSE PH SILVEY AT marrie*. My father had a little store 
POKff R06ERT3 there. That was how he came to propoae 
' to my mother down at Muaqueam. 



209 



197 

(cont'd) "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 292, lira. Walker: 

JOSEPH SILVEY "Mother and father were out In a canoe. 
MAKh ng7 Afterwards father aald, by eigne to the 

IND IAN MARRI AGE old chief (Chief Kiapilano) that he wanted 
MARY ANN SILVEY ny mother for hie wife, and could he have 

her — all by aigna. Then the old chief 
said, by signs, that he could; waved his hand arm with a 
motion signifying to "take her*. He motioned with his right 
arm; waved, quickly, upward and outward." 

"She waa a pretty girl with dark eyes, and 
hair down to her middle; large, deep, eoft eyes. Her name 
waa Mary Ann, x in English. I don't know what it was in Indian. 
But my aunt's name waa Lumtina^t. My grandfather (mother's 
father) waa Muaqueam. He waa a son of old Chief Kiapilano and 
I suppose his name waa Kiapilano too, but don't actually know. 
My mother's mother was Squamish." 

z Khaal-tln-aht 

DID LAN MARR IAG E Major Matthews: "When your father married 
OF J03SPH SILVEY your mother waa the ceremony in a church?" 

Mr a. Walker: "Oh, no. In thoae days 
they married under Indian law. Well, you know, my father told 
me how the Indiana married. You aee, father and mother got 
married at Muaqueam, Point Grey. The old chief, Chief Kiapil- 
ano, took my father and the chief of the Muaqueams took my 
mother, and the two chiefs put them together." 

P. 293: Major Matthews : "Wa8 anyone 
looking? 

Mrs. Walker : "Oh, yes, (with emphasis) I 
should say there wae. They had canoea and canoea and canoes 
all drawn up on the beach, and a great crowd of Indians, and 
they had a great time. They had a lot of stuff for the feativ- 
itiea, Indian blankets and all sorts of things, and threw 
(gave) it all away. They had a great big potlatch." 

"And, then, they put my mother and father 
in a great big canoe with a lot of blankets; made them sit on 
top of the blankets,, and then brou«ji»t theia over to home at 
Point Roberts." 

JOSEPH SILVEY COMES "My father, Joseph Silvey, left Point 
TO GASTOWN ~ Roberts after a short period and came to 

Gaetown and put up a saloon. That's what 
they called it — not a hotel but a saloon. He built it quite 
close to the beach down on Water Street somewhere. It had a 
square top, but I don't see it here in this photo of "Gaatown, 
1864". I remember all the bottles on the shelf, and there 
waa a counter, (bar) It was on the Gaatown beach and the 
street was just planked over. Then my mother died. She 
caught cold in her back, I gathered from remarks my father 
dropped, when my little sister waa born. My little slater 
was less than a year old when mother died. My only sister — 



210 



196 



(cont'd) "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 393, Mrs. Walker: 

I had no brother* — Josephine, was afterwards Mrs. Anderson 
Father was left with two young children, one unable to wal. 



I had no brothers — Josephine, was afterwards mi 
Father was left with two young children, one ur 
Then he sold the saloon to some hand loggers." 

INDIAN LEGEND OF "My mother has told me that great grand- 
C<Mn*G IHrfBfaM father, Chief Klapllano, had twin boys. 

When the boys were growing up— about six 
years old — they wanted to go down to the beach and their 
mother would not let them go. But they argued that there 
was water down there and they wanted to go down and see it. 
So old Chief Kiapilano told them that they could go down, but 
that some day the whltemans would come and they were to treat 
the whitemen nicely; that they would probably come on an 
island (ship) and that they were Just like us only lighter 
color skins. He told them that they were alright and that 
they would not stop long, that they were Just travelling 
through, and to be nice to them. That's what old Chief Kiap- 
ilano told the twins — that they were always to be kind to the 
whtemans. There was never any crime committed by the Indians 
towards the whitemen about here. No, I should aay not, old 
&iapilano wasefine man— would not allow it." 

CHIEF KIAPILANO "Chief Kiapilano had lots of wives. The 

chiefs used to have a "princess" from each 
of the different tribes as a wife. Chiefs used to marry a 
daughter from each tribe. Only the chiefs had a lot of 
wives — not the common people — but they used to say Kiapilano 
had the moat; used to visit them every month." 

"I don't suppose you believe in fortune 
telling but the Indians used to foretell things. I don»t 
know what you call it in English but they used to tell what 
would come some day. And about how the white faces would 
come and they would be different; have white faces; things 
would change and not be the same any more. I don't know Just 
exactly what that had to do with it, but they tell me that 
when the whitemen did come Chief Kiapilano wanted to give them 
land. I think he did give them, some land somewhere." 

"Kiapilano was a very nice man. He was 
very nice and kind." 

DEATH OF MRS. JOSEPH P. 294: "Mother died when my little 
glLVff? . " sister was not, as yet, actually walking, 

CfflE? KIAPILANO less than a year. She wanted to be 

buried at Musqueam so she was burled 
there. I don't know her father's name, but her grandfather 
(that's my great grandfather) was the original old Chief 
Kiapilano. Great grandfather Chief Kiapilano used to come 
and camp at Brockton Point in a tent in front of our house. 
I used to see him resting on his bed xt the tent. 

Note: This is the Indian chief Invited on board H.M.S, 
"Plumper" in August 1859. J. S. M. 



211 



199 



(cont'd) "Early Vsnnuver", Vol. 5, p. 294, Mrs. Jalker: 

"Everybody la surprised that I know theaa 
things, I was 80 young. But I have a good memory and I re- 
member my mother dying In Gaatown, and how her people at 
Muaqueam came for her body and took it Id a canoe for burial 
at Muaqueam." 

"Father haa often told me that aha waa a 
wonderful wife and woman." 

3 IAH WIVES 0? P. 297 ; "Domingo, father's eldeat son, 

tTEMTH got everything when father diad. There 

waa no will. (He) thought he had some 
coal rights on Held Island and he said to Mr. Plants (Senator 
Planta) that the two girls (my aister and myself) could not 
claim anything because my father waa not married to my mother. 
But Mr. Planta aaid to him, "Don't tyou think anything like 
that. Their father and mother were married according to 
Indian law." 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 299. 

Conversation with Mrs. James ttalker, eldest daughter of 

Joseph Silvia, "Portugeae Joe, No. 1" of "Gaatown". 

HOroi-TOOI 28th November. 1956 . 

rOEESSHUTs ARCH P. 300: "They gave a great big potlatch 

POTLlTCE in Stanley Park, right where the Lumber- 

"TAYHAY" mans Arch is. I was little but I can 

remember it clearly. My mother took me 
to it on her back— ahe "packed" me to it. When we got near 
there were "thousands" of Indians. "Thousands" of them, 
from everywhere, Nanaimo, Cowichan, everywhere, and I was 
frightened. I don't know who gave the potlatch but 1 think 
my grandmother's brother, and I think Supple Jack; yea, 
that'aKhaytulk, that's hia Indian name. I think he was in 
it too." 

"They held the potlatch In a great big 
shed, a huge place. The Indiana built it themselves long 
ago." 

a city block?" 

Mrs. .Talker: "Oh, yes. More than that 
I should think. It was all divided up into sections inside.' 

Major Matthews: "How big inside?" 

Mr a. Walker: "Oh huge. You could put 
this house inalde it. There was no floor, just earth, and 
the fires were all burning. A great big high ahed." 

Major Matthews: "How many? How about 
smoke." 

Mrs. ialker: "About three fires, but 



Major Matthews: "How long would It be, 



212 



200 



(cont'd) "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 300, Mrs. Walker: 

the flames were leaping up high, as high aa your chin, and 
part of the top of the potlatch house was open to let the 
smoke out." 

"The platforms were high up, inside, of 
course, and the chiefs were away up on the platform throwing 
blanketa and money down and those below scrambled for it." 

"Mother took me, on her back, but when 
they began to dance and throw money about I got frightened and 
ran. I darted through under their legs, in and out in the 
orowd, and dashed out of the building. 1 didn't wait for 
anyone, not even mother. She came after me and had to take 
me home. She could not atop at the potlatch because I was so 
frightened — I waa properly frightened." 



INDIAN BLANKETS "before the potlatch started they had a 
INDIAN MUSKS great pile of blanketa, and they got a 

•High" (i.e., girl of high social station) 
girl to alt on it. That waa part of the ceremony. To ahow 
that they had the blankets, I suppose. She, the princess, was 
my aunt (Lomtinaht) , my mother's sister, daughter of old Chief 
Kiapilano." 

"It would be Improper to have common girl 
ait on the blankets — they had a great pile of them — and a 
princess sitting on top. They could not put any common girl 
on the blankets. Tou have to chooae some high aociety girl." 

INDIAN CANOES "They gave away a big canoe; great big 

canoe. All the men Indians would gather 
around the canoe and catch hold of it with two hands. Every- 
one who could get hold of the canoe (gunwale) had a hold on it. 
If no one bid for it (like an auction) they would go wild and 
even break it up. But as aoon as some one bid for it all 
would let go, suddenly, Just like that (demonstrating releasing 
hold as altogether). Of courae, if the canoe was not too big, 
they would have the ceremony of the canoe inaide the potlatch 
house. If it waa too big, then they would have it outside." 
"The blankets were all In a pile, and the 
aeat on top of them was the seat of honor; to show all the 
people preaent; to ahow all the blankets to the people. The 
princess on top waa "aomebody", a good looking girl. They 
then threw all the blankets away from the platform above; threw 
them down for the people to seize." 

INDIAN GRAVES "There were a let of Indian graves all 

along the Flrat Narrows. They did npt 
bury their dead. They put them on the ground, with the 
blankets, and put a shelter over them; Just slabs of wood, no 
floor. Two slaba leaning one againat the other to cover the 
body. There were quite e lot of them along where the 
"Empress of Jepan" figurehead is erected now on the First 
Narrows shore. There were Indian gravea all along there. 



213 



201 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 301, Mrs. Walker (cont'd). 

And aome of the little houaea *ad windows of glass in them, 
but that was only the chiefs, or some "high" Indian; but the 
others they just laid them on the ground with their blankets 
and things, and put the shelter over then. 

(NOTE: An illustration of auch a grave is to be seen in 
L.A. Hamilton's water color of Stanley Park, 1884.) 



[NDIAN WIVES OF 

mrmm : 

PETER SETlTH 

mcjji 

HARRY TRIM 



INDIAN WIVES OF "Tompkins Brew had an Indian wife; big, 

fine, beautiful woman and he was fond of 
her. But she got sick and I can see him 
yet, with his arm around her neck as she 
was lying there in her bed; but she did 
not get better and she died. She had a 
son, Arthur Brew." 

"Peter Smith had an Indian wife, too. And 
Kincald had an xndlan wife. He had a aloop^too. Harry Trim 
had an Indian wife. She belonged to the false Creek Indian 
Reserve and they had two daughters; one was Maria." 

UOWITCH MAN "Joseph Mannion had an Indian wife. They 

"MOfflTCHTlM" called her father the "Mowitchman". Every- 

body was afraid of him. They said he was 
an Indian doctor. The way he got his name was that when they 
(whiteman) wanted a deer, they would tell him to get them a deer 
and he would say, "Alright, I get you two", and go off. He 
would come back with a deer; perhaps two. Where he got them 
I don't know, but "lfowitch" is the Indian word for deer, and 
that waa how they called him "Mowitch". "HoweSound Jim" and 
"Mowitch Jim" were two different Indians." 

HOWE SOUND P. 302 ; "Indian name? They used to call 

SCJUNK Howe Sound, Scjunk. Staw-ki-yah? 

STAW-KI-YAH "Stawkiyah, that's wolf — Indian name for 

wolf." 
(REFER: Indian place names, "Early Vancouver," Vol. 3. P. 
16N for Scjunk and Stawkiyah, given by Khahtsahlano as the 
Indian names for Gibson's Landing, and Roberts Creek). 



August JackKhahts? 
Conversation with Clnqrxflzttdfcvq 

in the City Archives, Nov. 28th. 1935. 



cixMuxfnJmm±*.x 

Vol. 5, p. 324. 



THE LAST FLAT FORTPTKATl 
HTblAW. BBfifiARb IttLET. 
fa Mo6bIE. OF NORTH 

vAMCoffTffl fansm — 
reserve. 



Ma jor Matthews: "Has Tim Moodie got 
any children?" 

August Jack : "Tim Moodie, that's 
Yanmas, has a son, Napoleon Moodie; 
hi b son, Yahmas's grandson, is Tim 
Moodie, he's secretary of the Squamlsh 



Indian Council*" 

NOTE: Yahmaa (see "Early Vancouver", Vol. 2) is the last 



214 



202 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 324, (cont'd). 

surviving Indian with a flat forehead; made flat by the 
old Indian custom of flattening the forehead in child- 
hood. A model of him was made by the well-known Van- 
couver sculptor, Charles Marega. He died about 22nd 
December, 1936. J. 3. H. 



Conversation with Otway Wilkle, 629 Eighth St. New Westminster, 
in the City Archives, November 28th. 1935 . and Ehahtsahlano. 

^ 324: 
. Wilkle: (formerly provincial const- 
able) "I remember once an Indian woman 
swimming ashore from a capsized canoe with one of her children 
under each arm, and the third in her mouth. 3he was awarded 
the Royal Humane Society medal I think. She saved the two 
under her arms, but the baby in her mouth was drowned". 

August Jack Ehahtsahlano: "Tea, that's 
right; up the North Arm, Burrard Inlet". 

Major Matthews: "How did it happen?" 
August Jack: "She was the wife of Aneas 
(sic). I forget her name but I think it was Molly. She was 
coming down from up Indian River way with her two children and 
her baby; three of them in her canoe. It capsized. She 
was south of Racoon Island and she took one child under each 
arm, and the other, the baby, in her teeth, and swam a mile 
and a half to a logging camp in that deep bay Just east of 
Racoon Island. It was about 36 y%ars ago— 4aboutl898) . Yes; 
she "got the medal". She saved two, but the baby was dead 
when she reached shore." 

Otway Wilkle: "I know ahe was recommend- 
ed for it, uut I never heard before if she got it." 



211 



203 



Converaation with lira. James talker, eldest daughter of Joseph 
Sllvey, or "Portugese Joe", No. 1", "amrly Vancouyer", Vol.5, 
P. 344: July 17th. 1939 . 

Mra. Walker said: "When 1 was shout three 
-NO years old — it was before ay sister Joseph- 
[LANO job ine was born — »y mother took me oyer to the 

Indian houses st Capilano Creek, and there 
I saw old Chief Ki-ap-i-la-no; a great big old man with big 
legs, and loud voice— anyway it seemed ao to me. That's how I 
recall him. Of course I waa little and perhaps he looked big- 
ger to me than he actually was — long white hair hanging down 
oyer his shoulders, down to his shoulder blades, and the ends 
used to curl upwards. He was ahort-aighted. He had a son 
called Lahwa, who, I think, had a Nanaimo Indian woman for a 
wife. Lahwa was chief afterwards." 

"Old Ki-ap-i-lano used to come over to 

Brockton Point, and camp in a tent — I've told you about it— 

and he had a hunoh-back slave wife to look after him. I used 
to visit him constantly in that old tent." 

MARY CAPILANO "The well known Mary, widow of Chief 

Capilano Joe, was not old Ki-ap-i-la-no *s 
daughter; her mother waa a Comoz woman. Then she married 
Capilano Joe; Joe»a father was a Chilliwack Indian. Mary 
Capilano is not near blood to the Squamiah Capllanos." 

LOMTINAHT "Lomtinaht, waa my mother's sister. This 

STOESEST" is her photograph. Her name in Englieh 

was Louise. My mother's English name was 
Mary Ann. Lomtinaht was a very good looking woman; the dead 
image of my mother who was very good looking too. Lomtinaht 
married Joe Thomas who ia stlllhving at North Vancouver. She 
was killed in a buggy accident. There was a ceremony of 
consecrating the Indian Roman Catholic Church, and the horse 
ran away coming home. They turned oyer and she was injured. 
She lived to be brought to St. Paul's hospital and died there 
next morning." (See A.J. Khahtaahlano conversation, Jufcy or 
August, 1939.) 

POTLATCHES "Lomtinaht was the "princess" or "queen" 

that they had at the potlatches; all over. 
Sometimes at Musqueam, sometimes at Whoi-Whoi, (Lumbermana 
Arch). She was good looking, and it didn't matter where it 
was they always had her to be "princess". She had a lovely 
complexion and was the image of her sister, my mother, 
Khaaltinaht, (Joseph Silvey's first wife)." 

(See Photo No. C.V. P. Port. 392, N. Port. 174.) 

"She was the princess at the potlatch at 
Lumbermana Arch I told you about, the time I got frightens* 
and ran away." 



216 



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216A 




2I6B 



INDIAN BURIAL IN TREE. ALERT BAY, 1912 




Formerly commonly used to protect remains of important persons from disturbances by 
wild animals. Usually remains were in square split cedar boxes and corpse in a sitting 
position. Deadmans Island, Coal Harbour now H.M.C.S. "Discovery" was frequently 
used. 



216C 



CELEBRATION OF CORPUS CHRISTI, 
"THE MISSION," SUMMER 1888 






■. . .,, 



4 7: fl^^H 



i JI^^Ka 



^"'Jf ■ ^PaSl^ """'"■ ■■?■ - Jh. ■ 



kill 










This was a very important Roman Catholic celebration, attended by Indians from afar. 
It is the left section to a large photo, page 280A which see for long explanation. 



216D 



204 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 345. Mrs. Walker (cont'd). 

STURGEON "Lomtinaht told me she had to give pot- 

latches for the sturgeon rod; that her 
father used to fish for sturgeon with. The old rod is out 
at sjusqueam yet. I must try and get it if it is not broken. 
She said she had to give one about every year. I asked her, 
"What did they do that for?" and she said "It's the memories; 
to bring back the memories of the highest people." 

"She told me the Indians used to go out in 
the water in a canoe, away out from the North Arm (Eraser 
River), and put a long pole out with a sort of hook on it. 
(See Khahtsahlano conversations) and they would leave it down 
in the water for a little while and then they would come back 
with the great big sturgeon. I think they used to dry those 
sturgeon. Celestine (she's very old) at Muaqueam told me all 
about it, too." 

CELESTINE "Celestine is living at Musqueam now. She 

CHIEF ,.. J0H Hy must be about one hundred. She is sister- 

WHES-WHY-LUK in-law to the old Chief Johnny Whee-why-luk. 

He's been dead now twenty or twenty- five 
years. He was my mother's first cousin. She was married to 
Chief tfhee-why-luk's younger brother." 

P. 346: 17th August . 1939. 

LOMTDJAHT Mrs. Walker said: "Lomtinaht, or Louise, 

SSpTmHT married Joe Thomas, full blood Indian, now 

£fi „..„?„ living on Indian Reserve, North Vancouver, 

"Navvi J auk." and my mother, Khaaltinaht, or Mary Ann, 

who was Mrs. Joseph Silvey, were full sisters. 

"Mrs. "Navry Jack" was a half sister to 
both Lomtinaht and Khaaltinaht, but her own full sister mar- 
ried an Indian at Chilliwack. All were grandchildren of "Old 
Man" Chief Kl-ap-i-la-no (of 1859). But, Christine Jack of 
North Vancouver, will know. Ask her." 

(NOTE: A.J. Khahtsahlano said, July 29th, 1939: "Lomtinaht 
was some distant relation to my father, Supplejack. 
Christine jack, wife of Henry Jack, of North Vancouver, 
is a daughter of "Navvy Jack", and his wife, who was 
Lomtinaht 's half half sister, but the similar surname 
"Jack" does not mean that Henry or Christine are members 
of my family. They are not.) 

SUMKWAHT P. 347: "Sum-kwafct was my grandmother, 

KWEE-AKULT. SAM that is, my mother's (Khaaltinaht) mother. 

WHES-jHY-LUK. Johnny I don't know what my Indian grandfather '3 
JOHHMT . name was, but he was "Old Man" Kl-ap-1-la- 

AYATAK. Baat no's son. Sum-Kwaht had a brother who 

CHABLIEj, FRflW.K t was chief at •<hoi-rthoi in Stanley Park. 

His name was Sam Kwee-ah-kult. I remem- 



s&iBLaM (sic) 



217 



205 



"Karly Vancouver", Vol* 5, p. 347. Mrs. Walker (cont'd). 

bar him. Ha waa ay grandmother* a brother. He waa the laat. 
All the othera were dead. Ayatak, or Prank Charlie, was the 
aon of Charlie Khar-nuk. Johnny Whee-Why-Luk, the chief at 
Muaqueaa, waa with Capilano JoeVwhen he went to aea King Ed- 
ward. Johnny Whee-why-luk waa full couain to ay mother 
Khaaltinaht." 

"Ayatak ia the neareat living relative 
to "Old Man* Chief Ki-ap-i-la-no. The "Old Man's" (Kapil- 
ano) mother waa Muaqueaa; his father Squamiah. He had sev- 
eral wlvea. Among thea were two Squamiah alatera. Ayatak 
waa not a aon of "Old Man* Kl-ap-i-la-no, but I think he waa 
the aon of Charlie Khar-nuk. Ayatak ia the neareat liring 
blood relation of the "Old Man"* 



igy 



JOB. "Capilano Joe's name waa not Capilano at 

TOs . all. Chief Joe Capilano borrowed that 

name when he went to aee King Sdward, 
and he aald he would not uae it when he caae back, but he did. 
The Mttsqueaaa protest the Squaalah hare no right to that naae 
Ki-ap-i-la-no, or Capilano." 

(NOTX: August J. Ehahtaahlano says, 30th June, 1939: 
"Capilano Joe'a real naae la Sahp-luk".) {F.J. C.Bali, 
Indian agent, Vancouver, aays: "he was called "Hyas 
Joe" before whiteman'a custom gave hia the appellation 
"Capilano Joe".) 



Note by City Archivist: This ia the old plaint of 
the Muaqueama; i.e., that the Squamiah are intruder* 
on Burrard Inlet. The two tribes at Musqueam and 
Squamiah were moat friendly; inter-married, and so on, 
but the Muaqueama lament that through circumatances 
over which neither had control, the Squaalah gradually 
appropriated their names and lands, and were very nice 
about it at the aaae time. J. S. M. 



THE NAME CAPILAN0 P. 348 ; "The Musqueaaa protest against 

the use of the naae Ki-ap-i-la-no by 
others than themselves . They say no one has the right to 
use the naae Eiapilano save the Muaqueama, and 1*11 tell you 
how I know." 

"I heard there waa going to be a pot- 
latch down at Musqueam, but I did not 
know anyone ao I took a chance and went 
anyhow. There was a great crowd of Indians and no one knew 
who I was. I went into the pot latch houae and sat down. 
Bye and bye they caae around handing out the oranges and 



218 



206 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 348. UTs. Walker (cont'd): 

things, and John Gerrln (aic) — hia father Ned Gerrin was a 
hand logger on the weat side of Howe Sound. Ned's wifs 
was full Uusqueam, and was my mother's full cousin, that is, 
Ura. Gerrin. Her Indian name was ELe-o-saht. She had two 
sons, John and Bill. John lives at Uusqueam with hia wife, 
and Bill lives with his Indian wife at Knpper Ialand." 

"Well, when John came with the oranges, I 
took one, and said to hia "Tou don't know who I am," and hs 
said "ire you Josephine?", and I said, "No, I'm Josephine's 
oister". And, then, he aaid, "Now, you see that table" — 
they had a table all laid for a "baifuet" ; white table 
cloths, and the Indian ladles were fixing things up, and 
had a big range on which they were doing the cooking. John 
said "Now, when you see them start, you come over and sit at 
that table." 

"And, so, afterwards he waa talking aside 
to me, and he said that I did not know how "high up" I was; 
that if I had not become a white woman I would have had a 
home and land; that he waa a half breed, too, but he wad 
Indian and he had a home, and I would have had a home and 
land too, if I had stayed Indian, and that I did not know 
how high up in Indian life I was." 

"I did apply once to be allowed to share 
in the distribution of Indian monies, and there was a meeting 
over at Capilano Creek. I might hawe got my share, but Old 
Mary Capilano, Capilano Joe 'a wife, objected and said some- 
thing sneering about the women who went off and became white 
and gave themselves airs, and then wanted to share in Indian 
property. I shot back at her that if it had not been for 
the whltemen we should all be Indians still and that it was 
the whltemen who had brought us everything." 

"There was an awful lot of Indians at the 
Uusqueam potlatch and John got up and made a apeech. He 
spoke in Indian but I knew what he was saytsing though I 
don't think he knew I did. He told all those Indians there 
not to Insult me; that I waa a great granddaughter of Old 
(Chief) Elapilano, and that all the old Eiapilano people were 
dead now and that no one had the right to the name Kiapilano 
except one or two of the Uusqueam*; that I was one of the one 
or two who were, and was very "high up" because I was the 
great granddaughter of Old Kiapilano. I think Christine, 
Urs. Williams, is another." 

irTT^tT.TTMtTw p. 349. «Ky mother wanted to give ma 

the name of Lomtinaht. She gave all my 
children Indian names, but I forget what they were, grand- 
mother like. 



219 



207 



"larly Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 353. Mrs. Walker. 






6th Oetober. 1939. 
Mrs. Walker said: "Old lilllam Bridge 
lived at North Vancouver. I remember 
him. Hla wife was an Indian woman. I 
used to play with hia children at the north shore when we 
went oyer there. Then, we went to Raid Island and I did not 
see him again. I must hare been about three years old when 
I played with hia children. He had two or three children." 



MBSiMARJJOE 

■fa. mil * *•« 

"Christine Jack, (Mrs. Henry Jack) told me her father was 
"Mowitch Jim". 



•Mrs. Mary Joe has no right to use the 
name Capilano. She married a Chilliwack 
known to whites aa Capilano Joe, but he 
had no right to use the name Capilano. 



NO 



"Christine told me Tutamaht (Hrs. Chief 
Tom) was "Old Chief "Kiapalano's daughter. 
3he's been dead a long time." 



Conversation with T. Botterell, 734 West 13th Avenue, Van- 
couver, B. C. "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 386. 

March 1st. 1940 . 
amg CAPILANO JOJ Mr. Botterell: "Here a snapshot of 

Capilano Joe with hia band, at some hop- 
picking yard. I was with Joe one day and something happened, 
and he said to me "Why you say 'hot as hell', and 'cold as 
hell*; what you mean?" 

"So. I replied 'Where is hell, Joe7«. 
And Joe answered *I don't know. It'a some place whitemans 
carries round with him in a book'. 



220 



208 



"Marly Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 371. 
Converaatlon with lira. James Walker, 



82nd April. 1940. 



PKTgR PLANT 






ST KI-1P-A-I 



-NO 



"Addle' s mother waa an Indian woman, and 
aiater to my grandfather, "Old Man" 
Kiapalano, and the Indian woman's Addle, 
half breed daughter, married that french- 
man who had a big farm out Mar pole; be- 
cauae, one time, father and my step-mother, (Lucy) and myself 
were going to New Westminster by row boat. Mr. Kwen, the 
oanner yman had aent for father. I waa about aiz year a old 
then. There were three of ua in the row boat, and father 
(Joaeph SilTey, "Portugese Joe") said we would call at a niee 
farm and get some butter and eggs. Ha aaid that aha. Addle 's 
mother, waa my grand auntie. She waa aiater to my grand- 
father, the old chief. Old Mrs. (probably Supplien Oulnne) 
waa a pretty Indian woman and could talk Tranoh aa good aa a 
Frenoh woman." 



"GASSY JACK" 



i'): .ao+fr>:^' 



MB* 



"Gaaay Jack's" Indian wife ia 
Lying at the North Vancouver Indian Res- 
erve; in the village. I don't know what 
her Bngliah name la, (Madellene) but her 
Indian name ia "Wha-halla". I have not aeen her, but my 
couain, Christine Jack tells me Wha-halla aays she had a son 
by Gassy Jack. She must be very old. She want* me to go 
over and aee her as she aaya ahe remembers me when I waa a 
little girl, and father lived at one end of the Gaatown beach 
and Gassy Jaok at the other." 



221 



209 



3HH DHIGHTOH 







Conversation with MPa. Jamea Walker, "Barly Vancouver", Vol. 6, 

p. 38T. 

* 27th May. 1940. 

Mra. Walker said: "I went oxer to tns 
North Vancouver Indian Beaerre, and found 
Gaaay Jack'a wife, Wha-halia. She re- 
membered me when I waa a little girl. Her 
Kngllah name ia Madeline. Madeline told 
■e Oaaay Jack waa her husband, that Gassy 
Jack had, firat, her aunt for a wife. 

Then her aunt died and he took Madeline, her niece, aa wife. 

Geaay Jack and Madeline had a aon, but the son died ahortly 

after Oaaay Jack died." 

"Madeline muat be old, about ninety I 
ahould think. Her hair ia anow white. She knew ay father, 
Joe SilTey, "Portugeae Joe", and ahe knew aw when I waa little. 
She aald her huaband, Gaaey Jack, waa, at firat, a captain at 
New Westminster on a atern wheeler boat going up to Tale, and 
then he built the aaloon over here in Granville, and he had 
another little houae in the buahea behind the hotel for her. 
That waa hia home when he waa not in the hotel; but he waa 
always, all the time, ill, and then he aent for hia brother 
and hia wife to come from the Old Country." 

Major Matthews: 
qwa-halla tell you all this?" 



"Did the old Indian woman 



She ahould know; 



Mrs. Walker: "Yaa. (then significantly) 
Gassy Jack waa her husband. I remember her 



when I waa about five yeara old. Gee, ahe waa a pretty lady. 
She told ae there waa money left to her and her aon, but ahe 
never got It. When his brother and hia wife came they took 
charge of everything, and ahe went back to her people. "Then," 
ahe said, "Gassy Jaok died, and her aon died about a year 
afterwards." She told me that Gassy Jack left a will for 
her to get money, but ahe never got it, and they buried him 
In Hew Weatminater. She got married afterwards to a Muaqueam 
Indian, but he ia dead now. 

NOT!: "Qjwa-hay-lia, or Madeline, died at North Van- 
couver, Tuesday night, Auguat 10, 1948. We have photo. 



222 




210 

Conversation with Mrs. James .Talker, daughter of Joseph Silvey, 
of Granville, (Gaatown) at her rom, 721 Cambie Street. 

23rd September. 1943 . 

CHRISTINS, DAUGBTgR Mrs. Walker said: "I went over to Chris- 
0.F J OH K THOMAS. or~ tin© to see about my mother's (Khael- 
"NAWY JACK" tinaht) father. Tou aee, my mother waa a 

granddaughter of "Old Chief" Ki-ap-a-la-no, 
so 1 asked of Christine about his son, my grandfather, who was, 
of course, father of my mother. Christine is my cousin. She 
la a daughter of my mother's sister, Howla, (pronounced as 
"How" or "Now", not as "Bow" tie)." 

"Rowia married a white man, Mr. Thomas, 
who used to live over there at West Vancouver. His nickname 
waa "Navvy Jack." Mr. Thomas owned all that land over there, 
but he did not pay, and lost it." 

ROWIA "Tou see, there were four sisters. The 

eldest waa Susan, or Jowyak. The next 
was my mother, Mary Ann, or Ehaaltinaht. 
Then came Rowia, and the youngest was Lum- 
tinaht, and they were all grandchildren 
of "Old Chief" Ki-ap-a-la-no, the head 

chief, my great grandfather Ki-ap-a-la-no." 

QPIl-EgT-ROK "Christine told me my grandfather's name 

waa Quil-eet-rok, and that he waa a son 
of the old 'Chief. *» 

JOSEPHINE SILVEY "I made a mistake when I told you Joaephine 
JOSEPH SILVEY waa born in "Gaatown". She was born on 

PASLjSY ISLAND Bowen Island. (Pasley Island, nearby, 

BOWa; ISLAND is probably meant) where they were whaling. 

WHATJNG My father, with Peter Smith and Harry Trim, 

PETER SMITH and a Captain Douglas, were whaling. Cap- 

HARRY TRIM tain Douglas had a schooner and there were 

C APT. DOUGLAS some more men. You see, I was only three 

year a old, and I am sorry I left out that 
about Josephine being born on Bowen Island. Capt. Douglas 
used to go sealing, hut they came over from that and went 
whaling off Bowen Island. They used to ahoot the whales. 
They got a lot of oil out of the whales, and Capt. Douglas had 
a big schooner, and they had a wharf there. Joaephine was 
born right on that island. All the women had little cabins; 
all the Indian girls who were white men'a wives. Harry Trim's 
wife waa an Indian; Peter Smith's wifewqa an Indian, and my 
father's wife was an Indian. All had little houses, nice 
little houses, and they built the wharf for the achooner to 
land. It was a nice bay." 



223 



211 



"Then, the next morning after Josephine 
was born, they brought me home. lira. Trim and icra. Smith — 
I*re got a good memory, haren't I— on Bow en Island, and the 
little baby, my sister Josephine, was on a pillow." 

"/FFT 3BBM Major Matthews: "Harry Trim came down 

from the Cariboo, after he got through 
with mining in 1868." 

Mrs. Walker: "That's whet my father, Joe 
Sllrey, did, but he came down before he got very far up the 
rlTer beoauae the Indians chased him away." 



224 



212 



Conversation with l£ra. Jsjaea Walker, daughter of Joseph Silvey, 
of "Gaatown". "Barly Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 217. 

12th October. 1943 . 

CHIEF Kra. Walker said: "I remember Chief 

EJ/AP-I-LA.-NO: Ki-ap-i-la-no. He was a great big man 

with a voice like a microphone on a loud- 
speaker. He spoke loud. Anyway, that's how it seemed to 
me — I was lltt*«— and he had long white hair. It was bobbed" 
(gesticulating with her hand to indicate that it was cut off 
straight all around the nape of the neck), "and white, and ha 
always had a amile. He beckoned to me to come to him, but I 
would not go; but afterwards I did, and he took me up on one 
arm, and held me to his breast. Oh, he waa a nice man. 
Everyone liked him. He was not bald-headed. His hair was 
thick and snow white, and that's what I remember of him. I 
think that waa at Brockton Point. Tou see, after my father 
sold out at Gastown we went to Brockton Point. I don't re- 
member us moving. I must have been asleep or something be- 
cause I don't remember us moving; but I remember after we got 
there. We lived facing this way" (towards the east), "and 
Chief Kiap-i-la-no used to come over to Brockton Point, and 
brought his little tent with him. He had his wife, old lady, 
and they had a little tent by the beach, beside my father's 
house. That's the last time I saw him. We went away then; 

we went to Vancouver Island." 



225 



213 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 49, 



THE SPELLING OF CAPILANO 



KLEOPLANNAH 



In a letter to the Colonial Government 
at Victoria, February 1860, A.J. Julius 
Voigt, pioneer, 1858, educated Prussian, spells it "CHIEF 
KLEOPLANNAH". Voight afterwards pre-empted land on False 
Creek at the foot of Mount Pleasant. 

KI-AP-A-LA-NO Captain Richards, R.N. , of H.M.S. 

"Plumper", in a letter to Governor 
Douglas in 1859 spells it "KI-AP-A-LA-NO". 

Hill-Tout says "The Skqomic at that time 
had a courageous and resourceful leader in their head chief 
Klapilanoq". Ethnological Survey of Canada, B.A.A.S., Brad- 
ford meeting 1900, page 490. 

"The supreme slam of the tribe was known 
by the title Te Klapilanoq, and had his headquarters at the 
mouth of the Homultclson Creek, now called Capilano by the 
whites". Same report, page 476. 

Andrew Paull and Chief Matthias Capilano 
contradict. (See next two pages.) 

Hill-Tout, 1932, "Pronounce it Kee- 



yapee-lah-nogh. 



Tate, 1932, "Pronounce it Kype-al-lah-nough." 



On an old linen map marked "Plan No. 1, 
Skwawmish Indian Reserves, surveyed by W.S. Jemmett, 1880", 
the word "Capilano" is spelled "Kahpillahno". 

Frank Charlie (Ayatak) of Musqueam: 
"Capilano a Musqueam name, not a Squamish name. Squamish 
people not belong English Bay or Burrard Inlet. Squamish 
people belong Howe Sound, way over mountains (.iest Vancouver). 
Squamish not belong North Vancouver, Just camp there. .ihite- 
mans bring them to work in Hastings Sawmill. Before that 
they Just come from Squamish to English Bay to get food. All 
English Bay belong Musqueam. "Old Chief" Capilano, my grand- 
father, live "ahly, sometimes stay Homulchesun (Capilano River). 
"Old Chief" Capilano tell me he see first white man come down 
Fraser River— Just one man — come down river from east; he big 
boy then, 'bout five feet. "Old Chief" Capilano live to be 
•bout one hundred, then die. "Old Chief" first home at Mahly. 
Then he marry Liusqueeun. Afterwards he go to Homultchesun to 
live. All ULKSEN belong to Musqueams, not Squamish", con- 
cluded Ayatak, with emphasis. 



226 



214 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 49. The Name "Capilano". 

Andre* Paull: "Frank Charlie (Ayatak) 
of Muaqueam la quite entitled to uae the surname Capilano. 
The Capilanos of Capilano and Frank Charlie both acknowledge 
deacent from the same blood." 



Frank Charlie: "My name Capilano too; 
my grandchildren Capilano. Indian come down from Squamish, 
marry Muaqueam woman, by and bye Muaqueam give Squamish man 
place to live — down by Manly, by beach. Muaqueam up by slough, 
Mahly down by aea, way down. "Old Chief" Capilano father of 
Chief Lahwa of Capilano; Chief Lahwa my uncle. He die, no 



aon 



■ 



Chil-lah-minat (Jim Franka): "Old Man 
Capilano, 1 Just remember him; very old man when I see him. 
I waa about 20 or 21 when Vancouver burn, 1886. I work 
Haatinga Mill that day. I about 67 or 70 now. Old Man Cap- 
ilano die long long ago, don't know when. Chief Lah-wa come 
next, but he drink too much booze; fell out of canoe in First 
Narrows,. Priest say too much booze muat atop; Joe good 
Catholic, priest say Joe to be chief, to get Indian to come 
to church." 



Chief Matthias Capilano, 1933: "Old 
Chief Capilano waa stone blind when he died. The "Old Chief" 
waa flghtving before the white man came. His last fight 
agalnat the northern Indians waa with guns. Chief Lah-wa 
died in 1895. I think he had been chief about twenty yeara." 



Rev. CM. Tate, Methodist Indian Mission- 
ary: "Lah-wa waa chief when I came in 1875. I never knew 
Old Chief Capilano." 



The Chief Capilano, the first one pers- 
onally known to white men of which there ia a record would 
seem to have bean born (see Ayatak, his grandson) at Mahly, 
and to have told Ayatak that when he waa "a big boy" he had 
seen the first white man (Fraser) come dowa the Fraaer River. 



227 



215 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 50. The Name "Capilano", 
cont'd. 

He la reputed to have been a warrior, orator and statesman; 
to have been very old— some say 100 — when he died, stone 
blind then, and to have been succeeded by one of his many 
children, Lah-wa. (See Geneology of Capilano.) 



Andrew Paull says: "Joe was formally 
given the name Capilano by the Squamish at a ceremony on 
the Camble Street grounds Just prior to proceeding to 
England to lay before H.M. the late King Edward the matter 
of the Indian Land grievances. It was considered that it 
would give him additional prestige if he bore the name of 
the land, or reserve, of which he was chief". 



Prior to this, custom had given him the 
sobriquet of "Capilano Joe". (See August Kits llano's state- 
ment to Indian Agent Ball, p. . ) Rev. CM. Tate adds: 
"Given him by whites and Indian alike." Ultimately be be- 
came known as Chief Joe Capilano, and this surname has been 
assumed by his relict, Agnes, usually called Mrs. Mary 
Capilano, and by his son Chief Matthias Joe, commonly called 
Chief Matthias Capilano. 



In connection with the visit of Chief 
Joe Capilano to Buckingham Palace in (1906 or 1907) the 
story is told that, during the audience with His Majesty, Joe 
said to the King: 

"Then, there is another matter I wish to enquire about. 
My people sometimes do wrong, policemen fine them. 
Policemen say they do it for you, that you want the money. 
What I want to know is, do you get the money?" 

King Edward is reported to have replied very graciously: 
""Yes, I do, and thank you very much'". 



Hill-Tout says that there was a "supreme 
Slam" (chief) known as Te Kiapllanoq, and "next in rank" 
Te Qatsilanoq (Kitsllano). See Ethnological Survey of 
Canada, B.A.A.S. 1900. Paull says: "No, all chiefs equal. 
There are now ten chiefs of the Squamish tribe. There is 



228 



216 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 50. The Name "Cajpllano", 
cont'd) . 

suppoaed to be 12. I am secretary of the Council. Chief 
Matthias Joe is one of the chiefs, but holds no higher rank 
than others, nor have I ever heard that formerly it was 
otherwise. On their own reserves, rather, in their own 
precincts, all chiefs were supreme." 



August Kits llano: Aug. 8th, 1932 . "No. 
They did not make one man the big chief. All were equal and 
ruled over their own reserves only. Tou see, coming down the 
Squamish River there are four reserves. Each one had its own 
chief. They did not make any one bigger than the other." 



Chief Matthias Capilano: Jan. 19th, 1932 . 
"Old Chief" Capilano was stone blind before he died. S3 was 
a fighting warrior who had fought with both bows and arrows, 
and with guns. His last fight was with guns." 

"Old Chief" Capilano's mother was a 
Musqueam Indian, ( sister to Chief Semelano)." {See page 490, 
Hill-Tout, Ethnological Survey of Canada, 1900, B.A.A.S.) 
"His father was Selalehp-ten who had five wives, and, they 
say, over one hundred children. " 

"Payt-aa-mauq was a half brother to "Old 
Chief" Capilano, and was full Squamish. "Old Chief" Capilano 
was only half Squamish for his mother was sister to Chief 
Semelano, a Musqueam. "Old Chief" Capilano married a Squam- 
ish woman from Chuckchuck." 

"One of Paytsamauq's sons was Kahkailtun, 
and his wife came from Nicomen. They were the parents of 
Agnes, , my mother, wife, of course, of my father Chief Joseph 
Capilano. Now, of course, his widow and more commonly 
known as Mrs. Mary Capilano. Her Indian name ia Layhu-lette. 
I think she is now about 95, so that I estimate that my 
father, Chief Joe Capilano, who died in 1910 when I — at the 
age of 23— succeeded him, must have been about 70 or 75 when 
he died." 



Andrew Paull, secretary of the Squamish 
Indian Council of Chiefs, says that a Mr. Rhodes, grand- 
father of the famous runner, Percy Williams, told him that 



229 



217 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 51. The Name "Capilano", 
cont'd). 

the name "Capilano" was of Spanish origin. 

According to Mrs. Rhodes, his wife, Mr. 
Ehodes was not a Spaniard, but the son of a large English 
ship owner trading to Spain, and that her husband lived for 
several years at Alacante, Spain, acting as interpreter for 
his father's business. She said 'I have heard him say that 
Capilano is derived from Capelin (spelling doubtful) the 
Spanish word for a small fish of the smelt species.' 

Paull says Mr. Rhodes told him that when 
the Spanish explorers of 1792 anchored in Spanish Banks, 
English Bay, they sent ashore daily for water, and on such 
occasions were presented with a supply of smelts by the In- 
dians, and that neither being able to understand the other's 
language, the Indians mistake, or mixed up, "the smelts", and 
"the chief man" who presented them. 



Comment on this by 

Andrew Paull: "Very doubtful story". 

Prof. Hill-Tout: "Impossible. There 
is Khates-ee-lan-ogh, Kee-ap-ee-lan-ogh, and Ea-lan-ogh, the 
latter meaning 'the first man'. And we have Thit-see-mah- 
lan-ogh, and Semelano. And Nanaimo and Eyalmo." 

If there is a legend associated with 
Capilano, as there is with Haatsalahnough, then, so far, it 
has not been told to me. J. S. M. 



Paull: "Chief Matthias Joe is not 
really entitled to be called Chief Matthias Capilano. The 
"Capilano* is assumed only, but generally is accepted by all* 
The Indian Affairs office calls him Chief Matthias Joe. The 
appellation "Capilano" was bestowed by the Indians on Chief 
Joe Capilano his father, but it is not hereditary, only so 
far aa custom* has made it so." 



CAPILANO RESERVE On an old linen drawing (an original) 
marked "Plan No. 1, SKWAWMISH INDIAN 
RESERVES", with a footnote "surveyed by Vf.S. Jemmett, 1880", 
in the possession of Andrew Paull, who says "the Indian 



230 



218 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 52. Capilano Reserve cont'd. 

Affairs Office have been unable to find a copy of It In their 
possession," the word is spelled "KAHPILLAHNO". The map 
shows "Beaver dams" in West Vancouver, and old trails in 
Gastown and Kit a llano Beach. 



Corporal Turner's original field notes 
of the survey of Burraxd's Inlet in February and March 1863 
are In the Court House, Vancouver. They show "Coal Peninsula" 
(Stanley Park) and the "Brickmaker's Claim", (West End), and 
are complete in detail* He surveyed the mouth of Homulchesun 
Creek (Capilano River) but does not name it, although he 
places a square to indicate a house or settlement. 



231 



219 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 1, p. 18, latter Professor Charlea 
Hill-Tout to J.S. Matthews, May 8, 1931. Excerpt: 

CAPILANO. "You may be Interested to know that the 

Indian pronunciation of Kapllano was 
"Kee — ap— ee— Ian — ogh. " This also was an hereditary name 
of the chief who lived near the mouth of that river which we 
know by this name. Both names have the same ending; 
"lanogh." This suffix signifies "man." We find it also in 
another of their namea; thus, "Kalanogh," meaning the "first 
man." 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 1, p. 238, letter B.B. Sentell, who 
built the first City Hall, Vancouver, to J.S. Matthews, Dec. 
5, 1931. Excerpt: 

INDIAN MEDICINE "He told us our point (Grove Cresent) was, 
DITCH . up to 1866, an Indian camp on False Creak, 

and was the spot where they had a medicine 
ditch, and was to them a favorite resort, and the land, when 
dug up, showed signs of a Slwaah camp; vast deposits of clam 
shells, and marks of camp foundations which had been deserted." 

P. 239: "The Indians made a regular custom 
of it; to get rid of a cold. It was a steam lodge. They 
built % lodge, put a fire in it and heated atones, then threw 
water on the hot stones, and the steam came off. It was a 
steam bath; a regular cuaton among them. Afterwards the 
Indian threw cold water over himself." 

Mr. W.F. Flndlay, (See Carter House) 
said the effect was worse than the ailment. Any hole in the 
ground of suitable shape would do, so long as it would hold 
water, and they got in under the cover they had, and the steam 
would give them a Turkish bath. The trouble was they had no 
place where they could cool off as in a modern Turkish bath. 

NOTE: Grove Creacent was a sandy beach on the «o*th shore 
of False Creek between Heatley and Jackson Avenues. 

J.S.M. 



232 



220 

Vol. l*. t> \%u- CITY ARCHIVIST'S OFFICE 

1 ' City Hall, 

26th Sept., 1937. 

CAPILAHO JOB. OR 
CHiaF JOS CAPILAKO 

Dear Mr. Balls 

I hare juat been reading your penciled note over 
again, and more carefully, and there is a bit of a sentenae in 
it I would like to answer. The words arei 

"when Lahwah died, the surviving sister was 
agreeable to passing over the chieftainship 
to Ryas Joe, who apparently assumed the name 
"Capilano Joe". 

The fact that Burrard Inlet was rery quiet; no 
newspapers, no theatre, no phone — only work — resulted In a 
situation similar to that among a oldies in the Great War; they 
had nicknames for almost everything and every person. There was 
"Oastown", "Kanaka' Row" , "maiden Lane", and "The Rookeries"; 
and again, "Oassy Jack", "Hawy Jack", "Sugar Jake", "Dutch Pete", 
•Supplejack", "Howe Sound Jim", "Squamish Jacob?, and so on, 
including "Mowitch Jim", the last four being Indians; I forgot, 
"Jericho Charlie"; that's five Indians* 

Vow one trouble in "Oastown* was that there were 
too many Joes. There were three "Portugese Joes", one being 
Joseph Silvey, another Oregoris Oernandex, and a third Joseph 
Gonsalves, all, at various times, termed "Portuguese Joe". Then 
there was Joe Mannion, afterwards Alderman, and "Holy Joe", a 
whiteman of near Point Atkinson, and there was Isaac Joe, for 
finally they called the last one "Lockit Joe", lookit meaning 
eight. "Sore Heck Billy" was another Indian; "Faithful Jim" 
still one more; "Little Tommy" and "The Virgin Vary" were Indian 
women; the latter being a wrinkled old skeleton with whom the 
Countess of Dufferln shook hands* 

How, when I first came here "Capilano Joe" was 
just Capilano Joe; we distinguished him by his home, and he had 
bare feet with skin on them half an inch thick. Then, suddenly, 
he went off to see King Hdward VII — I think the Indians had 
some big ceremony on the Cambie street Grounds at which they for- 
mally bestowed on him the title "Capilano"; the idea being that 
a territorial title would give more weight to his visit to His 
Majesty — and further. It appears he had not been formally 
"ennobled" according to Indian fitual (as August Jack and Willie 
Jaok Khahtsahlano had been, at the False Creek Reserve.) 

However, "Capilano Joe " went off to Ingland with 
auoh ado, and when he same baok he was *Chl»f Joe Capilano" t 
of course he was chief before he went, but the publicity he 
got had turned "Capilano Joe" into "Chief Joe Capilano" • 



233 



821 

Vol. i+. f. I3i" 

Chief Ki-ap-a-la-no of 1859, and later, was a good 
Indian, according to John Morton and all others, a Tory good 
wiae Indian, and he livod at Homulcheson, Indian Tillage, 
hut the wh 1 testa n applied his name to that creek, and as 
his successor, "Hyas Joe", who waa not of Ki-ap-a-la-no 
blood at all, but waa the husband of a Ki-ap-a-la-no woman, 
lired there, pioneers gave him the name "Capilano Joe", 
just as they did "Jericho Charlie", "Squamish Jacob", "Howe 
Sound Jim" . 

All of which Is submitted subject to the errors* 
omissions, mistakes, and other fallings to which humerus, and 
especially archivists, are prone* 

With best wishes. 

Most sincerely, 



V 



Fred J. C. Ball, Esq., 

Indian Agent, *V clTi ARCHIVIST. 

Indian Dept . 

Federal Building, 
Vancouver, B. C. 



234 



222 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 66. 

AUTHORITIES 
TTTOT^j NnMTtMCLATPRK . 

Professor Cba a ♦ Hill-Tout . r.R.S.C, F.R.A.I., director 
Vancourer City Museum. Report on the Ethnological 
Surrey of Canada, British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, Bradford Heating, 1900, Belfast Meet- 
ing 1002, etc., etc., etc. 

ReT. Charles Montgomery Tate . Methodiat Indian Missionary, 
arrived B.C. 1870. first saw Granville 1873, assisted 
dedication firat (Indian) church at Granville, 1876; 
translator of Gospel of St. Mark into Indian tongue; 
author "Dictionary of Chinook Jargon, 1914"; also 
book of Hymns in Indian tongue; probably the foremost 
living authority on the practical speaking of Indian 
languages. 

T.J.C. Ball . Indian Agent, Department of Indian Affairs, 
Vancouver . 

Ma Jor J .3. Matthews . V.D, Archivist, City of Vancouver. 

Compiler of map "Indian Villages and Landmarks, Borrard 
Inlet and English Bay, Before the Whitemans Came", 
adopted as official by Squamish Indian Chiefs, Jan. 
13th, 1933. Author of "Early Vancouver 1931", "The 
First Settlers of Burrard's Inlet", etc., etc., etc. 



INDIANS. 



Andrew Paull (Qoltohetahl) . North Vancouver Indian Reserve, 
Seoretsry Squamlsh Indian Council of Chiefs, Secretary 
Progressive Native Tribes of British Columbia; Direct- 
or Squamlsh Indian Band and Orchestra; a prominent 
well-known Indian, educated, and speaks, writes and 
types English fluently; a clever man snd s leeder 
among Indians. Indian name Qoitchetahl. 

August Kits llano (or A u gust Jack), of Capllano Indian Res- 
erve, grandson of Chief Hastsalahnough, hand logger 
on own account; speaks good English, but cannot read 
or writs* An outstanding Indian of above average in- 
telligence; not a chief. Born st Snauq, False Creek, 
about 187*. 

Dlok Isaacs (Quevahchnlk) . North Vancouver Indian Reserve, 



235 



223 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 66. 
Authorities &. Indiana (cont'd). 

agsd "about 70", one arm. Constantly consulted by 
Andrew Peull. Speaks good English, but cannot read 
or write. Indian name Queyahchulk. 

Tim Moody (Yahmas) . flathead Indian, aged "about 60 or 70 
or more. Speaks good English, cannot read or write. 
The Vancouver sculptor, Charles Marega, has made a bust 
of "Old Timothy", which shows flattened forehead; prob- 
ably the last of his kind. Indian name Yahmas. 



Jim Franks (Chlllahmlnst 
aged "about 65 or 7 



1- 

£". 



North Vancouver Indian Reserve, 
Born at Skwayoos (Kits llano 
Beach). Speaks very good English, but cannot read or 
write. Fine, intelligent Indian. Indian name 
Chlllahmlnst. 

Frank Charlie (Avatak) . Musqueam Indian, Musqueam Indian 
Reserve, aged "about 70 or 80". Says "Old Chief" 
Capilano his grandfather, and that the "Old Chief" told 
him he saw first white man, Fraser, come down Fraser 
River. Mephew of Chief Lah-wa. Speaks good English, 
but cannot read or write. Indian name Ayatak. 



HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA . 

This book states that it is "Reprinted by permission 
from Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico, 
published as Bulletin 30, Bureau of American Ethnology", 
and is issued by the Geographic Board of Canada, tenth 
report, printed 1813. 

EXTRACT - p. 436 : 

" SQUARISH . The SPELLING IS FAULTY, SO far as it 
refers to places frequented by the Squamish tribe. 
THE INFORMATION IS ALSO FAULTY. 

Professor Hill-Tout's comment of spelling and details 
of information, "This is dreadful". 



Instances: 
Suntz 



- a Squawmish village. 

barren rock. p. 442. 
Chants - a Squawmish village. 

rock and cave. p. 87. 
Chalkunts - a Squawmish village. 

p. 87. 



Actually a 
Actually a 
No such place. 



236 



224 



"Early Tenscuver", Vol. 2, p. 67. 

Handbook of Indians of Canada, (cont'd) . 

Koalcha - should be Kwahulche, not "Coal" 

and many others. 

"Hill-Tout In Hep. Brit. A, A. 3, 1900" is quoted as 
authority, and appears to have been so used by someone 
who could not understand Prof. Hill-Tout's phonetics. 
See Prof. Hill-Touts Report on the Ethnological Surrey 
of Canada, British Asan. for the advancement of 
Science, Bradford Meeting 1900, pp. 472-3. 



237 



225 



THE NAMK 'KITSILAHO' 
("Barly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 33) 

•CAPILANO* and 'KITSILANO', aasuned by many to be 
Indian names, are actually neither English nor Indian, but a 
concoction of both created within recent yeara, and deriTed 
from Indian nan, not Indian places. 

Some time prior to July, 1905, the Canadian Pacific 
Railway requested the late Jonathan Miller, an eerly resident 
of Granville and ita constable, afterwards for many years, the 
first postmaster of Vancouver, to furnish them with a suitable 
name for a subdivision of land adjacent to Greer's Beech. Mr. 
Miller invoked Professor Charles Hill-Tout »a, 7.B.S.C., F.R.A.I., 
profound knowledge of Indian matters. Professor Hill-Tout 
writes, May 8th. 1931 1 

"To the best of my knowledge it came about in 
the following manner: 

"The name by which the Kltailano district was 
first known wis •Greer' a Beach*, so called because a 
squstter by the name of Greer had erected a dwelling 
there, near the beach." 

"The land was afterwards in oontrol of the 
Canadian Paolfic Hallway, and when they opened it up for 
settlement (note, about 1905) they deaired to give the 
district a more suitable name than Greer's Beech, and, 
knowing that Mr. Jonathan Miller, who was then postmaster 
of Vaneouver, was on friendly terms with the Indians, 
they requested him to find an appropriate name for the 
settlement." 

"Mr. Miller referred the request to me, knowing 
that I had given considerable time and study to the 
customs, habits, and place names of the loeal tribe. 
After some little consideration I ohose the hereditary 
name (?) of one of the chiefs of the Squsmish people, 
namely, 'Kates- ee ■ lah-ogh', and modified It after 
the manner In which "Kapllanogh" has been modified by 
dropping the final gutteral. Thfcs we got the word 
'Kates— ee-lano'. Mr. Miller, or the C.P.B. authori- 
ties, further modified by changing the long »■• in the 
first syllable into en '1', end thus we have Kltsilsno." 

"You may be Interested to know that the Indian 
pronounelstlon of Kapllano mas Kee-ep-e*-lan— ogh. This 
also was an hereditary (t) name of the ohlef who lived 
near the mouth of that river which we know by this name. 
Both heve the some ending 'lanogh'. This suffix sig- 
nifies 'mam*. We find It also in another of their names 
•kalamogh', moaning the 'first man'". 

"I could not learn what the significance of the 
first part of the other two hereditary names was; the 
Indians did not appear to know it themselves. The tei 
axe very ancient." Sgd. Chas Hill-Tout. 



238 



226 



"larly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 33. The Name 'Kltailano' 
oont*d. 

The first appearance in print of the name 'Kltsilano* 
was a newspaper announcement stating that Postmaster Miller 
had, approximately 1905, or earlier, adopted it as the name of 
a new sub-post office to serve the district known as 'Greer's 
beach* — actually no such post office was aver established. it 
remained unused for some time, until one morning the legend 
'Kltsilano* appeared on two or three street cara which inaug- 
urated the service on the Kltsilano Street car line, and thus 
brought the name prominently to public notice. Geo. S. 
Hutchlngs, who lived on York and Balsam Streets, says this was 
Dominion Day, 1905. Subsequently, approximately 1909. the 
land north of the C.P.R. right-of-way was placed on sale, and 
the name quickly applied itself to this area. Gradually the 
name spread from the small arc of land surrounding Greer's 
Beach, pushed 'Tairview' beck eastwards. lalrview once ex- 
tended to Trafalgar Street, the city boundary. There was no 
other name for it prior to the adoption of Kit silano— and as 
the settlement extended further westward Into the clearing 
westwards towards Alma Road, and southwards towards Broadway, 
the name Kltsilano followed the settlement until now, 1933, 
It comprises a great aection of land spreading from the Klts- 
ilano Indian Reserve to Jericho and southwards over an unde- 
fined area, being, generally speaking, the flat land behind 
Kltsilano Beach, the face of the hill, and the flat land be- 
tween Trafalgar Street and Alma Road back as far as the hills. 
It Is somewhat hard to say where Kltailano stops, and where 
Tairview, Talton Place, Shaughnessy Heights, Qjuilehena, Dunbar 
Heights and Jericho start. 

Tate, early Indian missionary, says it is 'impossible' 
to reproduce In English the sound as the Indian pronounced 
Kltailano. 

Tate spells it Haat-sa-lah-nough, the last syllable 
like 'lough' In Scottish, or 'nough' In enough. 

Hill-Tout spells it KhStsalanoogh and QjfftaillnBq. 

August Kltsilano, grandson of Chief of the name, 
signs his name August 'Haatsalano'. 

On August £6, 1938, by deed poll, August Jsck 
adopted the name "August Jack Khahtsahlano . " (Original dec- 
laration in City Archives) 



HOTI: Tate says "Thit-aee-mah-lah-nough* was chief at 



239 



227 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 33. The Name ♦Kltailano» 
eont , d. 

Musqueam. Paull and August Kltailano dispute the hered- 
itary character of both names. The facts appear to be 
contrary to Indian custom, which Indicate that when a 
child reached a certain age of reaponsibility, the child 
was given a traditional name. Qoitchetahl (Andrew Paull) 
was a grown man when given this name. Joe Capilano was 
given the name 'Capilano' at a ceremony after he became 
chief. Layhulette, or Mary, daughter of Chief Matthias 
Joe (Capilano) was given hers by her great grandmother. 



240 



228 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p.lCOA. 
THE ROUTE 
of 

JOHN MORTON'S FIRST TRIP TO HTRRABD IMLET , 
"WESTMINSTER TO WEST END." 



See "The First Settlers on Burrard Inlet", and "Early 
VancouTer", Vol. 2, page 93. 



Narration of conversation between Joseph Morton, 
son of John Morton, and Major J. 3. Matthews, V.D., City 
Archivist, March 3rd. 1952 . wherein Joseph Morton states: 

"The Indian and father were brought to- 
gether in New Westminster. An arrangement was made 
for the Indian to guide father to the coal deposits, 
and they started off one day and came by forest trail 
to the head of False Creek. Just what trail they 

took I do not know " "Anyway, father 

told me the Indian led him to the head of False Creek; 
that they skirted the head of False Creek, and after 
that out through the trees to the Inlet, somewhere about 

Carrall street now, and the Indian got a canoe " 

"What prompted the Indian to take father out of the 
Narrows, I have no knowledge, but whatever it was, 
they went out of the Narrows in the canoe, and circ- 
umnavigated the peninsula* "They finally landed 

on the English Bay bathing beach at the foot of Denman 

street" "They Jumped ashore".... "He (the 

Indian) pulled the canoe high up on the beach, and 
into the bushes, led off on a trail into the woods, 
and beckoned father to f ollow" . . . "To his (Morton's) 
astonishment, after a short walk, they arrived back 
on Burrard Inlet" etc. 



241 



229 



Vol. H, J3. M<j 



DBADMaK'S islahd 
(origin of name) 
"The Indians called tha island 'Memaloose Siwash Illahle'. 



"Mamelous Siwash ill-lee"; Rev. P. C. Parker. "Mameloose Siwash 
illa-hee"; Thos. P, Wicks. "Mem-a-loose Siwash il- la-hie"; Rev. 
C. If. Tate. 



■DEAD INDIA* LAKD" 



CHTKOOK JARGOH: 



IHTERPRBTATIOH 



"Mem-a-loose", i. e., Dead, or die. "Siwash", 
i. e., Indian. "Il-la-hie", i. e., the earth, 
land, soil. Dictionary of Chinook Jargon, 
1914, by ReT. CM. Tate. 



"It means "Indian graveyard' 
-- Qoitchetahl 



(Andrew Paul) 



DBADMAK'S ISLftJTD ASP PTDIAK TRKB BURIALS "One morning — he told 

me this — it was 
April, and he looked across towards what is now Stanley Park, 
and there was Deadman's Island before him; it looked so beautiful; 
he was alone; he thought he would like to hare it, ao he took 
his boat and went across there. He told me the story one day 
when we were walking along Stanley Park Driveway in October, 1911, 
shortly before he died -- it was a beautiful morning, and whan 
we got near Deadman's Island he told me the story* He went on 
that he took bis boat, went over to Deadman's Island, and tied 
his boat up, and as he did so, he saw a box in a tree. He said, 
"I took my axe and knocked that box down, and opened it up; there 
was a dead Indian sitting in it; so I skipped over to my boat, 
and went. I same back in a couple of days, and put the box back; 
then I went to see Judge Brew about it at Hew Westminster. I drew 
a sketch of the island and handed it to Judge Brew, and Judge 
Brew looked at it and said, 'that's like the ace of spades' -- the 
shape of it. -"How," said Judge Brew, "1*11 tell you, Mr. Morton; 
we had better find out before you do anything further; we had 
better find out from the chief; evidently the island is the 
burial ground of the Indians, and they may hold it sacred; so 
we must not offend them; better find out before we do anything." 
The Indians called the island "Hemalooe siwash illahle". So 
Morton decided he did not want the island." 

(Prom narrative, Ootober 15th, 1935. Rev. P. C. Parker, 
executor, Morton's estate.) 



242 



Vol. i+. \> iao 

Ohinal se t (Jim Franks) In "Early Vancouver" , Vol. 2, p. 18 t 

C'h J h 

"Staamchuse: One time little island there; may be 
two or three crab apple trees on top, 
where it* a dry. Indian put dead man 
there bo wolf not get him." 



230 



Q.0ITCHETAHL (Andrew Paul): 



"The bodies lay on the bare rock on the top of those 
little islands just west of Point Atkinson; bare 
solid rooks. The bodies were simply protected with 
split oedar slabs, about three Inches thick; eight 
inches wide, and five feet long; held in place by 
their own weight; no other covering to the regains." 



Thoa. P. Wloka . i. e.» "Skookum Tom", pioneer of early 1880' », 
who speaks Chinook, says, Oct. 14th, 1939* "It 
really should be UemalooB, and lllahee, memaloes 
means "dead"; lllahee is the little house of two 
Blabs over the dead laid on the ground; I suppose 
it could be lnterpeted "Village of the Indian dead"; 
there was a lot of the little "houses" or shelters 
over the dead body; altogether." 

Bev. C. It. Tate 

Conversation, 1st July, 1932* "Sarly Vancouver", Vol. 

2, p. 134* 

"Oh, that was the deadhouse; the Indians all along 

the coast used them, for putting the dead in; ec 

of the deadhousea were quite pretentious." 



Mrs. James Walker , eldest daughter of Joseph Silvey, "Portugese 
Joe, Ho. 1" of Oast own, 28th Hov . , 1938. Aa a small child she 
attended the last potlatch held at Whoi-Whoi (Lumberman's Aroh)* 

DTDIAK GRAVES * "There was a lot of Indian graves all along the 

First Harrows. They did not bury their dead; 
they put them on the ground, with the blankets, and put a ahelter 
over them; just slabs of wood, no floor, two slabs leaning one 
against the other to cover the body; there was quite a lot of 
them along where the "Empress of Japan" figurehead is erected 
now on the First Harrows shore. There were Indian graves all 
along there. And some of the little houaes had windowa of glase 
in them, but that waa only the chiefs, or some "high" Indian, but 
the others they Just laid them on the ground with their blankets 
and things and put the shelter over them." 



243 



331 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 100, Manuscript of ReT. P.C. 
Parker, one of the executors of John Morton. Excerpts: 

DEADMAN'S ISLAND P. 102: "One day in April, he (John Morton) 

did not say what year, he looked across 
towards what is now Stanley Park, and there before him in its 
spring beauty was "Deadman's Island." When he told me this 
incident we were walking from his home, October 1911, through 
Stanley Park along the driveway toward Deadman's Island. He 
said, 'I wanted to homestead the Island.' So I took my boat, 
went over to the Island, pulled the boat up on the shore, and 
took my axe and went to the bush. I saw a box in the branches 
of a tree. I knocked it down and broke open the box, and 
there was a dead Indian sitting up in the box. So I skipped 
off to my boat and rowed away as fast as I could. I went back 
a couple of days afterwards and put the box back. Bye and bye 
I went to New Westminster and spoke to Judge Brew about it. I 
drew a sketch of the Island and gave it to the Judge, and he 
said, 'Why, it is like the ace of spades.' The shape of it. 
'Now,' said the Judge, 'Morton, we had better be careful about 
this and find things out before anything further' a done. We 
will see the chief. This is evidently the burial ground of 
the Indians, and they may hold it sacred and we must not offend 
them.' The Indians called the Island "Memelous Siwash Ille". 
(ill-lee) Morton decided he did not want the Island. When 
Mr. Morton told me that incident we were in Stanley Park op- 
posite Deadman's Island and I quoted the refrain I saw some- 
where but can't remember where: 

•Our footprints press where centuries ago, the red men 
fought and conquered, lost and won, 
Whole tribes and nations gone like winter's snow, 
before the rising of the springtide's sun.' 

"One day there were two Indians came to 
their log hut, bringing with them a squaw. At the time 
they did not understand the Indian language — all the three 
Englishmen were there, end the Indiana talked and talked, and 
finally the squaw stood up and began to dance, and Jumped over 
a bench. Meantime, Morton and friends got into a corner of 
the hut and were in great terror, as they thought this was the 
war dance before the scalping. Finally, the Indians went 
away grinning and Morton, having put down some of the words he 
heard, discovered that the Indiana, seeing the men were alone, 
with no woman to work for them, had brought the squaw for that 
purpose. The dancing and jumping was to show how nimble and 
oapable she was." 

"On another occasion, when Morton was 
alone, he was astonished to see a whole band of Indians come 
across the Bay, Stanley Park way, some walking along the trail, 
some in boats. They were beating tom-toms. Morton got 
alarmed. He fixed up a dummy in his bed, put s hat on at 



244 



232 



(cont'd) "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 103: 

the top of the bed where the head would be, and a pair of 
boots at the bottom under the clothing, with a bit of the 
boot sticking out, fastened his door and bolted up to where 
Hastings Kill is now, and from there watched the proceedings. 
He saw them put something over the branch of a tree, and it 
was dancing and struggling in the air. Gaining courage and 
going back towards the place, he saw it was a squaw that they 
had hung— near the entrance of Stanley Park. This squaw was 
the wife of Chief Supple Dick or Slippery Dick— some such name. 
She ha* been jealous because the wife of Chief had had a baby 
whilst she had none — and had pinched the baby's throat and 
killed it. There had been a hanging in New Westminster, some 
man had killed another and had been hung for murder. 1 think 
it was Jack Sprague who was hung. Bishop Sheepshanks men- 
tions it, and in Morton's phraseology 'white man hang white 
man for kllly white man, so they hung squaw for killy papoose. 1 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 106, Conversation with Mrs. Ruth 
Morton, widow of John Morton of the "Brickmaker's Claim", 1862, 
Excerpts: 

September 16. 1935. 

MORTON'S CLEARING P. Ill: "and finally got very friendly 
AND CABlfp with the Indians. His sisters (John 

INDIANS "ON BURRARD Morton) used to send out to him from 
INLET Yorkshire — "to the three pioneers" they 

were sent — some little skull caps made of 
colored cloth, like the English public school boys wear to 
designate the school colors— and the Indians always liked 
lots of color. The Indians were very well pleased when Mr. 
Morton gave them the colored caps." 

"Then again, he had a grindstone and al- 
lowed the Indians to sharpen their axes — to grind their axes — 
and that pleased them too. Then they began to bring him 
ducks to eat. The Indians caught the ducks by subterfuge. 
They covered their canoes with brush and hid under it, and 
floated or paddled quietly down on the ducks. The ducks 

did not suspect there was anyone under 
INDIAN FOOD SUPPLY the brush and came close. Then the 

Indians had a forked arrangement on the 
end of a stick, and when the ducks came under the brush 
they caught them by the neck in the forked stick." 

March 15th. 1937 . 

ngArMAM's ISLAND P. 113: Mrs. Morton: "And then there 

was Deadman's Island. They had to do 
their own surveying, and he (Morton) wanted Deadman's Island 



245 



233 



(cont'd) "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 113: Mrs. Ruth korton« 

(see Rot. P.C. Parker narrative), but Judge Begbie aald 
the Indians used it as a burial ground; buried their dead 
high up in the trees, and he could not have it." 

"And then, one day, Mr. Morton saw a lot 
of Indians (see Joseph Morton narrative, "Early Vancouver", 
Vol. z P»f ) coming and making a disturbance and noise, and 
he said to himself, "They are after me", and he made off to- 
wards New Wtstminster, and he kept looking back, and then he 
said to himself, "They are not following ae", and he watched 
and saw them putting a rope over a branch. Then he watched 
them put a rope around an Indian woman's neck, and then (Mrs. 
Morton gave a serious glance) they hung her." 

NOTE: The Indian woman is said to have killed her 
baby in a fit of Jealousy. She was one of several 
wives of an Indian of prominence, who was giving es- 
pecial attention to another younger wife, and the woman 
took vengeance by killing their baby. J.&.M. 

"Then Mr. Morton, (he told me himself) 
next day started for New Westminster — that was the nearest 
civilization — and the day after they (the authorities and Mr. 
Morton) came back to Burrard Inlet and they saw Chief Kapilano 
and told the Indiana that it was not lawful to do that ." 

CHIEF KAPILANO P. 114: "But the chief said, 'The 

whltemans do it when their people murder. 1 
And they told the Indians that that might be, but they (the 
Indians) were never to do it again." 

"Chief Kapilano was a good chief. They 
could reason with him. He was a good sort of chief. After 
that they (Morton) and the Indians) were good friends." 

THE GRINDSTONE "Then he had a grindstone (see Joseph 

Morton narrative, "Early Vancouver", Vol.2 
p. tji ) and he let the Indians use it to sharpen their hatchets. 
Hatchets, that was what they called them, and the Indians and 
Mr. Morton got to be good friends. They brought him ducks 
and they showed him how to dig a hole in the ground and put hot 
cinders in it and then the ducks, and then more hot cinders on 
top and then cover it up with earth. Smothering, they called 
it, and the ducks would come out so sweet (cooked tastily). 

They (Morton and the Indians) were always 
DUCKS good friends after that (the hanging in- 
cident)." 

INDIAN INCIDENT "And then there was a man who came from 
Huddersfield, and Mr. Morton and the man 
were sleeping in the cabin. One morning the man heard some- 
thing rattling outside and he looked out and saw a lot of 
Indians. Some of them were sharpening their hatchets on the 



246 



334 



(cont'd) "Early Vancouver, Vol. 5, p. 114, Mrs. Ruth Morton. 

grindstone and the man said (he was alarmed), quickly, "Mr. 
Morton, get up, get up, the red devils are here and they will 
kill you." But Mr. Morton would not get up. He said, "Oh, 
they are all right." But the man said, "I don't like them. 
I'd like to tell them to go away. *hat do I say?" And Mr. 
Morton told him to say "Ikta Mika". That is "What do you 
want?" So the man said it and the Indians said "ah ta" and 
then they laughed. The man thought they were making fun of 
him before they killed him. Mr.ljorton continued to lie 
asleep and the man said, "What shall I say?" Mr. Morton told 
him to say "mika klatawa" (go away), but what he said was 
"Michael I Clatter away." (Mrs. Morton chuckled) "Oh, it 
took Mr. Morton to tell a story." 

DUCKS "Did I ever tell you about ducks? Mell, 

the Indians had the canoes and they got 
the canoes all ready, and they pulled down branches. When 
the mallards came— they were supposed to be the best— they 
(the Indians) would cover the canoes all over with branches. 
Then they would get underneath and they would drift down on 
the tide. The ducks would think it was just a tfcree in the 
water, and they (Indians) would have a stick with a prong on 
the end of it, like two fingers, (Mrs. Morton illustrated with 
her fingers), and they would go gently in the canoe. »hen 
the ducks would come right under (the branches), come close, 
they (Indians) would push the stick out and catch the duck's 
neck between the prongs and they gave a little Jerk. You 
would think the other ducks would be alarmed, wouldn't you, 
but they didn't get alarmed. Oh, the Indians brought Mr. 
Morton lots of ducks." 

September B, 1937 . 
HANGING INDIAN P. 118: "One day he saw a big crowd Of 
COAL HARBOR Indians coming out of the woods down 

there (Coal Harbor) and he thought they 
were after him. He got his things together and thought he 
would go to New Westminster. That was the only place to go 
and it was twelve miles. He kept looking back to see if they 
were getting any closer and the last time he looked he saw they 
had stopped. They all wore a blanket—put a hole in one 
corner and put their hea* through the blanket, and wrapped the 
rest around them like a shawl. The next thing they threw a 
rope over a lower limb of a tree and then they fastened it and 

they hung the woman." 
INDIAN DRB3S 

"So Mr. Morton thought that would have to 
be stopped , and he went to Westminster and told the authorities, 
and the next day they came over in a hurry. New Westminster 
was a small place — just a village. He told the authorities 
what he had seen and he had no aore trouble with than (Indians) 
after that." 



247 



235 



"Early Vanconver", Vol. 5, p. 118, Mrs. Norton, (cont'd): 

1,'ajor Matthews: "What had actually 
happened to make the Indians hang the woman?" 

Mrs. Morton: "It was a klootchman. Her 
husband had two wives. (Note: the Indian woman had killed 
her baby in a fit of jealousy over the other wife) . So the 
next day the authorities told Kapilano they could not do that 
here. Well, the chief replied "The King George men do that," 
and, well, they said it musn't happen again. Kapilano lived 
away down there where the bridge is crossing the Narrows 
(Homuleheson, or Capilano Creek). Old Chief Kapilano saw 
that Mr. Morton had no more bother of that kind." 

INDIANS BEST FRIENDS P. 119: "The Indians were the best 

friends he had, there were lots of mallard 
in Coal Harbor, and the branches used to come down over the 
water, and the Indians used to go out in canoes, but before 
they went they covered the canoes with branches and hid under 
them, and then they would spear the ducks with a long stick 
with a fork on the end of it. It would catch the ducks by 
the neck, and they (Indians) would twist their necks and break 
them in the fork. They used to give the ducks to Mr. Morton, 
and fish too." 



Conversation with John Murray, of Port Moody, (son of John 
Hurray, Royal Engineer) one of the child passengers of the 
"Thames City", 1859. "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 131. 

TNBTiW TttATTfl August 30. 19S8. 

INDIAN RANUHHKIE P. 134: "West of "Portugese Joe's" and 

the "Parsonage" was the Indian rancherie; 
just a few Indians, not many, Just a few. Then there was an 
old trail leading on to the west, down to the west end of 
Coal Harbor. There was another trail down from what is now 
about the south end of Carrall street, towards the present 
C.P.R. Roundhouse, that the Indians used to use." 



Nye 
Conversation with Alfred J. Nye, of Lynn Creek Road, Lynn 
Valley, North Vancouver. "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 158. 

TREE , FELLING CEDAR . July 19. 1938. 

STONE TOOTZT "An Indian who fell a tree--with a atone 

axe, of course,— was a man of consequence 
amongst his fellows. At least, so I gathered from an old 
Indian who was about ninety years old at the time he showed 
me, with pride, the stump of a tree his grandfather had felled. 
His grandfather . Bind you, — and the old man was ninety then, — 



248 



236 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 158. Mr. Nye (cont'd). 

with atone toola. He was quite proud, apparently, of being 
the grandson of such a grandfather" (aee "Chilaminst". and 
Paul, in "Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, pp. 47, 48 and 54). 



Conversation with Mr. and Mrs. H.P. McCraney, 3350 Cypress 
Street. "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 172. 

LI QUORICE ROOT 15th May. 1937 . 

Mrs. McCraney: (looking at photos of 
INDIAN MEDICINE Stanley Park by Bailey Bros, about 1889) 

"Yes, they took those photos to show the 
moss on the trees. The moss was wonderful. It was everywhere, 
but (sadly) it's all gone now. The moss used to hang down in 
great festoons from the branches and all along the ridge of 
the branches grew little ferns, scores and scores of them, In 
the damp moss of the branches. What did we call them? Liqu- 
orice, I think. Tes, that's what we used to call them, 
liquorice." 

NOTE: See George Cary, "Early Vancouver", Vol. 3, p. 220, 
and also Bailey Bros, photos. 

See photos: C.Y.-P.St., 35. N.St., 32, G.N. 474; 

C.V.-P.St., 63, N.St., 8. 

J.S. Matthews. 



Conversation with Henry S. Rowling, formerly of Rowling, worth 
Arm, Fraser River. "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 230. 

22nd September. 193 7. 
INDIAN CUSTOMS Major Matthews: "What do you think of 

this for a drawing by an Indian?" (show- 
ing oolored drawing by Khahtsahlano. ) 

Mr. Rowling: "Indians! Drawl Why, 
I have seen them take a piece of charcoal and draw your face 
on the end of a log so that you could recognise it." 

INDIAN TOOD P. 231t "I see in the "Advertiser" 
OOLICHANS (Bumaby) George Green says we packed 

STURGEbK oolichans In barrels for the winter. We 

SALMON never did. *e never bothered with ooli- 

chans, except once in a while. And he 
■ays we put up barrels of salmon for the winter. Vte never 
did. We used to put up s few salmon bellies. They used to 



249 



237 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 231, Mr. Rowling (cont'd): 

cut the bellies off and throw the backs In the river. I 
have seen the backs, lots of then, floating down North Arm. 
Same with sturgeon. We never used sturgeon — never used them— 
but they got in the fishermen's nets. Big things, sturgeon — 
400, 500, as much as 600 lbs. Tore the nets all to pieces. 
They were big fish; hard to kill. Tou can pound a hole in a 
sturgeon's brain and he's still alive. •<• did not eat sturgeon, 
they were not saleable. Very saleable now, about twenty-five 
cents a pound. I liked sturgeon— -makes nice meat pie; can 
hardly tell it from meat." 

INDIAN FOOD "You know, the Indians are cleaver. They 

BIKJK5 used to fix a sort of dam in a stream, a 

SALMON little stream, so that the water rushed 

down; little bend in the creek. I don't 
know just how they fixed it. The water must have come in 
through the side in a little "box". Anyway, salmon are 
strong swimmers, and would take a rush up stream below the 
little dam, and then Jump, and would land on dry land." 

"Then they had a way of netting ducks. 
I've seen them down at Boundary Bay. They would spread a big 
net in the water, spread it on an angle, a slope, from the bot- 
tom to the surface—angle of forty-five degrees, s%y— and the 
ducks would dive, of course, and when they curved up towards 
the surface they got caught in the nets." 






5ur-fa.ce 



Water - ^-y 







"Bottorn ^StZ 










Sam™*- d 



3.3. Matthews. 



250 



238 



"Serly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 158. 

Conversation with Harry 3. Rowlings, son of W.H. Rowlings, 

who, in September, 1868, took up land by pre-emption on the 

north bend of the Fraaer River in what is now known as South 

Vancouver. 

May 28th. 1932 . 

SOUTH VANCOUVER "No, 1 cannot say that I have ever seen 
RQITLINGs any elk around Vancouver, but I have seen 

8IJC any quantity of elk horns. You know, 

east of Boundary Road, the dividing line 
between Greater Vancouver and Burnaby, and along the north 
arm river front on towards New Westminster, there is a great 
stretch of low level land. I have seen lots of elk horns 
there in the early days— some rotten, some broken, some four 
or five prongs but not rotten by any means, but 1 never saw a 
lire elk." 

Major Matthews: "What do you suppose 
became of the elk?" 

"I don't know — never heard of any. I 
went to live on our farm there with father in 1868. 1 was 
Just four years old* Father came out with the Royal Engin- 
eers. He worked on the North American Boundary Commission. 
He was a non-commissioned officer, corporal. I hsve seen 
him sign his name— you know he was a bit proud of being a 
corporal— and I have seen him sign his name "Corporal, 
N.A.B.C*," which meant North American Boundary Commission. 
He had been in the Navy, I don't know how long, then he 
Joined the army. He had a small pension of s shilling s 
day from the navy." 

INDIAN RELICS "We used to dig up hornbone daggers out 

there— made out of elk horns I think. I 
could point out the place pretty well. I don't think it is 
built on yet. We found them when we were trying to do s 
little gsrdening. The soil was good. Then we used to find 
a peculiar green stone mallet, a sort of green granite. 
Where the Indians got it from I do not know; no atone any- 
thing like it anywhere around." 

"The place where we found those Indian 
rellos was right on the river bank. About the centre of 
Lot 258 there is s little creek. It runs into the North 
Arm of the Trsser River Just east of Rowlings station on 
the Sburoe-New Westminster interurbsn tram line. There is 
a little island there called Rowlings Island. There are 
half a dozen little islands in the north arm of the river 
named after their first owners. Rowlings Island is Just 
east of Rowlings station, and the little creek comes out 



251 



239 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 158. Harry S. Rowlings, 
(cont'd). 

right at the west end, opposite the west end, of Rowlings 
Island. Our little garden was right along the creek, close 
to the river bank, and was Just west of the creek on a little 
piece of flat. The site might be worth excavating for 
relics yet, I don't know." 



Mr. Duncan McDonald, who recalls Burrard Inlet in 1873. 

NORTH VANCOUVER "In those days there was nothing in North 
MOODYVllr-T-* Vanoouver excepting woods", remarked Mr. 
SPRATT , 3"0TleKT Duncan McDonald, of 446, 6th Street West, 
HERRINGS North Vancouver, where he resides with his 

BIG TREES grandchildren, and who recalls Burrard 

Inlet in 1873, that is, earlier than any 
known person now living, for he came as a grown man. Such 
bs are known to have been living here then were mere little 
tots in 1873. 

"In those days Vancouver Harbor was full 
of herring. That was what Spratt's Ollery, Just Wfiat of the 
foot of Burrard Street, a few steps west of the Marine Build- 
ing, was started for— to extract the oil. But after extract- 
ing the oil they took the refuse and dumped it outside the 
Narrows and they say that drove the herrings away. The her- 
rings used to be very numerous, thick in the water. We used 
to get a pole and drive a lot of nails in it so that the sharp 
ends stuck out like spikes, ghen get into a boat or canoe, go 
out in the harbor and sweep it through the water. The pole 
would be, say, twenty feet long, with the nails clustered at 
one end; then you sat or knelt in the bottom of the canoe, 
and swept it from bow to stern. You had to be quick and keep 
the pole going or the herrings would wriggle off, but you 
would always get four or five herrings esch sweep. Anyway, 
whatever it was, the herrings migrated from English Bay, Before 
that they came here to spawn, along by Swywee, the West Vancou- 
ver lagoon Just west of the Capilano River. They were thick 
in the water there." 



4th April. 1938. 
IHDIAN CHDRCH "In 1875, when the Rev. Thomas Derrick 

succeeded Rev. James Turner, we built an 
Indian church on the same lot which was washed by the waters 
of Burrard Inlet, hence it was very convenient for the 



252 



240 



"Early Vancouver, Vol. 2, p. 197. 

Indians who came from all parts of the Inlet in their canoea, 
and alao for the preacher'a boat as the only means of getting 
about amongat their parishioners." 

Rev. C. M. Tate. 



GEORGE CART; March lat. 1932. 

P. 216: 
gOTLfTCH IK "or course, there were Indiana living 

SgyJLST PArK IN over on the Narrows side of the government 

THE BOB reserve. I was over there once at a 

potlatch — lots of turn turning and dancing. 
Did not seem to be many Indiana there. I was over in the 
evening, and perhaps the women and children had gone back to 
•the Mission' at North Vancouver. They were passing back and 
forth all the time." 



DICK ISAACS (Indian name Que-yah-chulk) October 14th. 1932. 

G ASTOWN (One armed Indian who lost the other arm 

THE DI D IA N (METH - many years ago in a sawmill, and who now 
ODIST CHuRCH lives at North Vancouver Indian Reserve 

(Uatlawn). 
EIR3T CHOHCH "I recall the old Indian church over at 

Gastown quite well. It was a little bit 
of a place on the snore. It was not sideways to the shore, 
but one end nearest the water. There was no tower on it, 
such as we have here now at North Vancouver, but just a little 
bit of a bell tower, and a bell. Inside it was not fixed up 
like the Catholics fix up the inside of their churches. It 
was just plain, and about thirty feet long. It was wide 
enough for us to have three benches for us tc alt upon — all 
in a row across the church; three of then." 

"Lots of Indians used to go there from 
Stanley Park (Whoi-Whoi, now Lumbermans Arch). There was a 
big settlement in Stanley Park then. Mr. Daylick (Derrick) 
was the first minister I remember, then Mr. Bryant. Mr. 
Tate used to come sometimes." 

"I don't know how old I am, may be 60, 
may be 70, but I remember 'Old* Chief Capilano. The 'Old 
Chief died, then Chief Lah-wa succeeded him. Lahwa was 
married in the little Indian Church at Gastown to a Eraser 
River Indian woman. Afterwards Joe became chief, he was a 



253 



241 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 297. Dick Isaacs (cont'd). 

relation to the "Old Chief a' wife. Joe waa a good Catholic. 
That waa why they made him chief." 

POBTUGBSB JOB "Portugeae joe waa the flrat to keep atore 

at Gestown. He had a atore near the In- 
dian church. At leaat, that waa where it had been. Ben 
Wilaon built hla atore behind it. When Portugeae Joe went 
there firat there waa Just one man— that waa Portugeae Joe, 
in Gaatown." 

"My aiater waa Aunt Sally of Stanley Park." 

(Bote: Aunt Sally waa a famoua character on account of 
her realdence in Stanley Park until quite recent yeara — 
after the war). J.S.M. 

vnnn iwra "Puchahla waa the name of the place where 

the C.P.B. Depot and docka are now. lota 

of big treea there, lota of bushes, much shade and little sun- 
shine." 



WHOI-WHOI. STANLBT Letter from Professor Chaa. Hill-Tout, 

P ARS F.R.S.C, F.R.I. A., etc. 

Frontenac Apartmenta 
Quebec street, Vancouver 
August 2nd. 1932. 

Dear Major Matthews: WJ . 

The photograph you aent me, which recoraa 
the demolition of one of the largeet of the old time middens in 
Stanley Park ia most interesting aa well aa worthy of preser- 
vation* 

I had no idea anything ao reminiacent of 
the early days of Vancouver was in existence. The road 
around the park ran right through this midden, which was situ- 
ated about where the lumberman s Arch now stands, and its 
material, composed mostly of calcined shells and aahea, was 
used largely for priming the roadbed around the park. In 
carting away the midden mass, numerous skeletons were brought 
to light. The bones of these were gathered up by the workmen, 
and placed in boxes for the Indiana to take away, and bury in 
their burial grounds. 

I recall making aelectiona of these bones, 
and sending them to the museum at Ottawa. This ancient 
campsite formed ons of the largest of the native villages of 
the Squamlsh in earlier days— so the Indians informed me— but 
had been practioally abandoned since the period when smallpox 



254 



242 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 297. 

first attacked the native people of this region. This 
scourge struck this Tillage very severely, and practically 
depopulated It, hence its abandonment hereafter* 

Tours sincerely, 

"Ghas. Hill-Tout" 

(Refer: Bailey Bros, photo No. 541 - "deposit of shells 
eight feet deep on Park road.) 



255 



243 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 169. 

Conversation with Mrs. Ruby M. Bower, (or Bauer), daughter of 
Benjamin Springer, Esq., J. P., manager, Moodyville Sawmill 
Co. Moodyville. 

17th June. 1942. 

AN INDIAN RETORT : Mra. Bower said: "I must tell you a 
a woman' s story. Mother (Mra. Ben Springer) used 

to know all the Indian women. They used 
to do the laundry. The Chinamen (household help) did not 
like doing the household laundry, so the Indian women used to 
do it, and were up at the house when it had to be done. One 
of the women was Louise, a fine woman, and she had children, 
and sent them to the Protestant school." 

(Note: I neglected to ask Mrs. Bower what "Protestant 
School", but suggest that she meant Protestant Sunday 
School on Sundays). 

"Louise was proud of her children, and 
looked after them, and did her best for them." 

"Well, the Roman Catholic priest met 
Louise. Louise always called the priests "she" for some 
reason, perhaps because they wore cassocks. And Louise told 
mother what was said." 

"It seems the Roman Catholic priest did 
not like Louise sending her children to the Protestant School, 
and shook his head; told her it was 'bad* business, and 
gently admonished her. And, ss a final argument, added, 

(Priest) "She ssy: 'You know where you'll 
go to, Louise? You'll go to hell surely.'" 

"So Louise replied, 'Ah, ah; lots of 
nice people go to hell nowadays.'* 



NOTE: The conclusion must be that the Indian klootch 
felt that a Protestant hell waa preferable to a Roman 
Catholic heaven; there can be no other conclusion. 



256 



244 



Vol. 3. (J. S. M. , 1931) 



INDIAN BOB] 



MM4£_VQBiMI»: 



In 1931, Mrs. H.A. Benbow of Vancouver 
told me tbat they then (in 1907) lived in 
the 1600 block, lat Avenue West, and she 
witnessed an Indian Burial. She had just arrived from England. 
The cortege came out of the bush in front of her house carry- 
ing the body. The Bat Portage Hill closed down for half an 
hour* This is supposed to have been the last Indian burial. 

J.S.M. 



257 



245 
CABBOB BALL ABT> IBPIAB LA.CR0S3K 



On April 24th, 1962, whilst digging in he* garden at Kits- 
llano, Mrs. T. Saffln, 1*38 York Street, unearthed a second 
cannon tell, moulded iron, two inches diametre, one pound one 
ounce weight. It was found within about twenty feet of the 
place where, a month previously, she had dug up a larger cannon 
ball of noulded Iron, three inches diameter, weight over four 
pounds. Both were heavily encrusted with iron rust due to the 
wet ground, but we easily cleaned it. 



Tfar-fWAT-T-A, r»n SaUAMTSE, IBPIAB 1ACR033B . 

At the same time, Mrs. Baffin found in her garden soil, a 
-ooth drab colored oral stone, four and three quarter inches by 
four Inches, weight three pounds two ounoes. Except in color 
It Is Tory similar to our authentic TCK-KWALLA stone, four inches 
diameter, weight throe pounds six ounoes, Tory smooth and black. 
Ths blaok stone was found some years ago by August Jack Khaht- 
sahlano (Kits llano) in the sane violnity, i.e., the former 
Squamlsh Indian Tillage of false Creek known as Snauq, where he 
onoe lived, he presented it t o the City Archives, who had it 
mounted with explanatory lnsoriptlon In metal beneath. 

TCX-KVAXLA, or the game of Squamlsh Indian lacrosse, was 
played without stloke or nets on open spaces about Squamlsh 
villages by teams of six men on each side. The ball was thrown 
and oaught by hand. Goal posts were about six feet apart. 

We have no actual knowledge that the drab oval stone found 
by Mrs. Baffin, being similar in sise and weight but not color, 
is another TCX-KWAIIA ball. It nay be. And, It may be that 
the two small iron oannon balls—all three found in the eame 
garden— were used as substitutes for round smooth stones. 
August Jaok Khahtsahlano says it is a Teh-qualla. 

A notable faot is that the particular locality in whioh 
these relics were found is very close to the former Indian vil- 
lage of Snauq, and la, more or less, between the site of the 
Indian salmon weir, or dam, near the corner of Cedar St. (Burrard) 
and Third Avenue; their burial ground was olose at hand, and 
their homes a short dlatanoe away on the share. 

J.S. Matthews 
City Archives City Archivist 

City Hall, 
Tana our or. 
1st May 1962. 



258 



246 



-jsarxy Vancouver", vox. a, p. Z4U.. 

Converaation with George Cary, (see "Early Vancouver", Vol.2, 

1933, pp. 213 to 222.) He came to Granville in 1864. 

tktotan vtt.t.act. December 14. 1953. 

IN STAHLEY PARK. Major Matthews: "What about that Indian 

village in Stanley Park, the one on the 
First Narrows?" 

Mr. Cary: "I don't think it was a perm- 
anent place; Just a stopping place to fish. You know the 
Indians don't always stop at the same place as they go to 
fish. (See old charts.) The same thing at Buccaneer Bay. 
I was along there once and there were ten or fifteen huts, but 
there ware no Indiana living there. I know it waa that way; 
Just temporary shelters when they came down to fish for dog 
fish." 

"They had a little potlach over there 
oncet It was never much of a village; just a few shacks 
right there some place. They have put up aome totem poles 
in Stanley Park, but that's not where the shacks I knew were." 

Major Matthews: "Well, there was a big 
village over there at one time. That's what the Indians say." 

Mr. Cary : "May be; not in my time. The 
path along the shore, up and down the shore of the Narrows, was 
just wide enough to let one man through at a time. Indiana 
alwaya travel a ingle file anyhow. I'm speaking now of the 
prairie Indians, not shore Indians. Shore Indians don't 
travel much through woods. All these Indians here on this 
coast are canoe Indians. Shoes? What shoes? Oh, they 
sometimes wore moccasins, not bare fast always. But I must 
tell you about old Capilano, old Capilano Joe, the chief over 
there." 

CAPILANO JOB. "I aee Capilano Joe (Chief Joe Capilano) 

one day at the corner of Water Street. 
Oh, that waa a long time ago. He was standing with a blanket 
around him, that was all he seemed to have on, excepting a 
necktie and a plug hat and bare feet, and ice and anow on the 
sidewalk. He wss standing there, barefooted, on the aidawalk. 
As I passed he spoke quietly to me. He put his hand to his 
cheek, and said in his broken English, 'You're face cold?' 
The akin on his feet waa, I'll bet, half an inch thick." 

STANLEY PARK . (See his narrative "Early Vanoouver", Vol. 

2, p. 215.) 
"I did not go clear around Stanley Park. I cut across about 
the pipe line road. I guess that was how It was. The In- 
diana would have a trail into Beaver Lake. You can aee the 
beaver dams there yet." 



259 



247 



"Early Vancouver", vol. 3, p. 241, cont»d. 

"Indian trails? Oh, Indiana tralla 
always follow the eaaieat route. There waa a trail down 
eaat from 3arnia to Niagara. I have seen parts of It. It 
took the eaaiest route. It was beaten so hard with Indian 
feet you could see the steps they had taken, in some places 
six Inches deep, one after another." 

COAST INDIANS . "But the Coaat Indians don*t walk; they 

canoe. I never saw an Indian trail in 
this country. The Coast Indians are like the Mexicana who 
go for a horse to ride across the street." 



260 



248 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 71. 

Conversation with Ormond Lea Charlton, pionaar, (13th 

Sept. 1886). 

11th February. 1941. 

NOR TH VANCOUVER CATH- P. 74: 

UU.C umJBOT "I am not just aure of the date, but 

INDIAN BAKE It waa 1887 or 1888, and the place waa 

the Squamish Indian Miaslon at North 
Vancouver, and the chief performers were the Indian Bank. I 
am not aure if it waa the only band on the inlet at the time; 
it might have been. Some thouaanda of Indians were gathered 
at the Mlaalon from all up and down the coast to meet a large 
number of Roman Catholic Church dignitaries. The place waa 
a mass of tents and other shelters, pitched In the rough 
clearing between the stumps. In front of the Indian Church 
was four small oannona, muzzle loaders." 

"A large flotilla of canoes had pro- 
ceeded to Vancouver, and met the Archbishop and Blahop and lea 
aer clergy at Andy Linton's boathouae, at the foot of Carrall 
Street, adjoining later Street." 

(See photos C.V. P. In. 10,12, 
C.V. N. In. 2) 



Conversation with Mr. Quint in James Trotter, formerly of Eew 
Beach, West Vancouver. Mr. Trotter Is seventy-one. 

26th Mar oh. 1941. 
P. 88; 

KEW BEACH I'll tell you something about Kew Beach. 

"CHDLK3' r * On the south weat, or south side, there 

is a boulder about fifteen feet in dia- 
meter, and it is sitting in a niche about twelve feet wide, 
wider at the top than at the bottom; it is about thirty five 
feet deep from the top to the bottom, and thia boulder sits 
in the top of the great crevice. 

INDIAN LEGEND "Well, on the east side of Vancouver 

Island— this is an Indian legend in con- 
nection with thia rock or boulder— there was once a great 
Indian tree, and to show his power, he took this boulder in 
his sling, and waa going to throw it at Mount Garibaldi, but 
he hit the wing of a raven, and the boulder dropped abort, 
and landed in this niche of rook. That atory waa given to 
me by Andy Paull, secretary Progressive Native Tribes of B.C., 
one day when he was up at Kew Beach." 



261 



249 



away 

Charl 



.-annum of conversation with lira. Alice Crakanthorp . 1622 
rles Street, Vancouver, March 21st, 1935* Vol. ih $>, 1*1 



CatAKABTHORf lira* Alice Crakanthorp, nee Patterson, was the 

firet white child born (at Stamp's Mill) Alberni, 
B. C, 26th February, 1864* 

"OLD WILLIAM". Indian queryt Do you recall "Old William"? 
■SUPPLEJACK" (Khaytulk ) Mrs. Crakanthorp: "Oh, yes; dear old 

thing! Alexander's servant; he was 
so good; used to work for Mrs. Alexander, and sometimes for 
Mother. Sometimes the women would go away; across to Moodyville 
or somewhere} then they would leave him in charge; he would get 
the potatoes ready; aet the table; then when he was done over 
there he would go orer to our place; Alexander's waa next door 
to us; there was Juat a fence between ua; and he would fix things 
at our place. He was so clean; you could trust him with anything; 
to do anything; wash the windows; anything. His wife was Sally. 

"Supplejack? I never met him, but often heard of him. 
Whether he deserved it or not I do not know, but Supplejack 
(aon of Chief Khahtaahlanogh, after whom Kitsilano is named, and 
father of August Jack Ehahtaahlano, a magnificent Indian) was 
known as a "bad" Indian. I know a woman — a great big Irish 
woman-- who helped Constable Jonathan Miller to arrest him near 
the Hastings Sawmill; he was getting away from Miller. They 
never could catch him; I think that was why he was called "Supple 
Jack"; he was very clerer in slipping away* I know my mother 
used to eaution me, "Vow don't go far away, because Supplejack's 
around*" I was frightened to death of Indians; when we were at 
Alberni, they used to send for the gunboats. But Old William, 
he was so good." 



262 



250 



Conversation with Mrs. Alice Crakanthorp, 1622 Charles Street, 
Vancouver. "Early Vancouver", Vol. 4, p. 147, p. 151, p. 159 

March 21st, 1935 . 
CRAKANTHORP. toe*. Alice Crakanthorp, nee Patterson, was 

the first white child born (at Stamp's 
Mill) Alberni, B.C., 26th February, 1864. 



"OLDWIIXIAM" 

BtoliH. 



Major Matthews: 
William' t 



•Do you recall 'Old 



Mrs. Crakanthorp ; "Oh, yes; dear old 
thing! Alexander's servant. He was so good; used to work 
for Mrs. Alexander, and sometimes for mother. Sometimes the 
women would go away, across to Moodyville or somewhere. Then 
they would leave him in charge. He would get the potatoes 
ready, set the table. Then, when he was done over there, he 
would go over to our place. Alexander's was next door to ui) 
there was just a fence between us, and he would fix things at 
our place. He was so clean. Tou could trust him with any- 
thing—to do anything. Wash the windows, anything." 



SIWASH, 

THE EPITHET. 



Miss Crakanthorp : 
mean?" 



"What does 'Siwash' 



Ma j or Matthews: 
French word for savage*^ 



"Corruption of tha 



Ml ss Cr a jam thorp : "Mother was telling 
me that they never called the Indians 'Siwash' unless thay 
were annoyed or disgusted with them over something; unless 
the whites wanted to say something nasty to the Indians." 

Major Matthews : "Oh, that's right; you 
ought to read what old Jim Franks, (Chllamlnst) has to say 
about that. It was a nasty thing to say to an Indian. No 
one would do it even now if they knew how it offended our good 
Indian friends." 



263 



231 



Conversation with Mrs. Alice Crakanthorp, Vol. 4, p. 175, 
"laxly TanoouTar". 

April 22. 1937. 

"Oh, yea, a lot of Burrard Inlat white- 
■an had Indian wivea. The Hat you have 
la correct, and than there waa Philander 
Swat; ha had an Indian wife and aha waa 
auch a good woman. I remember, one of their children died, 
and aether had to go and lay tha ohild out, and I remember 
when aothar came back aha aaid "What a find, good woman lira. 
Swat la". 




Converaation, over tha phone, with Miaa Muriel Crakanthorp, 
"Early TanoouTar", Vol. 4, p. 188* 

May 16. 1938. 

INDIAN CUSTOMS "I waa talking to Uncle thia morning, 

BsHn" SPS mother* a brother, who Uvea with ua, and 

ha told me tha Indiana uaed deer akina 
for aaila; they ware leg-o-mutton ahapad. When the wind 
waa favorable on Burrard Inlat, ha aaya, he haa often aean 
them doing It; they would hoiat them on their oanoea and 
aail along. 






Converaation (over the phone) with Mlaa Muriel Crakanthorp, 
586 Seat 59th Avenue. "larly Vancouver", Vol. 4, p. 198. 

MgfflBlfli JUly 8th. 1939. 

01 

"There waa a lot of Indian houaea there. 

It waa the village, and Chief Lahwa 
lived there. He waa an elderly man, fifty or more— boya 
don't Judge men»s agea very well— and the old chief waa a 
great Soman Catholic, at leaat, ha liked the "show" of the 
Roman Catholic Church. He would not go to any other church* 
He did not care very much for religion, but he liked tha pomp 
of the robea and the lace and the big choir." 

"Well, thia day, while they were getting 
the mulea, Chief Lahwa came out of hia shack, and he waa 
"roaring" drunk. The only garment he had waa hia undershirt, 
hat he had a bible in one hand, and exclaimed to the two boya, 
■The priest told me I oan get drunk, and I can do anything I 
like, aa long aa I keep thia bible", and he waa carrying tha 
bible around with him in hia hand." 



264 



252 



Converaation with Mrs. Ruby M, Bower, 1915 Haro Street, 
daughter of Benjamin Springer, manager, Mbodyville Sawmill, 
and Mrs. Springer, previously Mra. Richards, second teacher 
at the Hastings Sawmill School. "Early Vancouver", Vol.4, 
p. 83. 

August 26, 1936. 

MRS. MART 

CAPILANO. "Old Mary" thinks she ia 104, but I 

don't think she can be. I think she must 
be about 88 or 90. She used to wash for us and she was a 
comparatively young woman then. 1 waa born in 1882. I had 
not seen her for years. I waa over at Capilano st a party 
and recognised the face. She was not changed much. 1 talked 
to her, and she told me she was selling baskets in the "West 
Bid" to make some money. She remembered doing our laundry. 
I don't think she is even 100." 



Conversation with Mrs. Alice Crakanthorp. "Early Vancouver", 
Vol. 4, p. ITS. 

October 25. 1936 . 
SHAKES 
UTHKYMS "We had a teacher at the school named 

McMillan, and he whipped the Indian boys 
unmercifully. He would go out in the bush and cut a switch 
and whip them with it. The Indian boys resented this, and 
showed their resentment by draping an apple tree in his 
garden with dead snakes. McMillan was very unpopular. When 
the tree was shaken the dead snakes began to wriggle and drop 
to the ground. It was horrible. The Indian boys must hare 
spent a whole night— they did it in the night— draping his 
tree with snakea; there were such a lot of them, all dead, and 
bung over the branches." 

NOTE: This explains, partially, the Indian name for 
the alough just east of Moodyvllle Sawmill, which is 
■Uthkyme", or "serpent pond"; "uth" meaning "snake". 

J.S.M. 



265 



253 



"Early Vancouver" , Vol. 2, p. 47. 

Conversation with Jim Franks. 

CHIL-LAH-MINST November 20th. 1932 . 

(Jim Franks) "My father was Chil-lah-minst. Come 

down here, Skwayooa, from Squamish with 
people get smelts, 'bout this time, fall, lots smelts here 
Skwayooa. My father have little hut down at corner, foot 
of Tew Street, by bathhouse, where beach turn. Squamish 
peoples come down here to get food, go back Squamish for 
winter". 

"I was born at Skwayooa, right here, down 
by the corner there, foot Tew Street, where the beach turns 
west, by the bathhouse". 

Jim Franks ought to be about 62 or 64, as 
he says he was working in the Hastings Sawmill the day 
of the Fire (June 13th 1686), and he was about 16 years 
old then. He says he remember August Jack Kltsilano, 
(August's Bother Jim's sister), who is his nephew "as a 
little boy". August Jack is 54 or 56, so that it is 
likely Chil-lah-minst was born on Kits llano Beach about, 
approximately, 1870. He was selling baskets when he 
called thia afternoon, and we had a cup of tea together 
in the kitchen. He is a fine old Indian gentleman; 
queer, perhaps, to whiteman's way of doing things, but 
with s very sound conception of the fundamentals of 
life. 

"Siwash Rock was once an Indian man. I 
think one man make the world, but some people say three men. 
They go out sturgeon bank, out Point Grey. They wash them- 
selves, wash themselves, wash themselves, make themselves very 
clean; keep themselves very clean. They get very powerful. 
Then the three great men go all around the world making it. 
Their names were 

If they find poor people, they give them stuff so they no 
more poor; teach them how to do things better; show them how 
to get food; but if they find people too smart, too clever, 
they ssy 'you go to hell, we not trouble about you*. That's 
how Siwash Rock came to be where he is; he too smart, three 
great men turn him into rock ao people see not much good to 
be too smart." 

Jim said he would like another cup of tea* 

"I'm Indian, me Indian, not Siwash. My 
face to the front, my body behind. I may have black face, 
but It in the front. When I die, what Inside ma" (and here 
ha preased his chest with his right hand) "I think go to my 



266 



254 



"Barly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 47. Jim Franks (cont»d). 

•on, may be to my grandchild." (What Jim was trying to 
convey was that he was not two— faced, but honest, sincere, 
upright). "Priests supposed to protect Indiana, but govern- 
ment do what priest say. Priest government." (Priests 
are the government). "Government lease land, Indian land, 
bat Indian not get lease money. Once I young, strong, work 
Hastings Sawmill, two and one-half years; work on carriage, 
good man. Then I work Fader Bros, sawmill" (on Falae Creek 
at north end of Granville Street, where Robertson and Hackett 
sawmill now) "but now I get old, have no money, have to sell 
basket. When whitemana call me •Siwaah* I say 'Go to Hell'." 

"Smamchuze", he said in referring to a 
little bay at the foot of Howe Street on False Creek— see old 
maps— "I think once be a little island one time. Indian put 
dead man there. Little Island of sand, water came all round, 
May be two or three crab apple trees on top where water never 
come; always dry. Indians put dead man there so wolf not 
get him. Indians always put deadmans on island so wolf not 
get him". 



(August Kits llano says: "Smamchuze a 
little graveyard on an island with perhaps a bit of 
grass on top dry part. Tide wash grass, graves and 
island away.) 



267 



255 



"Barly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 48* 

Conversation with Chil-lah-mlnat (Jim Pranks). 

CHIL-LAH-MINST December 10th. 1932. 

(Jim Franka) "My grandfather Chillahmlnat too. My 

father, Chil-lah-mlnat make canoe all 
hia life, he make canoe aereral places. One place Skwayooa, 
down foot Tew Street on beach. Make canoe all his life, 
just canoe, hia trade, when I get old I be Chil-lah-minst, I 
do work, take my father's name, just same you do. One time 
long ago, logger take out fir tree only. Logger not much 
uae cedar — leave cedar— but logging road make easy for 
Indian to get cedar tree out for canoe to Skwayooa. My 
father all time chisel, chisel, chisel, big round stone in 
hand for hammer, make canoe, then burn him out pitch." 

"First 1 waa Jim, then when 1 get mar- 
ried priest give me name Franks. " 

"Chief Chip-kaay-am of Snauq very good, 
very good man; very kind, very good. That's why hia fam- 
ily make him chief (see Rev. C.M. Tate's pleasant recollec- 
tions of "old Chief George", Chip-kaay-am) . 

1 asked Ohillahminat about the Indians 
Swlllamcan, Kanachuck, and Mrs. Salpcan, who sold their 
•Improvements' at Greer's Beach to Sam Greer. (See 
•The Fight for Kitsilano Beach'.) 

"Will-ehm-can waa Chief Jimmy Jimmy's 
father. Kanachuck, not sure, but I think brother to Chief 
Chip-kaay-am of Snauq. May be Mra. Salpcan was his wife, 
don't know. We leave Skwayooa, go Hastings Mill to work. 
Peoples at Snauq sell 'improvsmenta* to Greer." 

JERICHO CHARLIE "Jericho Charlie my uncle; Frank Charlie 

AYATAK (Ayatak), of Musqueam, my cousin. 

Jericho Charlie die long time ago; fell 
off C.P.R. bridge 'cross False Creek. He live Jericho, Juat 
by slough, on bar in front of slough; Jerry Roger's camp 
there. May be Jericho Charlie have place Skwayooa, don't 
know" (August Kitsilano says 'Yes, he did'). "Frank Charlie 
live MUsqueam now; old man. Frank Charlie is same as 
Capilano— hia name Capilano too. Indian come down Squamlsh, 
marry Musqueam woman. By and bye Musqueea give Squamlsh man 
place to live; down by Manly, by beach. Musqueam up by 
slough, Manly down by aea, way down. Old Man Capilano live 
Manly too." 

"Old Man Capilano I just remember him, 



268 



256 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 48. Chil-lah-mlnat (Jim 
Franks) cont'd. 

very old man when I aee him. I was about 20 or 21 when 
Vancouver burn; muat be about 67 or 70 now. Old Man Capil- 
ano died long ago, don't know when. Lah-wa come next, but 

he drink too much booze; fall out of 
LAH-MA canoe in First Narrows. Priests say too 

much booze must stop; Joe good Catholic, 
priest say Joe to be chief, to get Indian to come to church. 
Joe some relation Chief Lah-wa." 

"I had fourteen children; all die. Some 
live two, three months, then die; cough up blood; my wife 
sick." 



Assuming that Chillahminst (Jim Franks) 
was born in his father's hut on Kltsilano Beach about 
1870, or earlier as he claims to be older than 62, then 
this bears out Mrs. J.Z. Hall's statement, nee Greer, 
that there had been several houses located on the site 
of her father's pioneer cottage prior to tbe one burned 
down by the Canadian Pacific Hallway officials. Sam 
Greer bought the Indian "improvements" (see "Fight for 
Kltsilano Beach") some time on or before November, 1884. 
Robert Preston, of New Westminster, was interested in 
the pre-emption of the property in October, 1871, and 
Samuel Preston pre-empted it in April, 1873. As re- 
cently ss early years of 20th century, even as late as 
1918, smelts could be raked ashore at Kltsilano Beach. 
(See "Early Vancouver", Matthews, Vol. ). 

J. S. Matthews. 



269 



357 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 128. 

Chillahminst (Jim Franks), North Vancouver. Jim Franks was 
born at Skwayooa, afterwards Greer's Beach, still later Kits- 
ilano Beach. 

Mar. 2nd, 1933 . 

EARLY TRAILS "No trail to Jericho from Skwayooa, go 

beach, no trail. Trail to Gastown from 
about Granville Street, from about Snauq, go all along through 
tree to about iVestminster Avenue; Just little trail, about 
wide enough one man. Don't know just about where go; all 
•long Fairview to •lestminater Avenue from 'bout Granville 
Street." 

"Oh, I remember, my father make canoe up 
on hill above KitaiLano Beach. Loggers just take fir, leave 
cedar. My father, Chillahminat make canoe up on hill; have 
Hudson's Bay file for chisel, stone for hammer. I go up see 
him; go up log road, meet oxen come down. I little boy, 
run awajr, very frightened at oxen come down trail. My 
father bring canoe down beach, take him out Point Grey, hook 
sturgeon — oh, big, twelve feet, 'bout four inches thick, very 
heavy. Tow sturgeon to beach, turn canoe over, take stakes 
(cross pieces) out. Slide sturgeon into canoe, turn canoe 
over again when sturgeon in canoe." 



ship up Squamish. 1 



"My father tell me he see first whitemans 



"Two log road up hill from Skwayoos; one 
go one way, one go other way. Little swamp up on top hill; 
logging road go round swamp." 



270 



258 



Memorandum of Conversation with William A. Grafton, City Hall 
official in employ of Vancouver City for 17 years. March 24, 
1934. 



Quoryt Mr. Tomlinson, who helped to dig white shells from 
the Indian midden in Stanley Park near Lumberman's 
Arch, afterwards hauled and laid those shells as the first 
surface to the first park driveway. Can you tell us anything 
about that? 

Mr. Graftont "I remember them doing that. It's a pity they 
destroyed so much of the Indian features out 
in the park. Supplejack had a nice place out at the end of the 
pipe line road, board house with windows and curtains on them, 
not built of Indian split cedar slabs, but of sawn boards; nice 
place. (See "Barly Vancouver", Vol. 2, Khaatsahlano.) Then there 
was the Indian graveyard • You know Harris' house out there; 
the water pipe line caretaker on the Harrows shore Just inside 
Prospect Point; the graveyard was there. Supplejack's grave 
was there; not in the ground, but above ground. When I first 
saw that Indian graveyard, there were quite a lot of graves; 
not graves as we know them, but graves above ground. The canoes 
with bodies in them were still there; the canoes were supported 
about level with your face; the dead were inside the canoes. 
Then there were a lot of boxes; boxes with bones in them lying 
around on the ground; Indian boxes; that was the way they bur- 
ied them. When they made the road around Stanley Park, they 
took them all away to Squamish. You know those little islands 
off Point Atkinson? (See Andrew Paul.) Well, there were Indian 
graves en top of them, too; guess they are there yet; Just 
underneath slabs of cedar to hold them down. I have often 
lifted the cedar slabs on top of those Seal Rocks, Just around 
Point Atkinson, and looked at the Indian remains lying beneath. 

"About the potlatch houses at Whoi-Whoi. It was a very 
interesting sight coming through the Tirst Harrows at night 
time, when the tide was out. There, on the beach, were all the 
Indians with their pitch sticks alight, and digging clams; the 
Indians used to go there. They used to look very pretty coming 
in. Being dark, you couldn't see the Indians, but you could 
see their pitch stick lights, and you could see their figures 
digging away. They could only get the best of the clams in 
winter, when the long run out of the tide took the water away 
out and they got their clams out in the deep part of the beach 
right where the Lumberman's Arch is." 

ftueryt How is it that you aaw so many Indians at night, 

when you told me the other day that there were only 
a few Indians at Whoi-Whoi? 

Mr. Grafton: "When they came in from the outside (English 
Bay), they would all go there. I have seen 
over a dozen canoes on the beach there; all sizes; a big canoe 
would hold twelve or more persona; (probably 18 to 20 would be 



271 



259 
more correct.) the little canoes they towed be.nind the big 

ones) all were made of cedar* The little canoes were light 
enough to carry. They were all lying about on the beach in 
front of their great big houses, regular barns made out of 
split cedar; they called them potlatch houses." 

Query: Brer see the graveyard, just behind Whoi-Whoi? 
Back of Lumberman's arch? 

Mr. Grafton: "Ho. The only graves I ever saw were down 

on the beach, just east of the lighthouse as 
you come through the first Harrows; end of the pipe line road, 
where the Harris* lived. There was a little clearing there. 
(It was here that the formal ceremony of the dedication of 
Stanley Park took place.) Supplejack's grave there was a cabin 
about 10 feet long, 8 foet wide, and about 3 feet off the 
ground, on posts. The walla were about three feet high; it 
had a low peak roof, and windows all around, and red blinds on 
the little glass window. The Indians put him in that. Supple- 
jack was supposed to have been a 'bad actor', supposed to have 
3hot a lot of men coming through the Harrows. The roof of the 
little cabin was of lumber; I could not aay whether of shingles 
or not. It was a pretty concern, sides same as roof. Could 
not 3ay if the lumber was hand-made or sawn; they could have cut 
it out of the woods themselves; they knew well enough how to do 
it, but I don't know whether they did or not. You oould not 
see inside on account of the red curtains on the little glass 
windows, and there did not appear to be a door, as it was 
closed all around. I don't know how they put Supplejack in 
there. There were about three windows on each side, and one in 
each end as far as I recall; it's a long time ago." 

Query: What about the red blankets which his son, August 
Jack Khaatsahlano, speaks about? (See 'Barly Van- 
couver', Vol. 2.) 

Mr. Grafton: "I saw no red blankets; all I saw was the 
cabin and the red blinds on the glass win- 
dows. I suppose the red blankets would be inside for the body 
to rest upon and be covered with, but don't actually know." 

(The above was read to and assented to as accurate by A. 
J. Khaatsahlano, May 31, 1934. Also see 'Early Vancouver', Vol. 
2, page 135 and 149.) 

Mr. Grafton: "You can have this stone hammer. It was dug 
up by myBelf in the summer of 1919 about 
150 feet west of the south-west corner of Cambie Street and 63rd 
Avenue; about three-quarters of a mile from the Horth Arm of 
the Traser River, and at a point which at one time must have 
been covered with dense forest in all directions. It was 
under the roots of a big stump of a cedar tree. I went to live 
there in Hovember, 1918, and dug it out from among the roots 
the following summer, and also three or four arrow heads, one 



272 



260 
of which you can have; the rest I gave away. All these relics 
were down in the ground about eighteen inches, and beside a 
root as thick as a man's body. The land in the neighborhood 
is partly soft, low swamp. There is a big creek runs down 
nearby, but where this hammer was dug up it was gravelly, but 
there was water more or less all over that neighborhood. It 
may be that a rush of water covered the hammer and arrowheads 
with earth; I don't know, but it was down deep, at least 
eighteen inches." 

(Hot a: This stone haraner is in the City Archives with an en- 
graved brass band around it.) 

Mr. Grafton: "You've heard the stories of the Indians 
■ending their women and children into the 
woods when they were attacked by the northern Indians . 
(Bote* Rev. C. K. Tate — see 'Early Vancouver', Vol. 2, -- 
states that when travelling through the forest trails near 
Hanalmo, he once enquired the meaning of small collections of 
clam shells lying here and there. His Indian companion told 
■him it was where women and children, sent into the woods for 
safety, when Indian marauders appeared, had been eating food 
brought to them from the shore by their men folk.) Chief 
Oeorge of Seohelt used to tell me about sending their women in- 
land when the northern Indians came, and it may be that this 

hammer and the arrowheads were placed beside the old cedar 

you know how Indian women used cedar bark for almost every dom- 
estic purpose -- when the Indian women hastened into the woods, 
probably following the creek for their water supply, also be- 
cause of the easier route of travel, and then made their tem- 
porary abode around the folds of the oedar roots where they 
afterwards either forgot to remove them, or some misadventure, 
discovery and capture, resulted in the hammer being left behind. 
The ground on which it was found was a dry spot suitable for 
a temporary enoampaent, close to a creek for water and a swamp 
for native vegetables. The relics were sufficiently deep inthe 
earth as to lead one to suppose they had been there for a very 
long time, perhaps centuries." " 



273 



261 



Conversation with William A. Grafton, City Hall Official in 
employ of Vancouver City for 17 years. "Early Vancouver", 
Vol. 3, p. 362. 

March 24, 1934. 
WILD ANIMALS; "The deer on Bowen Island were very thlok. 
PEER. GROUSE, Tou could go out and get one any time. And 
WOLVES. so were the grouse. We used to shoot for 

the market. I had the reputation of 
getting the biggest deer ever shot in the Province. That was 
in the fall of 1891. It weighed 195 pounds, but it wasn't the 
biggest one I ever shot. The biggest was 225 pounds. At one 
time there were a lot of wolves on Bowen Island. They killed 
Beach's dog, and they killed Bill Baton's dog, and you could 
always see the deer swimming in the water after being driven 
there by the wolves. Wolves won't follow deer into the water. 
We never hunted deer in boots; always in mocassins. Chief 
George of Sechelt taught us how to make mocassins. I have 
sneaked up as olose as twenty-five feet to a deer." 



Conversation with John Innes, celebrated Canadian painter of 
historical scenes. "Early Vancouver", Vol. 3, p. 377. 

April. 1933. 
BELLA COOLA. "The diagrammatic drawing of an Indian 
INTiIaH H6P5B3. Community Dwelling at Bella Coola is made 
from rough sketches made in my note book 
when, in company with Mr. Harlsnd I. Smith, of the Vlctorie 
Ifuaeum, Ottawa, in September 14-15, 1924, I visited there. 
The totem poles in the drawing were added to the drawing for 
decorstive effect) they did not exist in reslity." 

•We had some difficulty in getting into 
the old building, as some one has fitted s modern door to 
its only entrance, and the door was padlocked, and the key in 
the possession of an old witch doctor. Goodness knows bow 
old he was. He was very old, very grumpy, hates white men, 
and claims to have killed six white men by his magic. He 
finally opened it." "Stikine Joe" waa his name. 

"The building was old and decayed, quite 
empty, could not be lived in, nor was there sign that it had 
bean occupied for years; very gloomy and dark Inside. We 
could hardly see all of it but it waa all there. All tha 
floors were in plaos and many of the relatives' 'oubiclea.'" 

"The aged Indian lit a fire, Just an act 
of hoapitality, I suppose, and the smoke went out of the roof 
openings. Then he explained to us how each portion of the 
building waa occupied and used; the chief at the far end, 
then hia relativea, and tha servants and slavea, in that order, 
towards the entrance." 



274 



262 



(cont'd.) Conversation with John Innea, celebrated Canadian 
painter of hiatorical scenes. "Early Vancouver", Vol. 3. 
p.378. 

"I was able to make a few notes of the 
construction, but with difficulty, as it was so dark inside. 
The BOOT was of thick cedar boards, hand split shakes, with a 
sort of dormer over the central part, with openings to let 
the smoke out. The POSTS , also cedar, were trimmed and adzed 
around, not very sound, and I suppose may have been replaced 
as the earlier ones decayed, although cedar is very laating. 
There was no ornamentation on them, nor anywhere else in the 
building. The w fLL3 of horizontally laid cedar boards, split 
and adzed, unpainted, and without nails. They were tied with 
roots to the upright posts. The wall boards had bored in 
them small holes through which the roots passed. There were 
no chinks. The wall boards fitted very close. I don't know 
how they built it, but the boards were a beautiful fit. Per- 
haps the walls were double. I could not see in the darkness, 
and there was no time to bore through them as the old Indian 
was anxious to get rid of us. The DANCING FLOOB was split 
and tooled-adzed-timber, and In the centre was an oblong of 
earth floor in the centre of which was a concave hole, say, 
nine inches deep, In the middle, where the fire was burning." 

"The cubicles ware sbout six feet deep, 
five feet wide, open at one end, and roofed over at about 
five feet high, and goods stored, so we were told, on the 
roof. Not much imagination is needed to conceive the weird 
spectacle an Indian dance around that fire must have been; the 
flames, the masks, the shadows, the reflection on the masks. 
It must have been a weird performance." (The drawing is in 
Provincial Archives; photo copy in City Arohlves.) 



275 



263 



Memo of conversation with Mr. and Mra. Prank Harris, (of 
the Stanley Park pipe line road cottage on Pirst Harrows), 
on C. P. R. "Princess Joan" en route to Hewcastle Island, 
for the Vancouver Pioneers' Aas'n. picnic. (217 pioneers 
present.) June 16th, 1937. Vol. if, f>. 3io 



TK&K 



^-TULK Mr. Harris sald t "Supplejack" was 

' sTJEfLKjACK" (Indian) buried close to our cottage; In a 

ggABTsAKLAK)' little deadhouse just where the 

stunner house stands; the little 
open shelter by the horse trough, just where Lord Stanley 
dedicated the park." 

BICYCLES (women) Mrs. Harrie t "Col. Tracey (City Engineer] 

put up that little sumnarhouse; he 
put a lot of wooden racks in it for bicycles ; at the time of 
the bicyole erase; people were cycling around the park; more 
and more of them, so Col. Tracey had the rack built for them 
to stand their "bikes* in. I remember well when the first 
two women rode a bicyole; it was not considered very respect- 
able; just a little bold, but people got used to it, and 
after a time there were more woman riding, until it got to be 
quite "the thing", but, at first, it was not considered either 
graceful or proper." 

Mr. Harris i "Supplejack's little wooden house was 
raised off the ground on posts, and had a little window in the 
end; you could peep in, and see the dugout (oanoe) in which 
he was lying; it was just a little "dugout", but big enough 
for Supplejack's body which was in it. (See conversations 
with A* J. Khahtsahlano, "Marly VancouTer", Vol. 2 and 3, for 
details of Supplejack's grave.) 

Ha m GRAVIS "The Indian graves well all along there, by 

9TAFIEY PAST" our cottage, and when they put the road 

around Stanley Park, they removed the bodies, 
and re-buried them in the Indian cemetery on the Forth Shore. 
(Motet Think Mr. Harris la wrong; think it was to Squamish 
they took them, but perhaps not all.) 

IAS GARDM "The Indians had quite a little 

place there by our home at the end of 
LAH-M06H the pipe-line road; the old fenoe 

was around it for years afterwards." 
(8ee conversations as above with A. J. Khahtsahlano.) 

SIWASH ROCK "The little rock Suns (one of the Siwash Rook's 

SKAALSH two wives — see photo Mo. P. 8t. 91) ought to 

be protected from destruction; it is a most in- 
teresting little thing; the little tree is still 

growing on it, but if it is not protected now it may not last 

long." 






276 



264 

Conversation with A.P. Home of 4025 Granville Street and 
of the firm of Home, Taylor & Company Ltd., Real Estate and 
Financial Agents, with reference to the Seymour Creek Milk 
Ranch. "Barly Vancouver", Vol. 4, p. 336, 337. 

P. HORNB "I came here in November 1889, and about 
re t TH O MPSON the only person I knew was F.J. Thompson 
juk ukjusk. (whom I knew in the North West Territories), 
who, with J.C.P. Phibbs, owned and oper- 
ated the Seymour Creek Milk Ranch. This property was situated 
at the mouth and on the East side of the Creak 

CHIB F GBOROS On the Westerly side of the creek (and 

SFTMOUR _Cg BEK. opposite to the Milk Ranch) was the Seymour 

INljUN "BBBBVjg Creek Indian Reserve—of which George was 

POTLATCH Chief. 

One day during the winter, Chief George 
came to see us (which he always did in his canoe) to say that 
he was going to hold a big potlatch — it being his turn, and 
that many Indians from the Reserves up North were coming to it. 
For many days canoe loads of Indians were arriving, their 
canoes being pulled up on the opposite shore. 

This potlatch was held in a large one- 
storey long-shaped frame building, roofed with cedar shakes. 
In it there were six big fires (three on each side, about an 
equal distance apart and each large enough to take a cordwood 
stick.) There were no chimneys. Just openings in the roof, 
one above each fire, through which the smoke went out. Along 
both sides of the building there were wood benches where all 
the Indians sat and probably slept and the centre of the floor 
was of earth. 

One afternoon Chief George came over and 
invited us to go to the Potlatch that night and told us at 
which end of the building we were to enter. when we went in 
Chief George beokoned to us to sit behind him, which we did. 
He was dressed up for the occasion — from what I remember he 
wore a blaok sweater, feathers round his head and red paint 
on his faoe. At oar end of the building it was paoked with 
blankets, clothing, etc. etc. as the giver of the potlatch 
had to give away everything he had. 

INDIAN DANCB3 The building was crowded with Indians, we 

INDIAN CUSTOMS (four of us Phibbs, Thompson, Roaf and 

myself) being the only white men there. 
The ceremony (which was going -on when we entered the building) 
consisted of the Indians staking with a stick a long wooden 
plank which they held on their knees — boom-boom (slow), boom- 
boom— boom-boom (faster), and so on, like beating a tom-tom. 
An Indian girl would get up, shawl over her shoulders and 
dance round and round, and when she seemed to have danced 
long enough and was tired, an Indian took out of a potato 
aack a handful of (what I Was informed afterwards) feathers 
from the breast of the duck and scattered them all over her, 
and so the potlatch kept on. 



277 



265 



(cont'd) "Early Vancouver", Vol. 4, p. 337. 

After a while Chief Geoxge asked if any 
of us were going to Vancouver the next day and, if so, would 
we get him a bottle of gin. When we told him that we would 
not do so he told us to leave the potlatch, which we did. 
This potlatch was kept up for about a week, every night — 
they must have slept in the daytime. 

Chief George on one occasion came to see 
us— said he was sick and could not eat, but after a while he 
consented to have breakfast and ate about a dozen poached 
eggs, end on another occasion when bis wife (Milley) came to 
see us she had her shawl over her head and held her right 
hand to it and said she was not well, but when she removed 
the shawl and hand, the right side of her face was black and 
blue, and she told us that George had hit her there with the 
canoe paddle. See photo C.V.P.0ut.92, N.92. 

E.& O.E. A. P. Home. 

9th July, 1935. 



Conversation with Ronald Kenvyn, Editor "Vancouver Province", 
and ardent yachtsman and marine authority. "Early Vancouver", 
Vol. 4, p. 404. July 27th, 1935. 

RATTEN J.S.V. "Old Hazten, the Indian woman, 

now over 100, at North Vancouver, says 
she used to go through from Coal Harbor to Second Beach in a 
canoe, and Herbert Neil, Squamlah Indian, in his conversation, 
June 26th, 1935, says he used to go shooting ducks In False 
Creek, and crossed from inlet to creek in his canoe at 
Campbell Ave. whenever the tide was not too low." 



278 



266 



Conversation with Mr. A.P. Horne, 4025 Granville St., • 
very well known real estate and financial broker in early 
years of twentieth century, now retired, member of Jericho 
Country Club, golfer, etc., etc., etc. "Early Vancouver", 
Vol. 4, pp. 338, 339, 340. 



SEYJIOUR CREEK IMP LANS 

and sstMotaR ateKk 

mbliU RB3EKvgT ~ 

POfUrCBS AT seymour 

CBSg g . 

CHIET GEORGE. 



July 9th, 1935. 

Mr. Horne: "You see, here is the 
plan of the locality; the barn was 
higher up the oreek than the house; 
both on east side, and the Indian 
Reserve was across the creek. Old 
Chief George lived over there in a 
great big house; a tremendous thing. 

Major Matthews: "How long?" 



Mr. Horns: "A great big thing; per- 
haps 200 feat long; built of cedar shakes; no roof, at 
least, not what you would call a roof* I think it must have 
baen built especially for potlatohes or something; no, not a 
whlteaans building, Indian. Old George oame over one day to 
the ranch and said, •Hi-yu-potlatch two weeks. 1 It seems It 
was Chief George's turn to give a potlatch. So a little 
later he came over again and said, »Potlatch, next week, you 
come.* So he aald he would let us know when to come. So 
one afternoon we were told to come over, and we went over, and 
ware shown the proper entrance to take. A great big Ions 
building like this: 



200 feet lon« 



Stage for 

i . - Z0 ° f* 1<»E chief, not- 

I ndians sat on low benches around house I ables, guests. 

Gift blankets, 
etc., piled 
up. 




and a big orowd of Indians inside. There were about six 
big fires in the middle at distsnoes from each other; apaeed 
irregularly at distances from each other around the building, 

and all around the building walla was a aort of form or bench 

wide beneh — (sleeping bench), on which the Indiana were sit- 
ting; the fires were on the earthern floor in the middle. 
At one end was old Chief George all decked up in ceremonious 
dress; s sort of lesther thing with feathers around his head, 
and red paint all over his fsce; looking mighty Important 
and pompous. At the end of the building through which we 
entered waa the place where he sat; that end was packed with 
goods; blankets and things; in those days, they (the giver 
of the potlatch) had to give awsy everything; the ceremony 



279 



867 



(cont'd) "Early Vancouver, Vol. 4, p. 339* p. 340. 

was going on when we entered; all around the bench around 
the building was crowded with Indiana, sitting watching; and 
every now and then someone would pick up a sort of plank, 
and beat on it, boom, boom, (slow) boom, boom, boom, boom, 
(quicker) sort of beating a tom-tom, and an Indian girl would 
get up, shawl over her shoulders, and dance around and around* 
Then someone would approach her and take a pinoh (handful) of 
feathers— I think they must have got them from the under 
feathers of ducks— white feathers, %nd sprinkle a handful of 
feathers over her; hold the handful over her head and drop 
them so that they acattered all over her. They would give 
her a lift up, and put her aside and another girl would come 
out and dance. * 

"After a time old Chief George came over 
to us and said, "You go down town, tomorrow, to Vancouver?" 

Answer: "Tes". 

Chief G.: "Tou get me bottle of gin?" 
Answer: "No". 

Chief G. : "Tou go." And we went. 
"That was in the winter of 1889; the pot- 
latch went on for a week. There were a lot of Indians there, 
Vand, of course, canoes in numbers." 

NOTE: A photo of Seymour creek by Devine and numbered 
C.V.P.0ut.-92, shows these canoes lined along the east 
bank — about 40 of them; but it does not show the 
canoes which must hsve been on the west bank, probably 
more numerous still, as it would be on the Indian Reserve. 

"Chief George lived in the big house 
where the potlatch w«s given, with his wife Millie. George 
came over one morning and said he was sick. Thompson said, 
•better have some breakfast. • The chief said, 'No, didn't 
want anything to eat, too aick.' But finally he consented 
to eat, and (laughing) ate about a dozen poached eggs. I 
think both George and Millie died of drink. Both their 
bodies were found in the ereek. (See Haatsalano, Vol. 3), 
All Indians have big feat it seems to me." 



280 




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280A 



KITSILANO BEACH, 1861 




Copy of a water colour painting by Lieut. Willies, R.N., H.M.S. "Ganges," in Public 
Archives of Canada, Ottawa. See detailed report by Major J. S. Matthews, Vancouver, 
to Dominion Archivist, Ottawa, 4th & 31st May, 1935. Sailors in boats are joining 
with the Indians in canoes to draw fishnets to the shore. C.V. Bo.N.14.P.42. 

CITY ARCHIVES/JSM. 



The earliest known portrayal of the site of City of Vancouver, and of western mainland 
shore of Canada, 1861. Its geographical identification in 1935 by Major Matthews, 
pioneer of Vancouver, has been termed "an important historical discovery." Lieut. 
Willis sat, facing north, to the west of the creek mouth exactly at the foot of Yew St. 
One Squamish Indian is seated; the other, with paddle, hair shoulder length, and clad 
in deerskin garments, watches British man-o-warsmen in ship's boats, with oars, helping 
Squamish in canoes, with paddles, or on the beach of Skwa-yoos, drag the ship's fishing 
nets inshore. One end of the net is held to the land; the other end is encircled around 
to enmesh the myriads of smelts, while Indian women squat before their lodges awaiting 
the catch, to be dried for winter food. The distant canoe lies in the mouth of the 
slough at foot of Whyte Ave. produced. On the distant point are immense boulders 
broken up later for building stone. The entrance to False Creek comes next, then the 
forest of our "West End," and remote Mount Crown in the distance. 
J. S. Matthews, City Archivist, pioneer of this now famous Canadian park at Kitsilano 
Beach, Vancouver, British Columbia. C.V. Be. N.14 P.42. 



280B 



i 



z 
< 



u 



§ 

>- 







280C 



Yo,' 



INDIAN CANOES & HAND ADZE 



fliaWTl, Kjt.fr, foT City Archives , by John War rtn "Beli^io-ngft, ~BurfaTti Inlet, 187). 





Hydahror ^ mnl spelim^ ot Xoida m^ne. .High bow rnrri ^PTTi YfTV Sf n worthy 



N*.& 




fh'mnokfnTnnp uscfJ m sheered waters oj so u th ern Bri t ish Columbia toast . ..,_ 



A/a 3 



^ifcui 



g T p P ll^r-m n^i L i,sgri nbnutTa-ntherifca.Rsliing.E tc. 



M>^ 



ZT^ 



°liui jout"f nTinP FUr^lln^shnpple; 



OtieliaTidodip 5H»lblaJi. | im.nit i» loslip J t> wnotl hai«ile..;tlit»istedi-ed»T Wrkropt . 




280D 



INDIAN CANOE PADDLES 



\*w /■-■* 



c? 





tl&mjifl&Jia C^y Hitl i Wrihj Tplin Wmipn "Bell, piomrr , ig;i . 



B^HB»BWBIB»WWHmW.ei*i!llJ. . ! 




'feiEdUznr {mrrK. <kdfenr- 



280E 



INDIAN KLIS-KWIS, 1867 




Summer shelter for aborigines. Made of strips of cedar bark, woven into mats, easily 
carried from one fishing camp to another. Erected on poles. Fom the album of 
Sugeon Lieut. J. C. Eastcott, H.M.S. "Reindeer", 1967-8. 



280F 




280G 



280H 



268 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 46. 

Dick Isaacs (Que-yah-chulk) , Indian, North Vancouver Reserve. 
He is aged 70 or 75. 

November 7th. 1932. 

FOOD SUPPLY "Oh, lots food those days; walk right 

up to bear and deer and shoot, hi* fall 
down, no scared. No noise then, he never hear gun. Now 
him hear gun, get scared, run away; those days very quiet, 
stand still. Indian Just walk right up with bow and arrow, 
shoot; Just like walk up tame cow. Shoot duck Just same. 
Indian very good with bow and arrow." 

Chll-lah-minst (Jim Franks) born at 
Skwa-yoos, (Kltsilano Beach) about 1870. 

"Plenty of mowich (food) here those 
days." 



281 



269 



"larly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 64. 

Conversation today with John Innea, the last of the pioneer 
historical scenic painters, who ornamented the map of Indian 
place names, published in the "Province" of March 12th, 1933 . 
under the caption "Before the Pale- Face Came", I asked him to 
tell me about the building he drew to adorn the map. 

INDIAN H0USE3 "That building was at Bella Coola. I 
John Innea ; sketched it years ago. It was the fin- 
est Indian community house I ever saw. 
It was about sixty feet long, 25 or 30 feet wide, and about 15 
feet to the cross timbers inside. At the far end the chief 
and his family lived, at the near end the slaves. Down the 
centre was earth where the fires were built. On each side of 
the earthen centre was a platform on which the dancing took 
place, and between the platform, which extended on both sides 
of the building from one end to the other, were the sections, 
or "cubby holes" where the families lived." 

"The roof had a pitch of aboutfc ten per 
cent, very flat. But in the centre of the building — not 
from end to end, but in the centre only, on the roof — was a 
portion of the roof which was raised, as you will see in my 
drawing, to let the smoke out. The smoke opening extends a 
few feet in the centre of the roof." 

Major Matthews: "I thought they (the 
Indians) built roofs with one slope only, and knew nothing 
about gables". 

"No", answered Mr. Innes, "that building 
had a gable roof. I think it is there yet, at the "Rascal's 
Vlll%ge" which MacKenzie, the explorer speaks of in his nar- 
rative." 



NOTE: The map in question was illustrated by Mr. 
Innes without my knowledge, and published as illustrated. 
The evidence of rtev. C.M. Tate, and Professor Chas. Hill- 
Tout, (see their remarks and reports) is distinctly that 
Squamlsh Indians, at least, built lean-to buildings, and 
did not build gable roofs. Further, a picture drawn by 
the artist on Capt. Cook's ships at Nootka in 1778 shows 
lean-to buildings. j. s, Matthews. 



282 



270 



Conversation with 11111am Mackie. 9th September, 1937. 

FAIR VI EW Mr. Mackie: (excerpt) "Right up here", 

DOUGLAS PARK continued Mr. Mackie, "what you call 
JERRY riO GSRS' CaUP Douglas Park on Heather Street Just over 
SPARS there, uncle put in a patch of potatoes in 

the clearing where Jerry Rogers had his 
logging outfit; where I sowed the cabbage and onions after- 
wards. He put them in in the spring, before he went to the 
mines or to the logging camps to work. Uncle was a tip-top 
hewer. He used to hew the eight panel spars. They were all 
eight panel spars, hand hewn (octagonal). In the fall, when 
he came home again he got some sacks and went out into the 
potato patch to dig potatoes, but there was not a potato to 
be found. The potato vines were all there growing natural 
enough, but there was no potatoes under them. The squaws had 
taken all the potatoes out with their fingers and carefully put 
the dirt back again. The squaws went out there getting berries 
and roots; out there with their baskets." 

CHIEF GEORGE OF "So when uncle saw Sally, Chief George's 
SNAU^ squaw, he told her that the squaws cats- 

SALLY OF SNAUq swallow his wabatoes, and she said "Haalo; 

haalo (no, no) cats-swallow (take) mika 
(not) wabatoes (potatoes); kully-kullys (blue jays) swallow.' 
The squaws had the earth so nicely placed back; but there 
was nothing there but the tops of the potatoes (stalks) grow- 
ing." 



283 



271 



Conversation with ..llliam Mackie, 8698 /.'est Marine Drive, 
Marpole. "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 67. 



31 wash hock . 
■villi a:: mackie . 
[the uncle). - 
IIJDIAN LEGENDS & 
CUSTOMS. "BRITISH 
SIBERIA" 



14th June. 1939. 
Mr. Mackie: "I must tell you about the 
ghosts at Siwash Rock. Uncle told me. 
His name was •> illlam Mackie , too. I've 
told you about him. Vi'ell, uncle was cut- 
ting spars over at Moodyvllle. He cut 
spars over at Oyster Bay, (now Ladysmith ) . 
There was a fellow over there they called 
"British Siberia", but I'll tell you about him after. ".Veil, 
uncle was cutting spars back of Moodyvllle, and for some reason 
one day he was passing Slwash Rock in an Indian canoe with an 
Indian lad — Just the two of them, and as they got near to 
31alacu.ni Rock, that's Slwash Rock, the Indian lad in alarm, 
s*ys: "Keep away from that rock". 

"Uncle said Why", and the Indian lad said, 
'Because there's slalacums there'. That is ghosts, or dragons, 
or something like that." 

"So uncle said 'They won't come near 
whitemans', but the Indian lad lay down in the bottom of the 
canoe and pulled a blanket over him; got under the blanket." 

"So they kept getting closer and closer 
to the rock and the boy stayed under the blanket, shivering— 
with fright, I suppose — so uncle shouted at the rock 'Klatawa 
(go away); no slwash here', to delude the ghosts, no Indian 
.vas in the canoe." 

"Anyway, two or three days later, uncle 
was at Moodyville, and saw the Indian boy with another Indian 
boy, end the Indian boy he had in the canoe pointed with hi* 
flncer at Uncle and said to the other Indian lad 'Hiyu (big) 
teeth; hiyu (big) t.ipsl (hair)', referring to the "terrible 
beast" at Slwash Rock, at Slalacum Rock, which uncle, (the 
white.nan) had defied." 



284 



272 



Conversation with Mr. Donald Alexander Matheaon, of Mayo, 
Yukon. "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 393. 



carter house 
The grIat fIre 
PidpiW gfftgBr 

to do the work. 



7th June. 1940. 
P. 395: 

"So I started In to clear the site of 
the first C.P.R. Roundhouse on Carroll 
Street. I asked Mr. Hamilton to give 
me as much time as possible, in which 



INDIAN CUSTOMS 

PITCH STlflKST- 



"In those days there were Indians going 
around selling pitch sticks for starting 
fires with in our stoves. There was 
no birch bark around, or anything like that, so I said to an 
Indian 'where do you get this stuff?' And the Indians said 
*0h, there's lots of it in the stumps; the stumps are filled 
with it'. So I asked the Indian to come and show me where 
he got the pitch, and we went and climbed up on a stump- 
in the heart of the tree there Is pitch, 
and the Indian told me that It extended 
right down into the roots. However, I 
got the idea that the stumps could be 
burned out. 




Conversation with Mrs. Madeline Williams, aged Indian woman, 
also known as "Gassy Jack's wife", living with her grand- 
daughter, Nita Williams, in a small cottage at the west end 
of the Indian Reserve, North Vancouver. "Early Vancouver", 
Vol. 5, p. 400. 

13th June, 1940 . 

Entering the Indian Reserve by the long 
wooden path, on stilts, which rambles over the former shore 
line, before the front of the Indian village of Ustlawn, I 
encountered an old Indian man with one arm, and asked if he 
knew where Madeline lived. He shook his head. Finally I 
said "Very old lady, with white head, Qwa-hall-yah." He 
•xclaimed, interrogatively, "Gassy Jack's wife"? I replied, 
"Tes, yes", and he directed me to a small grey shack deep in 
cherry trees loaded with ripening fruit. 

As I approached, an Indian man and Indian 
woman, both. I should say, in their twenties, were raising a 
ladder to pick cherries, and on enquiring if I could speak to 
Madeline, the young woman entered the rear door of a sadly 



285 



273 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 400. lira. Madeline Williams, 
(cont'd). 

delapidated and untidy ahack; hardly a cottage. She re- 
turned with an aged Indian woman; ateel grey hair, light 
brown complexion, many wrinkles, and tottering gait. Her 
garments were old, the color almoat completely faded. Her 
hair was braided in two short tails down her back. I raised 
my hat, and took a wrinkled hand in mine. 

MRS .MADELINE WIL- Major Matthews: Are you Madeline? Are 
LIAM3 . you 3wa-hail-yah? 

aWl-HAIL-YAH MTa. iJllliams: (giving my left arm Just 
JOHN pBICSTON below the shoulder a gentle slap, and her 
fc GASSY JACK" eyes and countenance gleaming) "Tea — ah". 

Major Matthews: "May I come in and 
sit down?" 

We sat down; four of us. The whole 
habitation was a litter of household material not one piece of 
which was of value. A number of rags hung on a line above a 
rusty stove; beside it a few atioks of wood. Two doors, 
opening to other "rooms", showed their contents to be nothing 
more than rubbish, though no doubt each piece was useful and 
serviceable to them. Outside the sun was shining; a profusion 
of red cherries mingled with the green of the leaves. The 
warm summer zephyr waved the branches. It was pleasant 
enough to the senses, but terribly poor, untidy, pleasant 
poverty. At an appropriate moment I slipped a fifty cent 
piece Into her wrinkled hand. 

It was difficult to converse as Mrs. 
Williams spoke in Indian, and addressed the others, rather 
than me, who interpreted it, and both were poor interpreters; 
but I gathered that the whitemans called her Madeline, but 
her Indian namewas Qwa-hail-yah. She had had a son, Alfonse 
Williams, and the young woman was Nlta, daughter of Alfonse 
and Mrs. Williams. The young man was Tommy Toman (whom I 
was afterwards told was married, but his wife had left him 
and gone to the United States). Yes, Qeaay Jack and ahs 
had had a baby. It lived about two years, died, and was 
burled at Paapeeak (Brockton Point). She remembered the 
first brass band on Burrard Inlet; the Indian band. The 
first bandmaster was Edwards, a half breed. She had always 
worn her hair braided down her back. She had heard of 
Indian man having long hair, but, ever since she could re- 
member, Indian men had worn it short. She was about twelve 
years old when she married Gassy Jack. Gassy Jack's first 
wife had died. She remembered when no big steamboat come; 
no whites here; only one house. She talked much in Indian, 
but the young Indian woman, Nits, her granddaughter, was 



286 



274 



"Early Van: ouyer", Vol. 5, p. 401. Mrs. Madeline illliamo, 
(cont'd). 

speechless, and almost motionless. The young Indian man, 
TO— i , was very slow, and a poor interpreter. No doubt the 
old lady was telling much of interest, but the young ones 
were listening themselves instead of passing it on to me. 
Presently I said I should like to buy seme cherries, 'two 
bits" worth, and they both went out to pick them. After 
they had gone, the old lady began to speak in broken English. 
I noticed she was almost toothless, and such teeth as did 
remain were brown of color, and looked like snags rather 
than teeth. 

She chatted: "No steamboat come; no 
white mans; just one house. Gassy Jack came in big canoe—" 
and she waved her arm indicating from the direction of Port 
Moody up the Inlet — "then Gassy Jaok go Westminster to run 
steamboat up to Port Yale, (she said "Port Tale") and my 
aunt she go over to New Westminster and live there so when 
he come back to Westminster be there when he stopped his 
steamboat. Gassy Jack about your size, (five feet eight and 
half); nice, good man. Then he come Gestown; make great 
big hotel (and she waved her hand upwards) . After a while 
she sick, my sunt, Gassy Jack's wife, and she die; long time 
ago. I not stop long Gastown; be about twelve when I was 
Gassy Jack's wife. Then Gassy Jack die, too, and I come 
over to here (North Vancouver); then come to my brother and 
my sister. Very poor now; no money, no clothes; cannot go 
to sell my baskets. Can make good basket, but cannot go sell 
them; eyes getting blind." 

By this time the two others hsd returned 
with the cherries. I tried my glasses on her eyes, but she 
did not seem to see any better. I asked if they had a photo- 
graph of her. They said, Tes, up at Squsmlsh". I asked 
if they would like another. They said "Tes". I asked if I 
may come again. They said "Tes", and after handshakes all 
round, I departed. 

It was a satisfactory visit only in that I 
had seen and conversed with the second wife of Gassy Jsck; an 
old, worn and fsded Indian woman of undoubted intelligence and 
character; gracious snd kind, who, In earlier years, must 
have been of womanly strength, snd, perhaps, prepossessing— I 
imagine so. It was sn unusual visit, inasmuch as in this 
year A..D. 1940, it was still possible to listen to the tongue, 
snd touch the person, of a wife of John Deighton, "alias 
"Gassy Jack", of Gastown, the historic white man to establish 
himself in Granville, now Vancouver. 

"J. 3. Matthews." 



287 



275 

"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 196. 

TRUCK PLANTE; PETER PLANTE; ADA OTJINNE; ADA YOUNG 
First marriage on Burrard Inlet 
15th July lg SBT 

At the re-dedication ceremonies, Stanley Park, Vancouver, 
25th August 1943, Frank Plante drove the hack, two white 
horses, which oonveyed •Lord Stanley* and 'Mayor David Oppen- 
helmer* to the festivities. This followed several visits by 
Frank Plante to the City Archives from his home with his sister, 
Lena, now Mrs. Captain George Mayers, Clarke Boad, B.R. No* 2, 
(Westminster to Port Moody) New Westminster. During one of 
these visits, at the request of Major Matthews, City Archives, 
Mr. Plante brought an old photo of himself. This photo has 
been copied on a negative together with a narrative of certain 
events; the negative being in the City Archives. 

The print was read to Mr. Plante, and approved of by him 
as correct so far as he knew, and then a print was given him 
to take away with him. that he did comment upon was that it 
was the first time he ever knew that 'Gulnne' was the actual 
name of his mother, and not 'Young*. He also said that he 
knew that his grandmother was Squamlsh Indian, but added 'that 
was not my fault; I had nothing to do with it'. 

The photograph is of a three quarter length man with dark 
moustache, watch chain, and coat buttoned with one button, and 
beside it the narrative reads: 

FRANK PLANTE. Eldest child of first marriage on 
record on Burrard Inlet; that of Peter Plants 
and Miss Ada Young, or Gulnne, at Moody's Mills, 
later Moodyville, now North Vancouver. 16th July 
1866. Peter Plante came from Three Rivers, Que. 

"Miss Ada Young, or 'Addle', half Trench Canadian, 
half Squamlsh, daughter of Supplien Gulnne, knows as 
'Trench John', and 'John Young*, of Three Rivers, Que., 
former Hudson's Bay Company employee of Fort Langley, 
preempted D.L. 319, North Arm Traser River, Oct. 30th, 
1872, and was the first settler at Marpole. His farm 
wss at south end of Granville street. His name was 
hard to spell and pronounce; he became known as 
'Trench John' and 'John Young*. His Indian wife was 
Xhah-my, daughter of Chief Khaht-aah-lanoogh (Kitail- 
sno), of Chaythoos, First Narrows, and "Addle" was 
their daughter. Ehay-tulk, or 'Supplejack' was a 
brother of Khah-my." 

Frank Plante, eldest child of Peter and Ada Plante, 
was born at Moody's Mills, 13th April 1868. 



288 



276 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 197. 

"On 29th October 1889, Frank Plante drove the 
hack which conveyed Lord Stanley, Governor-General, 
and Mayor Oppenhelmer to Chaythooa, an old Indian 
clearing where, beside 'Supple jack*s» mausoleum of 
wood on poata, His Excellency dedicated Stanley Park 
to the use and enjoyment of all peoples for all time. 
Beside him stood his son, Hon. Mr. Stanley. Fifty- 
four years later, 25th August 1943, Frank Plante again 
drove a hack conveying David Oppenhelmer, grand- 
nephew, to a re-dedication ceremony sponsored by the 
Parka Board; the aged Jfiarl of Derby, (Hon. Mr. 
Stanley) sent hie greetings, and City Clerk McGuigan'a 
place was taken by his nephew, W.J. McGuigan. Thia 
photo of Frank Plante was taken by Harry Devine, 
pioneer photographer, on the day of dedication, 29th 
Oct. 1889, and August, 1943, was presented by Frank 
Plante to City Archives." 

"J.S. Matthews," 
17 Aug. 1943. 



NOTE: At the reading to Frank Plante, August Jack Khahtaah- 
lano, son of Ihsy-tulk, or 'Supplejack* sat listening; 
i.e. white great grandson, and Indian grandson of Chief 
Khahtsahlano. 



289 



£77 



"Isrly Vancouver", Vol. 6, p. 831. 

Conversation with Francois Plant©, commonly called "Frank 
Plante', fir at child of European parentage born on Burrard 
Inlet, at "Moody • a Mills', or Moodyrille, April 13th, 1868, 
and hia sister Catherine Plants, commonly known ss 'Lena 
Plants*, both childrsn of the lsts Peter Plante and his wife, 
nss Ada Toung, or Ada Guinns, daughter of 3upplien Guinns. 
Prank Plsnts is a widower, and is the eldest child of the 
marriage; 'Lena', hla alatsr la Mrs. Capt. George Mayers, 

19th June. 1944. 

'SU PP LE JACK' OR Prank Plante: "Supplejack waa our uncle. 
kH,v -fYhl{ He had a herd of cattle in Stanley Park. 

He must have had about thirty of them; 
all whits faced Hsrsfords. I often wondered how he got thoss 
white-faced esttls. Hs had two bulla, twins. Supplejack 
sold one bull team for logging to Gilleaple, the logger. 



290 



278 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 58. 

Pookcha, that is, part of ipanish Banks, 
can be interpreted radically aa "floating", perhaps "floating 
island". It suggests something rising out of the water as 
though it were floating, as of say, the back of a whale. 
Pookcha is that particular part of Spanish Banks at the north 
western extremity which, as soon as the tide starts to ebb, 
rises out of the water earlier than the remainder of the 
sandbanks. It is a knoll on the sand flats, and, when first 
It appears out of the water, has the appearance of floating. 



291 



3IAN Ymifll 






AND HOWE 50DE 



279 



It has bean asked— merely that the point 
be not overlooked — "Is it possible that the 
Indians could have moved their villages 
after 1791"? 



The answer is "No, never". As is also the 
ease with their white brethren, Indians went camping in summer, 
and sheltered themselves much as Europeans do, in light, frail 
coverings. Europeans use tents; the Indians used woven mats 
suspended from poles. When winter came, they retired to their 
warm, enduring lodges of cedar slabs, where they were cosy and 
comfortable; had dances and told tales. To ua such an exist- 
ence would seem intolerable, but they had never known anything 
else, and did not miss anything they knew nothing about— such 
as tea and sugar. 

The known Indian villages in the vicinity 
of Vancouver have stood in the Identical location for centuries 
upon centuries. 



INDIAN SPEAR POINT 






BEACH 



Conversation with Andrew Herbert Mitchell . 
1215 West 7th Ave., brother the late Alex 
Mitchell, Secretary, Vancouver Pioneers 
Association, who, very kindly, came carry- 
ing a small parcel in his hand, which ha 
opened* 

16th Sept. 1949. 



CS 




a 



Mr. Mitchell ; "I dug this flint spear 
point, (six inches long) and this broken 
piece of reddish whetstone (shale) out of 
my garden— two lots, right on the top of 
the hill, English Bluff Road, east side, I think the number of 
one of ay lots is 24, down at Tsawwassen Beach near Point 
Roberts. That was about 1940. 



"I was planting potatoes. How deep they 
were originally I don't know because I had had a bulldozer 
cleering the ground of roots and stumps, but when I got them 
they were down about twelve inohes. 

City Archives. 



So I give them to your 



NOTE - The two relics have been marked, as to what they 
are, in Indian Ink. J.S.M. 



292 



280 



On December ninth, tenth, eleventh, 
HARROWS 1940, and again on June twentieth and 

rnigoT twenty- first, 1947, unuaually low tides 

occurred In the Firat Narrows and remind 
me of tales 1 hare been told, 1 think 
perhaps, by some whlteman, but possibly by Khahtsahlano. 

Indians lived in large numbers at Whoi- 
Whol (Lumbermans Arch); fewer at Chaythoos (Pipe Line Road). 
They dug clams, caught fish, for instance, octopi, under rooks, 
•specially the huge boulder now gone. Coming at night, 
through the First Narrows at extreme low tide, Just aa it 
turned from ebb to flow, the pleasing spectacle presented its- 
elf, in the darkness, of hundreds of tiny lights, stretching 
in an uncertain line into the distanoe, glowing in the inky 
dark shadow of the trees lining the shore of Stanley Park from 
Prospect Point to Brookton Point; not, perhaps, solidly all 
the way, but more or less continuous in large or small numbers* 
The Indians were harye sting clams from the narrow belt of beach 
exposed to their spades by the extreme low tide. Indians made 
torches of slivers and fir, with fir gum adhering. "Pitch 
sticks* they called thorn, and they did a lot of night illumina- 
tion. For instance, the little fires on boards across their 
canoes covered with mud to prevent the boards from catching fire, 
which noiseless little fires attracted the curiosity of wild 
fowl, and so brought them close enough to be speared or to have 
their necks twisted with a forked stick. 

The tide, mentioned above, was minus 1.3 
feet about midnight on above nights - very, very low, and ex- 
posed clam beds which may not have been exposed to digging for 
more than two years. 



293 




261 



Conversation with Rev. 6. H. Haley, D.D., of 5581 Olympic 
Street, Kerrladale, retired clergyman, after having apent 
fifty yeara with the Indiana of B. C; formerly of 
Coqualeetza Indian School, Sardia, B. C. (alao aee hia aplen- 
dld collection of Indian objecta) . "Early Vancouver", Vol. 3, 
p. 15E. 

9th May. 1935 . 

riXSB 1MB IHDIAn "In 1894, together with the late Rev. CM. 
nT3HUMo Tate, I vialted the former Indian village 
~ under the Burrard Street Bridge. We went 
there together and apent one Sunday after- 
noon in the long house" (aee Tate, p. 134, 
"larly Vancouver", Matthews, and August Jack Ehahtsahlano, p. 45, 
Vol. z ) . (Also see drawing or map. ) "At that time a few 
families, temporarily realdent, were living in the long house; 
some few remained over the winter, but most did not. The long 
house was, as Tate says, of slabs, etc., and waa one hundred 
and fifty feet long, I ahould think, thirty feet high in the 
centre, and twelve feet on the aides. It had a very low 
peak roof, very low, hardly pereeptable one might almost say." 
(Evidently an adaption of whitemans building, for Squamlsh 
built lean-to's before the whlteman came — J.S.M. ) "It had 
three, I don't think as many as four, smoke holes in the 
centre of the roof to let the smoke from the large fires, 
about three of them, whieh, probably at one time, burned in 
the centre, for there was a regular earth hearth in the 
middle, but when we were there that afternoon, several families 
were living around amaller fires in the oorners or on the 
sides. The whole floor waa earth, but at one time it had 
had a platform all around the walls of the inside; but the 
boards, split cedar alabs, had evidently been taken away or 
used for fuel; anyway, they were gone, and as I say, the 
building used ss s temporary ahelter for most. That was in 
1894. The hearths, three of them, were beneath the smoke 
holes, but were unused. Little bits of fires were in the 
corners, etc., a family around eaeh." 

"There were seversl other large build- 
ings, bat smaller, nearly." (See Tate end map.) "There 
sxe one or two of the same type still at Muequeam." 

sTJSqpXaM. Major Matthews : "What became of those 

buildings at Snauq? The only houses I 
can recall in 1899 were houses built of sawn boards, regular 
whitemana houses with shingle roof." 



Dr. Haley ; "They used to take the boards 
•way, but perhsps they were burned in some way." 

(See Khshtsshlsno, p. 45, "Isrly Vancouver," Vol. 2; also 
Tate. The last Indiana, Old Man Jim, wife and son, 
departed on the morning of Aprllllth, 1913. J. S. M.) 



294 



282 



As m \$<jn- 



Jllui ~? « s-moll fire -Jot rndiviJual^amily* 

iPTn'tj ® JjeaY-tjis fotbi<) communal 

imoyea .^ ^ etmtttt Sv,oke hole atove 

to e 
earth -f/oof" evety where 



12 feet (,i<}h 

3 o feet ni<j^ 
II feet h'tyh 



/so 



295 



283 



ConTeraation with Harold I. Ridley, "Early Vancouver, Vol.3, 
p. 95. 

2nd May. 1934. 

INDIAN'S TEBT Major Matthew; "What do you think of 

George Cary'a yarns about the Indiana feet 
without boota?" 

Mr. Bldlev; "I have aeen Indiana go 
into old Pete Cor diner' a blacksmith shop, the aparka flying 
around, and walk right over the hot ; you could amell 

the leather burning. Salt water and travelling over bard 
rooka hardena them up— the solea of the feet." 



296 



264 



Conversation with Calvert Simaon, seeoad storekeeper, (1684 
onwards). "larly Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 255. 



CINQS 3VM1LL 






*jn aept. iaac . 
Mr. Slaaon: "Aunt Sally's (of Stanley 
I) .Park, died April, 1923) husband was Jim 
"Carouse", He may have bean called "Howe 
Sound Jim" too, but I nicknamed him "Jim 
Gromse", why I don't know; may have been 
because he brought us grouse, I forget. 
Then we had "Jericho Charlie" who used to take a great big 
load of feed down to the logging camp at Jericho every altern- 
ative week— went in his big canoe through the First Narrows 
at slack tide— and took down a load of forty sacks of barley, 
or feed. Sometimes he came into False Creek (Carrall St.) 
and oar dump carts (two wheel carts) took it to him there and 
dumped it." 

"The Indians uaed to save up and give a 
potlatch down at the rancherie Just east 
(IgDIAB) of the mill, down by the Ballantyne Pier." 




(NOTE: This rancherie was visited in 1876 
by Her Bxoellency Lady Dufferin). They would buy about one 
hundred boxes of hard tack, about two hundred sacks of flour, 
ten bales of blankets— not the big ones but the smaller size — 
and they alwaya paid for it in twenty dollar gold pieces. 
They would have a fire or two in the middle of the floor, and 
poke away a shingle or two of the roof to let the smoke out, 
then each would beat a little stick on something, and, as they 
did so, would call out (slowly) "Salaam, Salaam", (then faster 
and faster) "salaam, salaam, aalaam", and then a girl would 
come out and dance. Or, a man, pointing In mimicry as though 
he was shooting at deer with bow and arrow, do a hunting dance. 
The dancers worked themselves up into a regular frenzy. The 
audience sat all around and watched." 

PftTT.i'PflHBB "They did not throw the gifts, they handed 

them out. A man would beggar himself 
giving away all he had, so that* after the potlatch, he would 
not be possessed of a thing in the world. The more he gave 
the bigger the chief he would be. There was keen rivalry as 
to who could give away the most. At one time they gave away 
sewing machines. It got ao that the government stepped in 
and stopped it. 



it the abolition 



, Archivist ; I have 
alwaya held that the abolition by law of potlatches 
amongst Indians was a whlteman's indiscretion. The bad 
white first spoilt them with hia liquor, then the good 
white forbade them. They should have been controlled, 



297 



MB 

"larly Vsncouver", Vol. 5, p. 255, Comment by City Archivist, 
(cont'd): 

not abolished. The abolition of Car 1 etnas gifts amongst 
whitemen would b« an equivalent. The Indian practised 
the fundamentals of masonic goodwill to one another long 
before the whlteman brought Christianity. The whites 
would hare done better to emulate the principles of the 
Indian Potlatch rather than to abolish them. 

How splendid it would be if the chief 
object of life amongst whites was the acquisition of 
riohes that ernes may be again scattered amongst the less 
fortunate before death intervened. 

J.S. Matthews. 



Conversation with Mrs. D.R. Smith, (nee Minnie McCord), 914 
lest Pender Street, "Isrly Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 260. 



JOSEPH MANNIOH April 2. 1937 . 

"A lot of white men had Indian wives. 
"HoilTA!? JTM" There was Joe Mannion, Tompkins Brew, 

Navvy Jack, Gassy Jack, Portugese Joe, 
John Besty, the CuaBlngs— his family are living in atealay 
Park bow — and Johnnie Baker who had his little homae JMt 
where the Nine o'clock gun Is, and Capt. Kttershsnk, the 
pilot, and, of course, my own father (Ben McCord)." 

BIHP P. 270: "My own mother did not look 

)IAN TOMAN after me very much. I was really brought 
up by grandmother at the ranch on Coal 
Harbor (Kanaka Ranch). She was really a lovely woman. 
Xveryone loved her; pure Indian, of course. Grandmother 
always talked English. She has such small feet and always 
wore boots, and a hat. She used to tell me to try and do 
like the whlteman did — copy him— because he knew a lot, and 
not "be nir* a Siwaah". Tou know how it is. Half-breeds 
either rise or go down. Some of them do well; others just 
go back to Indian." 



298 



286 



"iarly Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 26,}. 

Conversation between -ialvert Simson, third storekeeper, 
Hastings Sawmill, August Jack Khahtsahlano, Indian grandson 
of Chief Khahtsahlano, from who::. Kltsilano takes it3 name, 
and Major J.S. Matthews, Jity Archivist. 

SALMON 16th December, 1938. 

I/UCKS (All three are at the corner of Broadway 

FALSr. Jii^ac and Gamble Street, awaiting a street car), 

Major Matthews: "See that hole across the 
street?" (s.v, . corner) "There used to be lots of salmon 
go up that creek." 

Mr. Simson: "Yes, and the North Van- 
couver creeks were full of dog salmon." 

August: "And aown in the creek that ran 
through the swamp back of Kltsilano beach; the pools were 
full of them." 

Mr. Simson: "There used to be two or 
three acres of ducks swimming off the Hastings Mill wharf eat- 
ing the herrings; the water was just black with them." 

August: "And at night, on False Greek, 
they made such a noise you could not sleep." (at Indian 
Village of SnauoJ . 

CAHRALI. S'lriKiiT Mr. Simson: "rVe used to carry a boat 
"JERICHO CHARLIE" over from False Creek to Burrard Inlet at 
JERICHO Carrall StSeet. I have helped to carry 

over a four oared boat. Four of us car- 
ried it. It wasn't far, a little more than a long block. 
Of course, when the tide was very high, that was a pretty wet 
place." 

"I used to know your stepfather, August. 
"Jericho Charlie" (Chlnalset) was a fine man. He used to 
come through the Narrows in his big canoe, and take a canoe 
load of barley and supplies down to Angus Fraser's camp at 
Jericho. One week, when the tide was right, he used to come 
through the Narrows; next week, when the tide was running 
out, he would come into the bit of wharf at the south end of 
Carrall Street, and we would send the supplies down to him 
on a wagon. He was a fine man." 

"HOSE SOUND JIM" Major Matthews: "August, were "Howe 

MO ".V ITCH JI¥ ~ Sound Jim" and "Mowitch Jim" two different 

"JIMMY JlMr men?" 

"JIM GROUSE" August: (smiling) "Yes, too many Jims. 

"CHARLia "HUNDRED" "Mowitch Jim", "Howe Sound Jim, "Jim 

"JgRICHO CHARLIE" Grouse", and "Jimmy Jimmy", but (laughing) 

"PI g FACE" his father's name was Jack (Tow-who-quam- 

kee). And "Faithful Jim". Too many 
Joes too." 

Mr. Simson: "And Charlies. I named 
Jim Grouse. He was always "grousing" (i.e. grumbling)." 



299 



287 



Conversation with Mr. Calvert Simson, 1890 Barclay Street, 
former storekeeper, Hastings Sawmill, from about 1884 to 1891, 
who kindly called at the City Archives, and remained to talk. 



POTLATCH. TH£ LAST 

QTT)IaN RAHCffi&TS. 

16547 HASTINGS SAW- 
MILL. 5TWUT? 

AVENUE. 



14th October, 1952. 

Mr. Simson said: "I was at the last 
potlatch on the site of Vancouver, 
down at the Hastings Sawmill, just east 
of It. They had a huge shed made of 
cedar slabs, and a great big fire in 
the middle of it and they pushed away a 
few of the boards in the roof to let the smoke out, but, (sig- 
nificantly) there was lots of smoke left. I stayed a little 
while but I could not stand the smoke. The smoke got in my 
eyes." 

Major Matthews: "Mr. Simson. Was 
that building an old one made of split cedar slabs, or was it 
Just a new one of sawn boards?" 

Mr. Simson: "It was old. There 
long before the Hastings Sawmill; there were a lot of Squamish 
buildings right on the foreshore where they used to haul up 
their canoes. It was on land adjoining the sawmill property; 
Just east of It, on the beach; Just past the log chute at the 
sawmill. It may have had a few sawn boards in it, I don't 
know, but it was old. That was in 1884. I rather think the 
rancherie must have been put up to suit the Indians working in 
the mill, I don't know. You could tell the exact location of 
it— first, because it was on the shore, and secondly, because 
it was on the eastern boundary of D.L. 196. The potlatch 
lasted several hours. They gave me a stick to beat with on 
the hoards. 



SEE-AHM, SEE-AHM "They started with a chant, see-ahm, 
A CHANT see-ahm, see-aaaahm. At first in a 

low tone, and slowly, then faster and 
faster and faster, until they got into a high tone pitch, and 
worked themselves into a frenzy. See-ahm; see-ahm; see-ahm, 
faster and faster and higher and higher in tone. One man 
pretended he was shooting a deer. He stooped down, and pre- 
tended he was pointing his rifle— taking a bead on — a deer. 
They were all seated around a big long building. I don't 
recall how long, or how the light got in. Some of it came 
from the fire in the middle. 

NOTE BY J.S.M. This was the Indian village which Lady 
Dufferin, wife of His Excellency the Governor General — 
the first one to visit Burrard Inlet— 1876, wished to 
visit after the Vice-Regal party had been welcomed form- 
ally on the Hastings Sawmill store wharf. She was 
escorted up a narrow sinuous trail through the stumps, 
wide enough for one person to pass along, and met an old 
Indian woman, bent and mostly skin and bones, known 
locally as "The Virgin Mary". To the chagrin of the 



300 



288 



local elite, Lady Dufferin shook hands with her. 

ROYAL CIT Y Fi.ANTNft MTT.T.S. "They formed the Royal City 
HASTINGS SAWMILL CO. Planing Milla, and took over 

B.C .MILLS. TIMBER "TRADING the Hastings Sawmill, and then 
c 0» the B.C. Mills, Timber and 

Trading; Co. was formed. John 
Hendry had no plans. He Just said, "Put one machine here, 
and put that other machine there." They got into financial 
trouble. Sweeny, manager of the Bank of Montreal, was one 
of the directors. They wanted to get rid of R.H. Alexander, 
but Mr. Sweeny said"No", and "So long as you have an overdraft 
Alexander must remain on the board." He had confidence In 
Alexander. If it had not been for Sweeny the mill would have 
collapsed. 

SUSON. CALVERT . "I came here in 1884. I left London 

In November, 1883, and reached Vic- 
toria in May, 1884. I was in Port Chalmers, near Dunedln, 
New Zealand. Then I reached San Francisco on the ship 
"Zambesi", and went down the States to Arizona and all around, 
and then up to Bend, Oregon, and Walla Walla, Wash. The way 
I know, roughly, the dates is that I had a draft for seventy 
pounds, (£70-0-0), and I cashed ten pounds, (£10-0-0), in 
Portland, Oregon, and have the date. I was up the Columbia 
River and recall watching them make the loggers take off their 
boots, and they gave them slippers. The loggers^ boots had 
iron spikes In them and they ruined the decks. After I reached 
Victoria In May, 1884, I went over to New Westminster and got a 
Job as night watchman at one dollar a day. The chief night- 
watchman was also a cook, and he used to cook salmon with all 
the trimmings, parsley sauce and so on, for our midnight meal. 
In England we got salmon once a year, and then at two and six 
a pound, but here the mill hands were fed on It and that sur- 
prised me. I worked for the Dominion Sawmill. 

WILSON . BEN. 1884 . "Then I got a job with Ben Wilson, 
WAP" J. '('■lii B -Jii 1WAA storekeeper on the beach, now Water 
MANNION. JOSEPH. Street, at Granville, now Vancouver. 

I got sixty dollars a month and 
found. I stayed at Joe Mannion's Granville Hotel, and Ben 
Wilson paid Mannion ten dollars a month for my board and room, 
and the hotel took it out in groceries. 

HASTMGS SAWMILL "Then I went over to the Hastings 
STOREKEEPER Sawmill as storekeeper and continued 

as such until 1891, but I never did 
find out the exact date of my arrival at New Westminster. 



301 



289 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 47. 

THE TIMES 

15 Mar. 1939 

"SIWASH" INDIANS 

You published on March 13 an Illustration of a 
very interesting Totem from the A'est Coast of British Col- 
umbia. But why is it described as the work of "Slwaah" 
Indians? During my residence among these Indians I was 
never able to locate any tribe known officially by this 
name. On the contrary, if a Coast Indian was called a 
"Siwash" he resented it as much as any other coloured per- 
son would resent being called a "nigger." There would ap- 
pear to be an almost exact parallel between the two expres- 
sions. "Siwash" is often used by white men on the West 
Coast (frequently contemptuously), but never by Indians 
themselves. Hence it is difficult to understand why it 
is sometimes used by scientific writers in England. Tour 
article states that this particular Totem came from "the 
northern part of Vancouver Island." The Indians who in- 
habit these parts are sub-tribes of the once-powerful 
Kwaguitl (or Kwawkewith) Confederacy. If we could know 
the exact place from which the Totem came it would be pos- 
sible to name the tribe. There is one other interesting 
feature about it. The Kwaguitls usually carve the Thunder 
Bird with wings outspread. Folded wings are usual among 
the tribes farther north. 

The Rev. F.S. Spackman, 

Vicar of Marple, Cheshire: formerly 
Principal of the Indian Residential 
Schools, Alert Bay, B.C. 



302 



290 



Conversation with Mr*. £. E. trites, nee Maddams. "Early 
Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 76. 

10th' January. 1939 . 
MADDAM3HANCH Mra. Trltes aald: "The fertilizer for our 
~~F ^SS garden on Seventh Avenue at China Greek 
UHJ.NJL LiHEJg was received in a unique manner. father 

was a very versatile and practical man, 
and invented a labor-saving device. It was a double truck 
flat car which ran on a track of wooden rails running up and 
around the garden, pulled up tjill by a horse, which dumped the 
fertilizer equally around the ranch garden. The stable manure 
was brought to our place on a small flat scow, and the scow 
was tied to a small wharf which we built at the foot of our 
garden, right on the False Creek shore. Today it would be 
200 yards east of the foot of St. Catherines St., although, 
of course, there was no sign of a street there then. We used 
to get the manure from Hayes and Mcintosh and the B.C. slaught- 
er houses — there were two of them — half a mile below us on 
False Creek, and quite close to Westminster Avenue." 

"My father often had to go out at two or 
three in the morning to catch the tide, and he used to pole 
the loaded scow along and the tides helped him. You see, 
False Creek, east of Westminster Avenue, was very shallow and 
used to run dry at low tide. No tug could get in there, so 
it was necessary to pole the manure scow from the slaughter 
house to our ranch and then pole the empty scow back again." 

DUCKS. WILD "My brother Charlie used to shoot wild 

ducks on False Creek. There were an 
awful lot of wild ducks on the creek in those daysj all kinds, 
mallard, pintail, teal, butter balls, hell divers, (but we 
never killed hell divers), cranes. They never used to shoot 
the cranes. The Chinamen used to eat the cranes. The 
Chineae would ask us to shoot a crane for them to eat. You 
see there were no restrictions in those days. You could shoot 
all you liked. The ducks were not "fishy" eating — not fishy 
tasting at all. We used to give them away." 

"We had a canvas canoe for shooting in. 
It was cigar-shaped with oak ribs. In fact, while we lived 
therejthere were three canoes made. They rotted in time and 
had to bo renewed. The canvas was oiled and painted and was 
decked at both ends; Just like a kyak, with an open space in 
the centre for two persons to row or paddle. I have gone on 
a moonlight night out to the marsh grass in front of our 
place. There was a lot of sea grass out in front of us, which 
the tide used to cover at high tide, to paddle the canoe while 
my brother was shooting. We went out one night and got stuck 
in the mud, which shows how shallow the head of False Creek 
was. He is still a good shot, as is my younger brother who 
was the captain and crack shot in the school team and won a 
couple of medals at the Alexander School on Broadway." 



303 



291 



(cont'd) "Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 77. 
with Mrs. E.E. Trites, nee Maddams. 



Conversation 



CHINESE GARDENS 



COAL 



"The Chinese used to bring garbage over 
for their pigs, In boats, and land right 
in front of our place." 

"There were seams of coal on our beach, 
black lignite coal." 



INDIAN IMPLEMENTS "We found a couple of atone tools in the 

earth of our garden. There are some like 

them in the museum. One was a round, flattish stone with a 
small hole in the centre (for making fire or perhaps sinking 
fish nets), and the other (a small size carpenter's hammer) 
was a small oblong stone about five Inches long and round, 
more than an inch in diameter, like this: 



I Hole 



Frre -ruaJl'vntj stimt. 



thrall ha-ni-met 



Bead and approved by Mrs. Trites 
January 24th, 1939. 
J. S. Matt news. 



These two small Indian implements are in City Archives. 
For method of use, read August Jack Khahtsahlano's con- 
versation, August 22nd, 1938. 



304 



292 



Conversation with Otway tfilkle, in Archives office, i-ity Hail, 
"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 327. 

13th January. 1936. 
3jMO» ERASER. Major Matthews: I showed Mr. "r'ilkie a 
1608 . map of Vancouver, which I had drawn, had 

photographed, and pasted in " Vancouver . 
Fifty Years a City" . 1886-1936" (frontispiece) showing nota- 
tion, at one point, "Muaqueam Indian Reserve, Here Eraser 
turned, 1808." Mr. Wilkie commented thus: 

"OLD JOE" "I question it. "Old Joe", an Indian — 

we oalled him "Nosey" because his nose 
had a twist in it — he told me in 1887 or 1888. I stayed all 
night with him in his cabin— could not get home. His cabin 
was on McMillan Island. My home was at Langley. I was the 
mail contractor between Langley and the C.P.R. at the time, ao 
that it would be about 1887. The winter of 1887-8 was very 
severe, but the mail had to be attempted to be got across the 
river to the C.P.R. This time the ice was in the river but 
in a dangerous state. I was trying to reach Whonnock from 
Langley, and was prospecting for a chance to get across the 
river and noticed that Just at the head of McMillan Island the 
Ice had divided and left a clear space nearly from shore to 
shore — the river at that point is almost a mile wide. I got 
one-third of the way across when I saw the ice coming together, 
and I made back for the island; Just managed to reach the 
head of the island when the ice came together. I Jumped on 
shore, broke through the ice, got wet, tied up the boat, and 
started to walk to where the Indians lived. When I arrived 
at the Indian houses, I met Jason Allard, who was also ice 
bound, and ezplained the position to him. He took me to Old 
Joe's house, where I was quite comfortable and nice and clean, 
etc." 

"Old Joe and his family gave me a good 
welcome, fine, nice, clean bed. Slept under one of their own 
home-mad* blankets— which was considered quite an honor—and 
spent the evening with Jason, talking over old days with the 
Indians. Joe told us the story of Simon Eraser." 

" Hetoldm e that when ht. 
?®3l?L ^? or 1[_9? ■■■■■fowaa a boy the Langley Indians at 
SIMON ERASER'S that tine lived where the B.C. Penitentiary 
ARRIVAL in New Westminster now is located. In 

fishing time — that is, in middle summer— 
the Indians all moved across to what is now Liverpool, or 
Brownsville, to fish. When there, it must have been 1806— 
two years before Eraser is said to have officially come down 
the river— but the Indians said two snows before that, the 
Indians looked up the river and saw a fleet of canoes coming 
down the river. When the canoes got opposite to where the 
Langley Indians were camped, much to the surprise of the 
Indiana, a musical instrument sounded— they think from tra- 
dition that it was a bugle— and all the canoes stopped and 
remained where they were. You see, the Indians could not 



305 



293 



"iiarly Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 327, Otway »ilkie (cont'd): 

understand this; why the csnoes remained stationary. You 
see, It was high water and the river running strong, and the 
canoes remained stationary. The Indians at that time did 
not know anything about anchors. They had never used ei^chors 
in their canoes. They said everything was done- to the sound 
of the music." 

"One of the Indians — thiswas common knowl- 
edge when I came here in 1878 — prior to this had declared that 
he had dreamed of a man in a (boat or) canoe with a hairy 
face; a white face v-ith fire coming out of his mouth. The 
dream immediately came to the minds of the Indians .<ho had 
been told of this hairy faced man. uhen they saw these men 
coming down the river they thought they were gods who had come 
down from heaven." 

"The men in the canoes sat in the canoes 
smoking. This confirmed the dream. They saw the smoke 
coming out of their moutha. Up to that time the Indians did 
not smoke; neither did they use sail or anchor .vith their 
canoea." 

"Then the atrangers (Fraser) went to go 
ashore. He drew his aword. It flashed in the sun, and that 
confirmed the opinion that they were gods. They got into 
converaation through making signs. Phaser «anted to go on to 
the aea, but the "Tchwaahina" (?) , (Point Roberts Indiana), 
and the Musqueams of the North Arm of the Fraaer river were at 
war. The old Indian chief, father of Chief Cashmere of 
Langley (who died about 1925-1930) made them understand that 
if they went past their camp they would be killed either by 
the Tchwaahlns (?) or Musqueams." 

"Fraser turned back from there and went up 
the river again, but, before he went, an axe was miaaed. The 
whitemen went back and made a search for the miasing axe, and 
found it In the possession of a young Indian buck. They took 
it from him, and kicked his backaide, which was a terrible 
insult to a young buck. If it had been a girl it would not 
have mattered. There was quite a hubbub about this and they 
were going to kill Fraaer and wipe out the inault, but an old 
Indian, who died about 10 or 12 yeara ago at Katsey, persuaded 
them not to. ■ He explained that the whitemen were gods, and 
more numerous than the stara above, and that if they killed 
Fraaer hia frienda would return and there would be none of the 
Indians left." Fraser waa allowed to go." 

"Two snows after, Fraser came down the 
river with more canoea, but with different "queer" muaio 
(perhaps bagpipes), and v;ent on dowi to the aea." 

"This atory was afterwards conf lm ed to me 
by the Chilllwaek Indiana. 



Mr. Wllkie thinks that there may be con- 



306 



294 

"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 327, Otway Wllkle (cont'd): 

firmation of this story as he states that Fraser's 
diary does not record what he was doing for a period 
of two years— Eraser's diary is supposed to lapse from 
March, 1806 for a period of about two years, perhaps 
lost or destroyed — and that the missing two years co- 
incide with the Indian story that he came down two 
snows before, 1808. 

(NOTE: My experience—several auch — is that Indians 
get their fathers, grandfathers, and great grandfathers 
mixed up a bit. This story appears to be founded on 
fact. j. s. M. ) 

This narrative was submitted, after typing, to Mr. Otway 
Wllkie for his approval. 

It was pointed out to Mr. '.Vilkie that 
there was a question of doubt involved in the astonishing 
age to which the Indians mentioned would have had to have 
lived, but Mr. Wilkie argued that it was not only quite 
possible for them to have lived ta the necessary great 
age, but also quite probable that they did. This rep- 
resentation was made to Mr. Vilkie two days ago at a 
long conversation on the matter in this office. 

Mr. .Vilkie preferred to have the story 
recorded exactly as it is typed. 

J.S. Matthews. 



"Early Vancouver", Vol. 5, p. 334: Excerpt from letter: 

INDIAM CHURCH 16th May. 1932 . 

METHODIST "SHURCH . "Under the Rev. Joseph Hall's pastorate 
FIRST . the Methodist Hall was built, which did 

good service until the Homer Street Ohurch 
was built, as the new city began to assume proportions. The 
Rev. Dr. Robson was then Pastor. The Indian Church was built 
in 1875, and as Indian Missionary I dedicated it in 1876, with 
Rev. T. Derrick, Minister to the white people. 

Yours, CM. Tate." 

(NOTE: The Indian church stood on the shore at the foot 
of Abbott Street, now the corner of rfater and Abbott 
Streets. j. s. M.) 



307 



£95 



Abandoned tree* 185 

Abbott street 156,160,294 

Abolition of potlatches 284 

Abraham, Mr. 185 

"Active" Canoe 128 

Addle (Ada Toung) 79,94,102,208,275,277 

Age 294 

Agnes 2, 54A, 101, 215, 216 

Ahka-Chus 23A.189 

Abteulk 23 

Akhachu 23A,189 

Albernl 249 

Alder trees 33,62 

Alec 20,21 

Alert Bay 163,289 

" " Indians 59,64 

Alex 8 

Alex, Peter 100 

Alexander, F.W. 40,249,250 

" Lord, Got. Gen. 137,138 

" H.H. 288 

" School 290 

Allck 55 

Allard, Jason 292 

Alley, Hogan'a 83 

Alma (Road) 226 

Ancestors 185,189 

Anchors 93,293 

Anderson, Mrs. 196 

Andrews, Chief 3,92 

" "Chuckle" 82 

Animals, Domestic (see D) ^i 25 * 27 * 51 ! 84 ' 101 ' 107 !^ 2 ,!., 

132,149,150,163,261,275,277, 

290,291 

" Wild (see "Game") 261 

Ankameenum (Indian language) 164 

" , orab 183 

« " , trees 127 

Arbitrators 41 
Archives, Vancouver City 275,276,279,291 
Aristocrats 183 

Armitage-Uoore, llalsie 124.139 

JS, North 64,89,187,192,193,196,202,203, 

238,259,293 
" " Road 160 

Arrowhead(s) 91,©2,259,260 

Arrowshaft, cedar 92 

Ashlow 44 

Ash street »* 

itkin'so'n, Point 126,127,187,190,192,230,258 



308 



296 



Aunt 






51,55,92,99,102,106,112,117 


N 


Sally 


241 , 284 


Avenuea 


, Broadway 


226,290 


■t 




Campbell 


144,265 


* 




IXinlevy 




tt 




First 


1,6,244,245 
80 


ti 




Fourth 


m 




Heatley 


219 


H 




Jackson 


219 


it 




Lonsdale 


189 


if 




Seventh 


290 


it 




Sixty-third 


259 


it 




Third 


55 


it 




Westminster 


259,290 


Axe 






89,293 


Ay-yul- 


•shun (A-yul-shun) 








(English Bay) 
(see Capilano) 


31 32 51 

35A, 5&, 106, 204, 205, 255 


Ayati 


sk 



Babies, Indian 
Bagpipes 
Baker, Johnnie 

" Marguerite 

" Mount 

" Mr. 

" Simon 
Bales (of blankets) 
Ball, Cannon 

" F.J.C. 

" « Nomenclature 

" Lacrosse 
Ballantyne Pier 
Balsam Street 
Band , Gus , 

" First Indian Brass 

■ Kitsilano Indian 
Bandmaster, First 
Bands, Reason for small 
Bank of Montreal 
Banks, Spanish 
Baptismal 

" , Certificate 
Bar (Saloon counter) 
Bark, Cedar 

" " Cloth 



141,142 

293 

285 

100 

84,85,166,172 

64 

147 

284 

245 

2,9,18,215,220 

222 

107 

284 

226 

86 

273 

158 

273 

162 

288 

71,72,125,217,278 

9 

23,140 

197 

260 

150 



309 



297 



Bark, eedar, nata 142 

• " poultlee 142 

" - rap* 52,53,61,71,72,119,120,161 

Barley 116,264,266 

Baroet 192 

■ mil 88 

Barrett-Lennard, Capt. C.K. 142 

Baaketa 252,253,254,270,274 

Bata, Mark 164 

Bath, ateaa 219 

Bay, Alart 163,289 

• Bi dwell 22 

" BoundaSy 83,90 

" Buchaneer 246 

" Bugliah 1,5,24227,31,33.34.351.45, 

63,937122,123.126,162,184 
189,192,213,217 

" Horaaahoa (Cha-hal) 62,90 

• Haata 128 

• Oyater 2T1 
a Seolahaoo 162 

Bayaaater atraat 73 
B.C.lCille Tiaber * Trading Co. 286 

B.C. Penitentiary 892 

B.C. Slaughterhouaea 290 

Beach 10,25,37,45,50,73 

" Bayaaater atraat T3 

tttgllah Bay 228 



• Graar'a 225,255 

" Jerloho 93 



" Ka« 

" Locarno ITS 

" Maple 83 

a Mr. 261 

» Seoond 27.31,101,136,184,865 



Taawwaaaao 



879 



Baada 1«8 

Baar 10,86,87,268 

-, grlaaly ****b U * 

Beaty, John 64,885 

Bearer 10,33 

• dana 246 



Lake 7,185,189,246 



, Steamer 



155 



Before 'ahltamn 12,28,32,36,38.52,89,115, 

125,134,135,141,190,214 

Begfcle, Judge 178.233 

Balcarra 22,64 

Bella Bella 162,163,166,167,173,174,177 

• " , Szperleneea at 174 

• " Indiana 171,179,180 
Bella Coola 861,269 



310 



296 



Benbow, H.A. 

Berries (see "Fruit") 

"Better Than Warships" 

Bible 

Bicycles 

Bidwell Bay 

Billy, Michael 

Bishop Sheepshanks 

Biscuits 

"Biting Man" 

Blackberries 

Black, George 

Black Paint 

Blacksmith 

Blanket (s) 



, Goat hair 
Blueberries 

Bluejays 
Blue paint 
Boards , sawn 
Boas, Prof. 
Boat 

" gas 

" gun 

" steam 
Boots 
Booze 

Botterell, T. 
Boundary 

" Bay 

" Squamish 
Bow and Arrow 

Bowen Island 

Bower, Ruby M. 

Braves, Indian 

Bread 

Brew , George 

" Judge 

" Tompkins 
"Briekmaker*s Claim" (West 

End) 
Bridge 

" , Burrard (Snauq.) 

" , First Narrows 

" William 
British Law, Indian Respect 

for 
"British Siberia" 



244 

10,12,39,83,116,129,176, 

186,270 

180 

251 

263 

22 

100 

232 

168,177 

173,174,175 

83,129 

82,101 

62 

283 

1,7,36,39,43,55,56,74,86, 

94,95,133,152,170,177,200, 

230 , 259 , 264 , 266 , 284 , 292 

136,189 

10,39,83 

270 

62 

287 

174 

286 

179 

94,196,249 

273,274 

261,288 

36,40,161,180,214,265,267,284 

207 

35A 

83,90 

47 

11,18,27,40,48,74,91,92,169, 

187,188,196,216,268 

33,63,210,211,261 

54A,243,251 

97 

72 

40 

229,231 

64,201,285 

218 

92 

1,3,6,10,23,40,41,56,64,71, 

88, 1»6, 171, 176, 161, 194, 281 

55 

207 

178 
271 



311 



299 



Broadway 

Brockindale 

Brockton Point (Paapeeak) 



" " , Houses at 
Brother, Khahtsahlano'a 
Brownsville 
Bryant, Rev. 
Buchaneer Bay 
Buckingham Palace 
Bugle 
Bullding(s) , 



Bull 

Burds , Dave 

Burial (a) 



(aee "Houses") 
Squamiah 
Very old 



n 
n 
n 



Canoe 
Grounds 



Last Indian 
Tree, 159,190,229 

Burns, Mr. 

Burrard Bridge (Snauq) 

" Inlet 



Butcher , first 

Butter 

Butter ball (duck) 



226,290 

133 

2,19,32,40,52,55,56,57,60, 

64,93,110,114,184,198,203, 

212 

21 

4,8,52,53,56,92,116,143,149 

292 

165,240 

246 

104 

292 

269 

287 

287 

101 

8 

1,4,25,40,57,91,116,159,190, 

254,258 

258 

35A, 190, 230, 231, 233, 241 

244 

159,190,229,230,231,233 

64,94 

1,3,6,10,23,40,41,56,64,71, 

88 , 156 , 171 , 176 , 181 , 194 , 281 

5,21,24,31,33,34,35A,47,48, 

49,64,79,102,141,149,156, 

191 , 192 , 193 , 202 , 213 , 218 , 

220,228,233,239,251,273,277, 

279,286,287 

101 

101 

290 



Cabbage 
Calamity 
Calendar 
California 

" , San Francisco 
Camble, H.J. 

" Street 
Camp 
Camping 

" ground, oldest 
Campsite 
Canadian Pacific Railway 

• " Dock 

» " Right-of-way 

n « Roundhouse 



270 

184 

62 

178 

288 

109 

82,87,215 

219 

279 

99 

241 

225,292 

165,241 

226 

235,272 



312 



300 



Candles 
Cannon ball 
" shot 
Cannons 
Canoe (s) 



" "Active" 

" , burial 

" , canvas 

" , dugout 

" , flotilla of 

" , freight carrying 

" , hunting 

" Indiana 

" , Jericho Charlie's 

" , making of 

" , Northern Indian 

" paddle 

" , a present 

" , racing 

" , Squamish Indian 

" , Stationary 

Cape Flattery 

" Mudge 
Capilano (Homulcheaon) 



.Ayatak 

, Chief Matthias Joe 



" " , father 
" " .mother 
" " , real 
name Sahp-luk 
, Creek 

, family genealogy 
, Mary (wife) 

Joe, "Old Chief" 

River 

, Spelling & origin 



" Steamship 
« Water Works 
Captain C.'.V.Cates 
» Cook 
" Ettershsnk 



93 

245 

93 

248 

1,5,11,25,27,28,29,32,33,34, 

36,37,42,48,52,63,66,71,74 

82,85,86,87,94,100,118,157 

160 , 179 , 200 , 247 , 255 , 257 , 258 

259,271 

128 

258 

290 

196,263 

248 

119 

33,48,52,143,232,234,235,290 

246 

128,284,286 

129,130 

190 

265 

187 

185 

170 

293 

128,170 

180 

2,7,31,34,35,49,55,65,125,157 

162,252,255 

54A, 183, 213, 214 

2,5,30,36,37,50,51,53,65,68 

103,104,109,165,205,207,215 

216,217 

104,106,215 

53,54 

205 
55,65,115,118,126,127,144, 

196,203 

108,144,186,216 

47, 50, 54, 54A, 56, 108, 203, 207, 

215,216,227,252 

54A, 104,108,183,188, 213, 214 

215,216,223,240,241,246,256 

1,49,50,52,55,239 

213,214,215,216,217,218,219 

220,227 

33 

19 

147 

167,269 

64,285 



313 



301 



Captain Grey 

Mayers, George 
of Moonmen 

" Stamp 

" Starr 

" Vancourer (see "V") 
Car, double truck flat 
Cariboo 

Carrall Street 
Car rota 
Carta, dump 
Cary, George 
Cashmere, Chief 
Cates, Captain C.W. 
Cathollo(a), Roman 



Cattle 



" , Hereford 
Ceolle 
Cedar 

" arrow shaft 
" bark 

" ball 
cloth 
" " mats 
" " poultice 
" " rope 
" boughs 

" Cove (Huphapal) 
" logs 
" shakes 
" slabs 

" " , making 

• split 

" Street 

" tree, falling 

" " root 

" " , aplitting 

" Undergarments 

" , fluffy cradle lining 
Celebration 
Celistine 
Cemeteries, early 

" Indian 
Cemetery, first whlteman's 
Ceremonious dress 
Ceremony 

" of Initiation 



191 

275 

168 

99,250 

162 



290 

27,53,163,178,195,211 

5,82,228,235,272,286 

26 

284 

236,240,246,283 

293 

147 

116,148,149,214,241,243, 
248, 251 ' 

27,51,84,101,112,132,149 

150,163,277 

277 

2,8 

14,29,31,33,43,58 
162.25* 



,87,100, 



-.31,33,4 
162,255 
92 
260 
82 
150 
142 
142 173 

52,53,61,71,72,119,120,161 

58 

25 

12 

91,94,161,262,264,266 

24,26,44,45,58,61,126,129, 

148,159,169,190,279,281,287 

129 

30,42,90,159,281 

1,6,45,80,245 

129,185,235 

29 

130 

190 

190 

56,173 

8,105,204 

56,60 

57,110,263 

57 

266 



266 

19,94,97,104,133,149, 
184,203,220,259,264,2 
174 



=,153, 
,266 



314 



30* 



Cha-hal (Horseshoe Bay) 62,90 

Chair* 38 

Chalkunts 223 

Change of Name, Declaration 88,133 

" " Registration 88*. 

Chant(s) 115,185,223,887 

Chah-kai 17 .189 

Charlie, frank (Ayatak) 50 

-Charlie Hundred" 286 

Charlie Tse-nark 102 

Charlton, Ormond Lee 248 

Charlton 45,94,118 

Chay-chll-wk (Seymour Creek) 31 

Chaythooa (Prospeot Point) 1,3,4,14,19, 23, 23*,25, 26, 

31,32,51,52,55,75,79,100, 
101,132,148,149,275,276, 
280 

Che-kai 17,189 

Cherries 45,129,272,273,274 

Cheatnut Street 44,45,71 

Chetchallaam 25 

Chickens 101 

Chief Andrews 3,92 

" Caahnere 293 

" Chipkayam 1,2,3,7,45,75,87,94,149,158, 

" George (Chip-kaay-am) 2,3,29.118,144,149,158,159, 

171,260,261,264,265,266,267, 
270 

" Haat-sa-la-nough 226 

" jimmy Jimmy 255 

" Khahtaahlanogh 1,2,3,7,8,14,23A,26,32,44, 

47,52,70,74,75,80,86,92,100, 
149,182,249,275,276 

- Kiapalsno (Kiapalano) 50,94,95,106,115,1*4,196,197, 

198,203,208,210,212,221,233, 
235 

" Kleoplannah 213 

" Laa~wa 



« Mathias Joe Capllano 



n 



2, 5, 50, 51, 541,104, 108, 109, 115, 
165,203,214,215,220,223,240, 

251,256 

2,5,30,36,37,50,51,53.65,68 

103,104,109,165,205,207,215 

216,217 
Menata 147 

Michael 118,128 

"Old Chief Capilano 54A.104.108, 183,188, 213, 214 

215,216,223,240,241,246,256 

Scomlak 128 

Semelano 216 

Skaaa-yoos 137,253,255,257,268 



315 



309 



Chief Stogan 195 

" Supple Dick 232 

to Thlt-aee-mah-lah-nough 160,195.226 

Chief., how made 51,76,241 

! n ?«» 159,160 

all equal 215,216 

Chilaminat (Jim ft-anka) 21,29,155,214,230,250,253 

256,257,268 

genealogy 255 

Chllcoten Indiana 64 

Child, flrat white 249 

Chiil?««.» 2,9,40,175,179,183,240,260 

Chilliwack 167,171,173 

Indiana 293 

Chlmneya 264 

Chinaman 20,21,56,243,290 

Chineae 290 

" gardens 291 

" laundry 82 

Chinha 64 
Chin-nal-sut (or Chan-nal- 

aet) (Jericho Charlie) 8.31.32,37,42,61,71,73,74, 

89, 9l,9£, 94, 100,114, 116, lie, 
122,125,140,149, 

Chinook 110,230 
Chip-kayam, firat settler at 

Snauq 3 

, Chief, (George) 1,2,3,7,45,75,87,94,149, 
158,255 

Chiael 257 

" » »J one 29,61,89,148,185 

" , alate 38 

Chitchulayuk (Point Grey) 172 

Chohanum (Old Cronie) 49 

Christening 56 

Christian teaching (see Tate) 180 

Christianity 178,179,285 

Christine Jack 204,207,208,210 

Christmas 34 

Cbuckchuck 216 

Chulka 1,7,166,248 

Chul-wah-ulah 22 , 25 

Chunth 23 

Church, Catholic 65,116,165,203,248,251 

" » first 14,156,167 

" , first Indian 222 

" , Indian 64,65,66,157,163,164,165, 

222,239,294 

" , Methodiat 65,240,294 

" , St. James 66 

" , Wealeyan Methodiat 163 



316 



304 



City Hall 94,153 

" Mission 102 

Clam beds 280 

Clams 10,50,115,175,258,280 

Clam shells 49,60,152,153,218,241,242, 

258 

" " , mounds of 175,260 

Clay 189 

Clayoquot (Claoquaht) 159,160 

Cloth, cedar bark 150 

Clothing (see Dress) 39,168,190,261,264,288 

Coal 163,228,291 

" Harbor 22, 35A, 52, 184, 191, 234, 235, 

265,285 

" Peninsula (Stanley Park) 218 
Coast Indian 167,246,247,289 

Coat(s) 53.108,168 

Cod 176 

Coe, Mr. 64 

coffin 132,133 

Coins 97,284 

Community house 159,161,171,176,180,269, 

" " , a drawing 282 

Conferences 184 

Conjurers 167,168,169 

Constable (see policeman) 225,249 

Construction 262 

Contractor, mail 292 

Cook, Capt., arrival of 167,269 

Cooklingl 10,38,63,72,89,114 

" ducks 233 

"Copy whiteman" 285 

Coquitlam 187 

Corall, fish 4 

Cordiner, pete 283 

Cordova Street 19,56 

Countess (or Lady) Dufferin 220,284,287,288 

Cornett, J.W. 83 

Cornwall Street 156 

Council, Squamlsh Indian 201,215,216 

Court 178 

" proceedings 185 

Cove 88 

", Cedar 25 

" Deep 64 

" Fisherman's 185 

" Jerry's 94,126 

Cowl chan 50,64 

Cows (see cattle) 27,51,84,101,112,132,149, 

150,163,277 

Cradle lining, fluffy cedar 190 



317 



305 



Crab 

Crabapple (kokwap) 

" trees 
Crakan thorp, Alice 

" Muriel 
Cranes 
Creek 

" Capilano 

" Che-kai 
" China 
" Falae 



" Homulcheson 

" Roberta 

" Seymour (Chay-chilwk) 

" Spring Salmon 
creeks, fresh water 
Crescent, Grore 
Cronle, Old (Chohannm) 
Crosby, Rev. Thomas 
Cubicles 
Cn minings, Mr. 
Cups 

Curtains 
Cuatom(s) Indian 



Customs Offioer, first 
Cypress Stfieet 
Cyrs, Tom 



10 

123,178,254 

127 

249,250,251,252 

251 

290 

3, 10, 23A, 26, 47, 541,91 

55,65,115,118,126,127, 

144,196,209 

17 

290,291 

1,4,7,30,31,35A,37.56,64, 

71.72,123,149,160,162,182, 

226,254,265,284,286,290 

144 

35A 

29,31,65,118,144,161,157,162 

33 

192 

219 

47, 49.54A 

164,173 

261,262,269 

64,285 

39 

259 

41,59,68,71,74,70.89,184, 

185,195,202,217,219,236, 

251,264 

40 

64 

82 



Daggers 
Dancers 
Danca(a) 

" death (Swywhee) 

» wolf 
Dancing floor 
Daneing 
Say, working 
Deadhouae 
Desdman'a Island 



Declaration, Change of Mama 



238 

98,174,266.284 

19,36,56,69,144,231,240,264, 

267,279,284 

40,172 

1T5 

262 

269 

130 

159,230,263 

21.S5A.52, 57, 110, 191,232 

88 * 



318 



306 



Decorate 

Decorum 

Dedication of Stanley Park 

Deep Core 

Deer 

Defence Ialand 

Deighton, John 

Denman atreet 

Depreaslon 

Derby, Sari of 

Derrick, Her. Thomas 

Derlne, Harry 

Dinner 

Dipper, wooden 

"DlacoTery", H.M.G.S. 

Dlseeae 

Dlahea 

" , wooden oupa 
" , " dipper 
• , • platen 
" , " spoons 

Disposition, kindly 

Dock, C.P.B. 

Doctor 

" , witch 

Dog(a) 

Dogfish 
■ oil 

Dollar ton 

Domestic snlmals, boll 

cattle 

dogs 

goats 

horses 

mules 

oxen 

sheep 

pigs 

Domingo 

Dominlo 

Dominloa Sswmlll 

Donkey engine 

Door(s) 



Dovglsi 



Drawing 



Captain 
Lake 
Park 
Boat 

Sir Ji 



184 

184,191 

1,79,149,259,275,276 

64 

10,11,14,26,33,37,38,190 

261,268 

ISO 

208,273,274 

228 

12 

276 

14,156,165,239,240,294 

276 

56 

39 

154 

183 

56,89 

39 

39 

38,39 

39,56 

171,178 

165,241 

40,41,141,201 

261 

25,261 

21,246,286 

21 

89 

101 

27,51,84,101,112,132,149, 

150,163,277 

25,261 

51 

4,27,51,84,101,132,275,290 

107,251 

4,107,251 

51,132.163 

51,84,101,132,163,291 

199 

8 

288 

163 

161,169,259,261 

210 

177 

270 

89 

178,177,178 

87,30,43,46,60,61,68,69, 

70,71,73,74,75,83,85,87. 

92,107,836,237,261,266,272, 

288,881 



319 



307 



Drawing (or map) 




217 


Cream 




293 


Dress (see Clothing) 


19,37,70,84,234,264 ,190 


" ceremonious 




266 


" head 




19,68,69,73,137,170 


" Squemish 




80 


Drive Marine 




172 


Driveway, Stanley 


Park 


23,49,229^58 


Drowning of Chief 


Lah-wa 


55,109,144,161,165,214,256 


Drums 




173 


Dtutichookahnum 




108 


Dublin. Mr. 
Duck(s) 




196 




14,18,27,33,48,52,115,143, 






232,233,234,235,265,286,290 


" mallard 




290 


" netting 




237 


" pintail 




290 


teal 




290 


" helldivera 




290 


Dufferin, Lady (or 


Countess) 


220,284,287,288 


Dugout Canoe 




196,263 


Dump carts 




284 


Dunlevy Avenue 






Dunbar Heights 




160,226 


Dutch Pete 




220 



Eagle feathers 


150,151,153,170 


Eagles on Masks, meaning of 


153 


Eagle Harbour 


190 


Earl of Derby 


276 


Eaton, Bill 


261 


Eburae 


15,20,160 


Education (see School) 


76,77,93,179,183 
53,108,205,215,220 


Edward, King 


Edwards (bandmaster) 


273 


Eiderdown feathers 


184 


Einu, Mrs. 


285 


Elderberries 


10,12 


Eliza's map 


90 


Elk 


14,27,28,30,37,182,238 


Embroidered robes 


153 


Empress of Japan 


200,230 


"gnrnm 


8,105 
163 


Engine , donkey 


England 


94,215,289 


English Bay 


1,5, 24, 27, 31, 33.34.35A 



63,93,122,123,126,162,184, 
189,192,213,217 



320 



308 



English Bay Beach 

n " , Warships on 
Entertainment 
Epidemic (see Smallpox) 
Esquimalt 
Es-tahl-tohk 
Esther 
Ethics, Indian 



228 

93 

180,279,284,28? 

21 

172 

189 

163 

69 



Ethnological Survey of Canada 186,213,215,222,224 



Ettershank, Billy 
" Capt . 
Ewen 
Excerpts, Capt. Vancouver's 

Journal 
Experiences at Bella Bella 
Explorers), Spanish 

n 

E-yal-mough (Eyalmo) 
(Jericho) 



64 

64,285 

208 

191,192 
174 

100,217 
269 

28,31,33,42,43,51,122 



Fader Bros. Sawmill 
"Faithful Jim" 
False Creek 



" " Bridge 

" " Indian camp on 

" " Indian Reserve 

" " Land 

" " Village 
Fairview 
Families 
Family 

Farm, McBride 
Father, Khahtsablantf s (see 

Haytulk) 
Feast 
Featherfe) 

« Eagle 

n Eiderdown 
Feed 

Feet, Indian 
Fence 

Ferguson Point 
Ferns 

Ferry, Steven's 
Fertilizer 



254 

170,220,286 

1, 4, 7, 30, 31, 35A, 37, 56, 64 

71,72,118,123,149,162,182, 

228,254,265,286,290 

160,255 

219 

159,160,281 

213 

158 

226,270 

23,24,281 

39.54A 

160 

56,64,70,80,101,149 

40 

23A,35A,68,69,74,150,151, 

152,170,184,264,266,267 

150,151,153,170 

184 



,_,170 
184 
284 

246,247,267,283 
187 
126 
236 
160 
290 



,285 



321 



309 



File 257 

Findlay, W.F. 219 

Fire(s) 24,27,46,48,52,53,66,62,63, 

70,72,108,199,200,261,262, 
266,269,272,281,287 

" making 83,86,87 

" "tick 87,258,272 

" » Vancouver 1,115,118,214,253,256,272 

First Avenue 1,6,244,245 

" Bandmaster, Indian 273 

" Brass Band, Indian 273 

" Butcher Shop 82 

" Camping ground 99 

" Cemetery, Wbiteman's 57 

" Church 14,156,167 

" " Indian 222 

" Customs Officer 40 

■ Houses at VYhoi Whoi 50,541,263,274 
" Laundry, Chinese 82 

" Marriage 208,275 
" " , First child of 257,277 

■ Minister (Derrick) 165,240 

■ Narrows (Sunz) 49, 51, 54A, 55, 68, 100, 123, 

126,156,191,200,230,258, 

259,275,280 

n " Bridge 55 

" n , Water pipes in 109,258 

" Postmaster 225,226 

» Priest 92 

" Settlement, Indian 1,90,165 

" Settler at Marpole 275 

" " " Snauq 3 

" Store 165,241 

" Train, C.P.R. 193 
" Trip to Burrard Inlet, 

(John Morton) 228,229 

" White child 249 

" Whiteman 5,10,11,47,50,54A,107,115 

Fish: Clams 8,10,33,175,258,280 

" Cod 176 

Crab 10 

" Flounders 2,4,10,52 

" Halibut 176 

" Herring 33,52,239,286 

" Ooli Chans 33,135,236 

« " Oil 136,176 

" Perch 2 

■ Salmon 2,3,8,10,14,33,48,91,162, 

176,177,236,237,286 

" Smelts 2,4,8,18,33,191,217 

" Steelhead 48 

B Sturgeon 10,237,257 

" » , fishing for 71,72,73,204 

» " , rod 204 

" Trout 10,48 



322 



310 



Fish Cora 11 

" net* 

" Rake* 
Fi Shermans Cove 
Fishing 

" Frame 

" Laws 

" Spear 

" Tackle 

" Time 
Flag(s) 

" , Description of 

" , Squamish 
Flames 

Flathead, last Indian 
Flattery, Cape 
Flint spear 
Float, Sunnyside 
Flood 
Floor, Dancing 

" Earthen 
Florldablanca 
Flounders 
Flour 

Folly of greed 
Food 



Fort(s) 

", proposed (Homulcheson ) 

" Simpson 
Fortuneteller 
Fowl, chickens 

", water 
Frank Charlie (Ayatak) 

Franks, Jim (Chilaminst) 
" " , Indian Nomen- 
clature 

Fraser, Angus 
" Rirer 



" Simon 

" " , Arrival of 

" " , Diary 
Freight Canoe 

French John (Suppllen Quinne) 
Frenchman 
Fruit, Apples 

" Berries 



4 

4 

22 

1B5 

55,90,162,176,177,183,237 

176,177 

177 

177 

185 

292 

92,106,116 

117 

92 

262 

58,155,185,201 

128,170 

279 

82 

90,166,183 

262 

266,269 

193 

2,4,10,52 

10,56,172,284 

172 

8,10,12,14,26,27,33,38,39, 

40,48,52,71,72,83,89,101, 

114,116,129,175,176,232, 

237 , 249 , 250 , 268 , 270 

169,187 

100 

167,173 

40 

101 

184 

50,51,183,186,205, 

223,255 

21,35A,155,171 

223 

286 

28,29,50,54A,89,157,160, 

178,182,187,195,196,213,214, 

223,238,259,293 

54A,214,223 

292 

294 

119 

79,208 

208 

116 

10.12,39,83,116,129,176,188, 

270 



,213,214, 



323 



311 



Fruit, Berries, black- 83,129 

" blue- 10,39,83 

" elder- 10,12 

" goose- 188 

" rasp- 116 

" Cherries 45,129,272,273,274 

" Crabapples 123,172,254 

" Orchard 6,45,94 

Funeral (see burial) 40 

For(s) 41,168 

" , buying 180 

Galiano 193 

Gambler Island 64A 

Game, Bear 10,26,87,268 

■ " , grizzly 18,91,119 
" Beaver 10,14,33 

" De« 10,11,14,26,33,37,38,190, 

261,268 

" Duck (see Ducks) 14, 18, 27, 33, 52, 143, 23*, 233, 

234,235,237,265,286,290 

" JELk 14,27,28,30,37,182,238 

■ Goose 115 

" Grouse 261,284 

" Moose 14 

" Mountain goat 40,41 

" Pigeons 52,115,117,142 

Games 80,81,82,195 

Garden(s) 26,27,176,290,291 

Gardening 238 

Garibaldi (Chy-kai) 17 

■ Mountain 62,84,85,248 
Garipee 64 

Garments (see Dress) 19,168,170,179,190 

Gassy Jack 64,208,209,220,273,274,285 

" " » "Ife 117,208,209,272,273,274 

Gastown 5,26,56,65,66,82,94,102,161, 

163,165,195,197,199,208,212, 

218,220,240,241,257,274 

Gasboat 179 ' 

Genealogy 52,78,79,91,102,108,144 
George, Chief (Chip-kaay-am) 2,3,29,118,144,149,158,159, 

171,260,261,264,265,266,267, 
270 

" , Mrs .Harriet (Haxten) 14,541. 

» , King, 7, 106 

Gernandez, Gregoris 220 

Gerrin, John 206 

" Ned 206 

Ghosts 271 

Gibson's landing 34.90.188 

Gifts 170,200,266,284,285 

Gillespie 277 



324 



312 



Goat(s) 


51 


" , Mountain 


40,41 
136,189 


" hair 


" skin 


29,74 


Gods 


293 


Goldpieoea 


284 


Gonaalvea, Joaeph 


220 


Goose 


115 


Gooseberries 


188 


Government, British 


172,177,178 


H 

■ 


172,254 


Grafton, W.A. 


1,4,25,29,258,261 
14,156,157,167,209,222,225, 


Granville 




274,288 


" Hotel 


288 


" Island (Sandbar) 


2,4,31 


" Road 


20,55 


" Street 


19,160,254,257,275 


Grave (a) 


19,91,92,110,133,200,201,229, 




230,231,263 


Graveyard(s) 


1,3,6,25,56,57,91,97,110,118, 
189,229,230,231,254,258 




Great Northern Cannery 




(Stuckdale) 


90,91,173 


Greed, folly of 


172 


Greer, Sob 


45 


Greer's Beach 


225,255 


Grey, Capt. 


191 


Grievances, land 


215 


Grinds ton* 


232,233,234 
18,91 


Griszly bear 


Grouse Mountain 


84,85 


" Jl« 


284 


Grove Crescent 


219 


Guinne, Ada (Young) 

" Supplies (French 


79,94,102,206,275,277 




John) 


79,208,275 


Gun, Bine o'clock 


60,64,285 


Gunboat (a) 


94,196,249 


Gun(a) 


36,87,188,214,216,268 



Haat-aa-lah-nough, Chief 226 

(see Ehaatsa-lah-nogh) 
Habitations (see Houses) 68,279 



325 



313 



Hair 

Hair out 

Halfbreed(e) 

Halibut 

Hall, lira. J.Z. 

" Bar. Joaeph 

■ ■ W. Laahley 
Hamilton, L.A. 

" Street 

Tin— nr 

" , atone 

Handbook of Indiana of Canada 

Hanging 

Harbour, Eagle 

" Vancouver 

Harrla, Mr. and lira. JTank 
Haatlnga mil Store 

" Sawmill ( Bamkumlye ) 



Haatlnga 

Hatchet a 

Hat(a) 

Haxten (Itra. Harriet George) 

Hay 

Hayea and Mclntoah 

Hay-much- tun 

Hay-not-em 

Hay-tulk (aee Khaytulk) 

" aona 

" tomb 
Headdreaa 
Health 
Healing 
Hearths 
Heating 
Heather Street 
Helldivera 
Helmcken 
Hemlock 
Hendry, John 
Henry, Jack 
Herald Street 
Hereford* 
Heroine 



26,38,55,68,74,84,141,170, 

203,212,273 

38,74 

52,55,64,102,285 

176 

56 

284 

156 

110,114,201,272 

110 

85 

28,30.61,88,148,185,257,259, 

260,281 

223,224 

121,178,232,233,234 

180 

12 

258,259,263 

45,82,101,118.150 

4,14,23A,25,31,32,51,52,65, 

66,82,100,126,144,157,180, 

214,232,248,253,254,255,284, 

286,287,288 

28,158,160 

233 

13,26,35,68 

14,15,51,52, 54, 54a,63, 68, 84, 

81.117,186,187,188,183,265 

101,118 

280 

42 

3,7 

4.7,8, 23A.51, 52, 55, 56, 80,84, 

71 

1,7,18,231. 

18,68,68,73,137,170 

73,142,174 

174 

281 

45 

270 

280 

172 

33,122 

288 

204 

164 

177 

202 



326 



314 



Heroism 


202 


Herring 


33,52,286 
239 


" , fishing for 


Hewer 


270 


Hill-Tout, Professor 


8.9,18,36,57,66,155,156,159, 




161,186,190,195,213,215,217, 




269 


" Indian nomencla- 




ture 


222,223,224,225,226 


• , letter froa 


219.241 
76,125,126,127,183,184,186 


History 


Hogan's Alley 


83 


Hollyburn 


126,127 


"Holy Joe" 


220 


Hoasr Street 


294 


HOSMS 


56,279 


Hosuleheson (Cspilsno) 


17, 31,49,50, 51, 541, 65, 68, 100, 
106,115;i22, 126,127,144,186, 






188,192,213,221,235,251 


" .burning of 
" Creek 


186 


144,213,218 


• ,lbrt at 


100 


Honest 


171,254 


Hopkins Landing 


96 


Hops 


83 


Horns, A.. P. 


264,266 


Horse races 


101 


Horse (s) 


4,27,51,84,101,132,275,290 

62,90 

209,274 


Horseshoe Bey (Cha-hai) 


Hotel 


Hotel, GranTills 


288 


Hotel TsneonTsr 


19 


Honse(s), first at Whol Whol 


50,541,273,274 
159,161,171,176,180,261,269, 


• community 




281 


* • , drawing 


282 


• dssd 


159,230,263 


" description of 


169,281 

21,23,161 

1,4,231,24,31,34,42,45,47, 

49,53,56,58,90,91,123,125, 
126,127,203,279 
3,42,44,94,125,126,156,156, 
171,181,184,199,200,256,259, 


" destroyed 


• (lumlnm) 




• potlstch 




284 


■ pow wo« 


24,26 


" Sqnaaisn 


47,188 
210 


• Whitemen's 


Howay , Judge 
Howe Sound 


102 

34,351., 47, 62, 63, 100, 141, 

162,190,201,213,279 


• • ram 


201,220,221,284,286 
5,351,254 


• Street 



327 



315 



Hudson** Bay Co. 56.195 

Hunt 1B2 

Banting 29,63,87 

Boating oanoa 33,48,52,143 

Baphapai (Cadar Core) 25 

Butehlnga, Qaorg* S. 226 

Byaa Jo* 104,106,106,205,220,221 

• , aeaning of 108 

Bynaohtun 49 



lea 61,292 

Imperial Street 122,125,126 

Implements, Indian 83,89,91,100,130,137,291 

Indian iffairs Office 4,217 

• Bablaa 141,142 
" Brayea 97 

• Camp 219 
" Camping grounds, first 99 

• Ceremonlea 104 
" Church (aaa "C") 

" Counoil, Squamiah 201,215,216 
» Customs (aaa "C") 

• Ithica 69 
" Housea (aaa "H") 

» Implemanta 83,89,91,100,130,137,291 

" Lsnguags(s) 5,22,34,59,162,164,217 
" " .Authority on 222 

• law 121,177,197 

• Mask* (aaa "H") 

• Hoaenelatura 159,189,222,223,226,229 
" Paint 37,62,264,266 

" Paintings 68 

• Religion 62,89 

• Beaarrea (aaa "B") 

" BiT*r (aaa Squamish 

BiTar) 22.34.193,202 

• Settlement 1,90,165 

• Sattlar, first st 

Snauq) 3 
» Traila (aaa "T") 

• Wlvaa, whitemen'a 64,94,199,201,209,210,251 
" Work 29,53 

Indiana (aaa Tribea) 

■ , Alart Bay 59.64 

• , Bells Balla 171,179,180 

• , Canoe 246 



328 



316 



Indians , 

■ 
■ 
a 
■ 



a 

» 

a 
a 
a 
a 
a 



a 
a 



Chileotan 

Chilliwack 

Coast 

Zrlends to ahlteaan 

Langley 

last to laara 

Llllooat 

Muaqusam (see M) 

Nootka 

Northern 

Point Roberta 

poor 

Powell River 

Prairie 

Seohelt 

Seymour Creek 

Squamiah (see S) 

Stanley Park 

Skqomio 

Weat Coaat 
» Tale 
" Tucklatew 
Innea, John 
Inlet, Rivera 
Inatrunent, Musical 
Insult 
Invention 
Irene 

Iaaaca, Diek (Qne-yah-ohulk) 
" " , nomenclature 
" Joe 
I aland, Bowen 
« Deadmsn's 

• " , name 
" Defence 

" Gambier 
" Granville 
" Knpper 
" McMillan 
" Paaley 

• Reid 

" Rowlings 
" Texada 

• Vancouver 



64 

293 

167,246,247,269 

171 

292 

6,281 

64 

169 

190,260 

293 

274 

59 

69,170,246 

5, 34, 351., 90 

266 

157,160,162 

213 

167,246,247,289 

196 

34,68,175,180,189 

24,261.262,269 

167,179,180 

292 

67,179,293 

290 

8,105 

14,165,186,240,268 

222 

8,92,220 

33,63,210,211,261 

21, 35A, 52, 57,110, 191, 232 

229,230 

190 

641 

2,4,31,176 

206 

292 

210 

199,207 

238,239 

93 

212,289 



Jack, Mr a. Christine 52 

Japan, impress of 200,230 

Japaneae Monument 23 

Jealousy, Tolly of 178,235 

Jemmett, W.S., Surveyor 213,217 

Jenkins 55 



329 



SIT 



Jenneaa, Diamond 47 

Jerioho (Kyalao) 4,18,28,31,32,42,43,45,82, 

95,122,125,160,226,255,257, 
284,286 
■ Beach 95 

Jericho Charlie (Chan-aal- 

Mt) 4,5,8,18,51,37,45,61,71,73, 
82,89,91,94,113,118,110,128, 
149 , 220 , 221 , 255 , 284 , 286 
Jerry* a Cot* 94,126 

Jerry Sogers 4,32,45,94,107,118,255 

• • caap 270 

Jin Tranka (Chilaminat)21,351,155,171,250,253,254 



* " , nomenclature 


223 


J la Qrouae 


284,286 


JJjany Jinny 


68,91,96,286 
255 


• » , Chief 


Joe, Capilano (aee 0) 




Joe, Old 


292 


Joaeph SilTey 


220 


Joaephina (SilTey) 


198,203,210,211 


Jowyak 


210 


Judge Beghle 


178,253 


• Brew 


229 


Julian 


57 



Xanloopa 83 

Kanaehuek 255 

Kahkailtun 216 

lahukhultua 108 

Kanaka Ranch 285 

"Boa ISO 

Kataey 293 

Keeahplahnoo 106 
Kee-khaal-eoa (fegle Harbor) 187,188,190 

Kea-olet 8,55,100, 114 

Kelp 57 

Kant, Harry I. 89 

Kenrya, Bonald 265 

Karriadal* 94 

Khaal-tin-aht 106,197,203,204,205,210 

79,102,106,114,275 



330 



SIS 



Khahtsahlano, August Jack 1,2,71,138,140,141,147,215, 

216,245,249,253,254,255,259. 
263,280 

Age 4,125,140 

Aunt 51,55,92,99,102,106,112,117 

Birth 114,128,133 

Brother(a) 52,53,56,70,92,114,143,149 

Change of naas 80, 86, 88, 88A, 133, 226 

Children 2,4,8,105 

ConTersatlons 3 to 145 

Drawings 61,68,69,70,236 

lasily seeks 148 

lather (aee 

Haytulk) 55, 56, 64,70, 71,80, 101,111, 149 

Genealogy 52,78,91,102 

Borne 95,101 

Indian nomen- 
clature 222,226,227 

Marriage 94 

Mother (Qwywhat) 51,52,63,64,66,70,74,112,117, 
118,253 

Painting 23A.69 

Slaters 8,94,101,114,118 

The name 144 

Uncle 53, 55,102 

Khahtsahlanogh, Chief (aee 

Legend) 1,2,3, 7,8, 14, 23JL,26,32,44,47, 

52,70,74,75,80.86,92,100,149, 
182,249,275,276 

* lather 49 

" Genealogy 79,114 
Kharl-uk 100,114 

Ihar-nuk, Charlie 205 

Khayknlhun (Port Mellon) 97 

Xhaytolk (Supplejack) 1,20,23,26,27,44,47,86,88,92, 

102,110,111,113,114,149,150, 
182,199,275 
» Wife Of 1,149 

* Grave or Mauaoleua 1,88,110,112,125,148,149,182 
Kiapalano, Spelling of 213 

Elapilano, Old Chief (aee 

Capllano) 50,94,95,106,115,144,196,197, 

198,203,208,210,212,221,233, 
235 

* daughter (Luatin- 
aht) 200,207 

grandchildren 204,210 

son 204 

The name 205 

Wires 95,198,205 

.Young 106 

" , genealogy 106, 144, BOS 



331 



319 



Klapllanoq. 213 

Kincade 201 

Kindliness of Indians 171,178 

King Edward Til 53,104,108,205,215,220 

" George T 106 

Klt-a-asat 163 

Kltsilano 1,4,5,8,23A,39,80,88,107 

• Beach 45,70,75,137,138,160,218, 

226,286 

" District of 182 

" Indian Reserre 3,14,44,55,56,64,73 

" , pronunciation 159 

» The nans 86,88,146,148,159,225,226,227 

" 3treet car 226 

" Trestle 5,56 

Klatawa 271 

Klayala (0.0. McGesr) 59 

Kleoplannah, Chief 213 

Kleosaht 206 

ELls-kwis 142 

Klootoh 243 

nootchmsn 235 

Knife, stone 30,39,72 

Koalchs 224 

Koklte 173 

Kokohsluk 186,187,186 

Kokohpal 172 

K*pol 63 
Kun-kum-lye (Eastings Sawmill) 25, 31, 190 

Xttpper Island 206 

KWagultl Confederacy 289 

KWanston 19 

Kwe-ah-kultu 107 

Kweeatailt, San 204 

Kya* 290 



Labor-aarer 290 

Lacrosse stone 245 

Lacrosse 80 £ 81,195 

• ball 

at. 

iti 
Lah-ws 



10$ 
Lsdy Dafferin 220,284,287,288 

Ladyamith 271 



2,5,50,51,541,104,108,109, 

115,165,203,214,215,220,223, 

240,251,256 



332 



320 



Lah-wa, Chief, drowning of 55,109,144,161,165,214,256 

Mother of 95 

Lake 7,23.1,40 

- Beaver 7,185,189,246 

Land grievance* 215 

" queation 177,178,194 

sale of 226 



Landing, Gibson's 


34,90,188 


" Rowlings 


160 


Lane, Ilaiden 


220 


Landmarks, Indian 


279 


Langara Point 


100 


Langley 


£92 


" Indiana 


292 


Language (a) 


5,22,34,59,162,217 


, Ankameenum Indian 


164 


" , Authority on Indian 


222 


" , Chinook 


100,230 


" , Squamiah 


22,59 


Lantern, magic 


180 


Last to leave, Indians 


26,281 


Laundry, Chinese 


82 


Lodge, same as 


153 


Lew 


121 


"British, Indian respect foi 


■ 178 


" Tishing 


177 


" Indian marriage 


197 


Lawyers 


41 


Layhulette (Vary) 


54A.216.227 


Leather 


283 


Leeson, B.W. 
Legend! a) 


119 


3, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 40, 41, 54A, 
59,66,68,74,90,114,147,162, 
166,171,172,180,183,198,217, 








248,253 


" of Masks 


148 to 153 


" , Qpitchelahl 


186 


Letter, Ball to Matthews 


108 


■ Brew to Colonial Sec- 




retary 


99,100 


Launders to Colonial 




Secretary 


99 


" Matthews to Ball 


220 


" Sentell to Matthews 


219 


" Tate 


294 


Lignite, black 


291 


Lillooet 


44,74,75 


" Indians 


64 


Lining, fluffy cedar cradle 


190 


Linton's, Andy 


248 


Liquor 


36,40,161,180,214,265,267,284 


Liquorice root 


235 



333 



321 



Little Mountain 87 

" Tonmy 220 

Liverpool 292 

Locarno Beach 172 

Lock, Dare 94 

Locklt, Joe ,52,220 

Lodged) 153,279 

• , ateam 219 

Loggers 288 

Logging 18,107,255,277 

" can? 45,82,284 

" road 257 

Log* 12,18,82 

" , acale aheeta 15,18 

Lomtlnaht (Luntlnant) 200,203,204,210 

Longataorenan 52,102 

Lonadale Arenue 189 

Lord Stanley 1,26,79,149,263,275,276 

Loat Lagoon 101 

Louisa 2,8,94,101,105,203,204,243 

Ineklucky 190 

Lucy 8,55,208 
Lunbeman'e Arch (Who! Whol) 



7,19,23,25,49,57,65,99,160, 
161, 184, 199, 241, 268 



tamSxm (aee Houae) 

LnHtlnaht (Lomtlnaht) 200,203,204,210 



Maclnnea, Tom 


100 


HaeKenzle 


269 


Hackle, William 


270,271 


Ma china 


288 


Machine*, saving 


284 


Maddama, Charlie 


290 


• Bench 


290,291 


Madeleine (Qaahalla) 


117,208,209,272,273,274 


Magee Boad 


8 


Maggie 


94 


Magic lantern 


180 


Mahly 


ISA., 213, 255 


Maiden Lena 


220 


Mall eontraetor 


292 


Maisie 


124,139 


Mallard dueks 


290 


Mamquam 
Mammlom, Joe 


91 
64,82,201,220,285,288 



334 



322 



Man-o-war 196 

Manure 290 

Map(a) 91,92,125,160,213,217,218,292 

", Eliza's 90 

Maple Beach 83 

" tree* 190 

" wood 150 

Marega, Charles, Sculptor 185,202,223 
Maria 201 

Marine Drire 172 

Marpole, First settler at 275 
Marrlage(s) 9,54,74,75,94,95,197 

" , first 208,275 

" , " child of first 275,277 
" of Joseph SilTey 197 

• law, Indian 19T 
Marrianne (Swanamia ) 8 

Mary inn 4,881,203.204,210 

Mary (Layhulette) 541,216,227 

Mask(s) 19,53,68,69,70,97,137,138,262 

" , Ehahtsahlano Family 148 to 153 
Mat(a) 38,39,58,142,161 

" , camping 86 

" , cedar bark 142 

Mathias, Joe (Capilano) (see C) 
Mattheson, D.l. 272 

Matthews, Major J.S., 

• .Abolition* Potlaches 284,285 

" .Comments by 9, 11, 15,16, 18, 20,231,28,35*., 

49,54,55,56,58,59,60.81,64, 
68,76,90,96,102,104,107,108, 
110, 111, U4, 117,119, 121, 124, 
127,128,130,135,136,139,145, 
146,147,163,165,167,170,171, 
172,174,176,181,182,183,186, 
189,190,194,195,196,198,201, 
204,205,209,218,219,226,227, 
228,233,236,241,242,243,244, 
245,252,253,254,256,259,260, 
263,267,276,279,281,287,291, 
294 



Matting 



First marriage 


275 


Indian nomenclature 


222 


Letter to Ball 


220,221 


Map 


292 


Bededlcation of 




Stanley Park 


275 


Tides 


280 


Visits Qaahailyah 


272,273,874 




86 



335 



Mausoleum 

Mayers, Capt. George 

Mayor, David Oppenheimer 

" McGeer 
Mc Bride, Sir Richard 

• Pars. 
McCleery, Fitzgerald 
McCord, Ben 
McCraney, H.P. 
McDonald, Duncan 
McGeer, Mayor (aee Klayala) 
McOuigan, W.J. 
Mclntoah, Ha yea fc 
McMillan Island 
Meela 

Meat (aee game) 
Medicine 

" ditch 

" for oold 



323 



1,88, 110, 112, 125, 148, 149, 276 

275 

275,276 

59 

177 

160 

115 

285 

236 

239 

59 

276 

290 

292 

38 

10 

11,13,63,133,135;236 

219 

134,219 

Aft 



Menatalot 


114,140 


Menatia 


140 


• .Chief 


147 


Men-o-war 


93,196 


Methodist Church (aee Church) 


65 


" Parsonage 


82 


Michael, Billy 


100 


■ , Chief 


118,128 


Midden 


49,241,258 


Milk 


51,101,142,150 


» cans 


101 


" Ranch, Seymour Creek 


264 


Mill, Barnet 


22 


" Capt. Stamp's 


99,250 


" Bat Portage Co. 


55 


Mi lis, Moody's 


275,277 


" Royal City Planing 


2M, 


Miller, Jonathan 


36,40,225,249 
265,267 


Millie 


Mines 


196 


Minister, First 


165,240 

55,86,96 

100 


Miranda, Louis 
" Lucy 


Mission City 


102 


" , Borth Vancourer 




('Slawn) 


51,57,64,144,162,240,248 


■ St. Mary's 


102 


Missionaries 


163, 167, 179,282, 294 


Mitchell, A.H. 


279 


Moeesains 


29,70,246,261 


Molasses 


11,13,135,136, ITT 



336 



324 



Molly, heroine 


202 


Montreal, Bank of 


288 


Moody's Mill* 


275,277 


Moody, Napoleon 


201 


" Port 


28,34,50,79,183,274 


• Sue 


19,20,21 


" Tim (Yahmas) 


58,64,145,155,186,201 


" " Indian nomencla- 




ture 


223 


Moodyrllle 


79,102,160,249,250,271,275 
19, 20, 544,64,161, 243, 252 
167,168,169 


" Sawmill 


Moonmen at Nootka 


Morley, Alan 


111 


Morton, John 


48,221,231,233 
228,229 


" » First trip 


" Ruth 


232 


Morton's clearing 


232 


Moss 


39,239 


Mother 


51,52,64,70,74,101,149 
166,172 


"Mother of all Indians" 


Mount Baker 


84,85,166,172 


" Pleasant 


213 


Mountain View 


57 


Mountains, Garibaldi 


62,84,85,248 


" Grouse 


84,85 


» Little 


87 


" Sakus 


84,85 
268 


Mowich 


Mowltch Jim 


201,207,220,286 


Mud 


290 


», blue 


136 


Mudge, Cape 


180 


Mules 


107,251 


Munn, Mr. 


163 


Murders 


180 


Murray, John 


235 


Museum 


47,241,261,291 


Music 


293 


Musical instrument 


292 


Muskeg 


160 


Muskrats 


160 


Musquesm 


8, 34, 35A, 50, 51, 541,55,56, 94, 

95,107,167,196,203,281 

2,19,31,44,157,196,214,293 

1,160,292 

205,213 


» Indians 


■ Indian Reserve 


" Indians, Protest of 


Mustache 


55,84 



337 



325 



Nails 52,58,262 

Name* 162 

■ Chief* 159,160 

Hanaimo 42,56,95,100,157,163,164,167, 

175,176,188,260 
" Baation 100 

Harrows, First (Suns) 49,51,54A f 55.68,100,123,126, 

156,191,200,230,258,259,280,286 



" " Bridge 


55 


" " Water pi pea in 


109,258 
49,156 


" Second 


Narwaez (aee History) 


90,122,125 


Narry Jack 


52,64,115,204,210,220,285 


Meah Bay 


128 


Neil, Herbert 


265 


Nets, flan 


4 


Newman 


64 


" Billy 


102 


New Westminster 


27,28,79,116,157,158,160,196, 




228 , 229 , 231 , 233 , 234 , 238 , 274 , 




288,292 


Nicknames 


220 


Nicomen 


216 


Nine o* clock gun 


60,64,285 


Nlta 


273 


"Nobby", a game 


82 


Nomenclature, Indian 


159,189,222,223,226,229 


" Hill Tout on 


222 , 223 , 224 , 225 , 226 


" Isaacs on 


222 


" Khahteahlano on 


222,226,227 


" Matthews on 


222 


• Paull on 


222,227,229 


" Tate on 


222,226,229 


Nooksahk 


157,162,167 


• Hirer 


162 


Nootks 


167,269 


" Indians 


169 


North American Boundary Corn- 




mi salon 


238 


North Arm 


64,89,187,192,193,196,202, 




203,238,259,293 


" » Road 


160 


Northern Indians 


190,260 


North VanoouTer (Us t lawn) 


31,47,65,239,240 


" " Mission 


51,57,64,144,162,240,248 
292 


Nosey Joe 


Nye, Alfred J. 


835 



338 



326 



Ocean Falls 167,173 

Oetopl 280 

Octopus 114 

Ogden Street 64,71,73 

0i * 33,63,138,136,176 

• herring 239 

" whale 210 
"Old Chief" Capilano (aee C) 

"Old Cronle" 47,49.544. 

"Old Joe" 292 

"Old William" 249 

Onions 270 

OOlichana 33,135,236 

" , oil 136,176 

Oppenhelmer, Mayor DaTid 19, 23A, 79, 275, 276 

Orchard 6,45,94 

Ottawa 241 

Otter, sea 63 

" garments 168 

Oxen 4,107,257 

Oyster Bay 271 



Paapeeak (Brockton Point 25,64,184,273 

Pacific Great Eastern Rly. 116 

" " * train 44 

Paddle 265 

Paintlng(a) 23A,45,58,68,69,70,105,110, 

132 201 

Palnt(s) 37,62,264,266 

" black 62 

" blue 62 

" red 62,264,266 

" white 62 

" yellow 62 

Papoose 232 

Parker, Rev. P.O. 229,231,233 

Parsonage 82.157,235 

Pasley Island 210 

Paator 294 

Pastoral travels 157,158,160,173 

Paull, Andrew Uoltchetahl) 4,8,14,15,19,34,67,144,170, 

182,193,194,213,214,215,216, 
217,230,248 

" " .genealogy of 186 

" * , Indian graves 230 

" " .Nomenclature 222,227,229 

" " , Narrative 183 to 190 

» " .Wife of 52 



339 



327 



Peytsamauq 

Peace, Indian desire for 

Pemberton 

Perob 

Perkins 

Pestle, atone 

Pblbbs, J.C.P. 

Phonetics 

Photo graph(a) 



•Pie Pace" 
Pier, Ballantyne 
Pigeons 

Plfe» 

Pintail ducka 
Pioneers* Association 
Pipe line road 

Pipes, bag 

" waterworks 
Pitch sticks 
Pittendrlgh 
Plant, Addle (nee Young) 

" Catherine 

■ Delia 
" Frank 
" Jesse 

• Lena 

" LiMie 

■ Mary 
" Peter 

Plates, tin 

* wooden 
Platform 

"Plusrper". H.M.C.3. 
Point Atkinson 

■ , Brockton (aea B) 
" , Ferguson 

" Grey 



" , Langara 

• Roberta 

a a 

" , Boob 

• , Watta 

• , Proapeot 



Indians 



Folic 

a 



eaan, first 



54A,144,188,216 

68 

44 

2 

64 

29 

264 

224 

1,19,29,47,48,53.69,79.82, 

105,108,119,148,150,170,197, 

199,275 

286 

284 

52, 115, 117, 142 

51,84,101,132,163,291 

290 

279 

7,51,79,101,110,128,132,149, 

246,258,259,263 

293 

109,258 

258,272 

182 

79,94,102,208,275,277 

277 

102 

79,102,275,276,277 

102 

102,277 

102 

102,103 

64,79,102,114,208,275 

168 

38,39 

200,269 

50,54A,198,213 

126,127,187,190,192,230,258 

126 

21, 22, 28,34, 35A.82, 83, 126,162, 

191,193,253,257 

100 

3,14,74,162,196,197,279 

293 
189 

100 

1,3, 23A,26,31,49, 75,84, 91,126, 

127,155,184,192,258 

40,94 

lie 



340 



328 



Polly 112,117 

Pookaloaum 133 

Pookcha (Spanish Banks) 278 
Poor, Indians 274 

Po qui a in Indian Reserve 8 

Population, Indian 10,11,12,23,31,141,159,184 

Port Moody 28,34,50,79,193,274 

Portugese Joe (Joe Silvey) 21.62,64,95,165,208,235,241, 

28o 

• " , three 220 
Postmaster, first 225,226 
Post Office 226 
Posts 262 

Potatoes 26,89,249,250,270 

Potlstch 23,31,32,36,39,40,42,53,56,71, 

118,140,170,197,203,205,206, 
230,240,246,264,265,267 
« gifts 170,200,266,284,285 

* " .sewing machine 284 

» house 1,3,42,44,94,125,126,156,158, 

171,181,184,199,200,258,259, 
266,284 

" , last Indian 287 

" , Bancherie 284 

" , Seymour Creek 266 
Poultice 142,173 

Pow wow 56 

» house 24,26 

Powell RiTer 5 

« " Indians 59 

» Street 19 

Prairie Indians 69,170,246 

Praying 180 

Preacher 157,158 

preaent 170,187,200,266,284 

Priest 62,64,65,66,83,116,148,149,214, 

243,251,254 

" , first 92 

Princess 198,200,203 

Privy Council 41,178 

Prof. Boas 174 

Pronunciation 9,34,35,44,50,67,80,86,140, 

146 , 155 , 159 , 18* , 213 , 219 , 225 , 
226 
Prophesies 116,183,198,293 

Proposed fort 100 

Prospecting 105 

Prospect Point (Chaythoos) 1, 3, 23A, 26, 31,49, 75,84, 91, 126, 

127,155,184,192,258 



341 



329 



Protestant school 243 

"Protestant hell" 243 

Puckhale (or Puchahls) 25,165,241 

Pudding 72 

Punlahment(s) 121,172 



Qpitchetahl (Andrew Paull) 14,15,183,186 

Quain-nia 69 

Qnal-kin 32 

Quataalem 49 

Queen Charlotte Island 30 

Queen's Day 101 

Question, land 177,178,194 

Que-yah-chulk (Dick Isaacs) 14 

Qullchena 226 

Quileetrok 210 

Quinah-ten 94 

Qwahalia (Madeline) 209,272,273,274 

Q»haywat (or Qwywhat) 1, 4, 7, 18, 45, 51, 74, 117, 118, 

125,149 



Raccoon Island 


202 


Race, horses 


101 


Rakes, fish 


52 


Railway, Canadian Pacific 


225 ,2»«, 235, 272, 292 


" Pacific Great 




Ba stern 


116 


Raley, Dr. G.H. 


59,82,136,281 


Rancheris 


144,235,284,287 


Ranch, Kanaka 


285 


" Uaddama 


290,291 


" Milk, Seymour Creek 


264 


Handle, Thomas 


66 


Raspberries 


116 


Rat Portage Lor. Co. mill 


55.244 
248 


RaTen 


Raymer, James 


66 


Rededication of Stanley Park 


275 


Red paint 


62,264,266 



342 



330 



Reid Island 199,207 

Relatives 261 

Relics, Indian 238,239,244,260,279 

Religion, » 62,89 

Reserve, Capilano Indian 217 

False Creek Indian 159,160,281 

Kitsilano Indian 



" ",sale of 


4l;l94 


Muaqueam Indian 


1,160,292 


North Vancouver 




Indian 


14,55,117,186,204,240,272 


Point Grey Indian 


196 


Poquiosin Indian 


8 


Seymour Creek Indian 


I 29,264,266 


Skwamish Indian 


213,217 


" Songhees Indian 


118,128,172 


" Stamish Indian 


47 


Tek-waup-suBi Indian 


7 


Revenge 


34 


Rhodes, Mr. 


216 


Richards, Captain 


50,54A,213 


Ridley. Harold E. 
Rifle (see Guns) 


20,283 


160 


Right-of-way, C.P.R. 


226 


River 


54A 


" , Campbell 


180 


" , Capilano 


55 


■ , Fraser 


28, 29, 50, 54A, 89, 157, 160, 




178 , 182 , 187 , 195 , 196 , 213 , 214 , 




223,238,259,293 


" , Nooksahk 


162 


Rivers Inlet 


167,179,180 


" , Mr. 


64 


Road 


7,23A,26,27,29.51,79,101,110, 
132 , 241 , 242 , 246 , 258 , 259 , 263 




■ Alma 


226 


" Granville 


20,55 


" Logging 


257 


" Maggee 


8 


" Pipe Line 


7,51,79,101,110,128,132,149, 




246,258,259,263 


" North Arm 


160 


Roaf, Mr. 


264 


Roast 


•8,73 


Roberta Creek 


35A.90 


Robertson, A.M. 


21 


" & Racket 


254 


Roberts, Point 


3,14,74,162,196,197,279 


Robes, embroidered 


153 


Robson, Dr. 


294 


Roch Point 


189 



343 



331 



Book, Seal 

" Siwash (aee Siwash) 

" Slalacua 
Rock (a) 

" slat* 
Bod, Sturgaon 
Roger a, Jerry 
Boll, School 
Roman Catholica 

Bounce of Vancourer 
Roof 

* openings 
Bookerlea, The 
Roota 

■ , dried fern 
" , liquorice 

Rope, cedar bark 

Rouge 

Roundhouae, C.P.R. 

Rowla 

Rowling 

■ , Harry S. 

* , Henry S. 
Rowlings laland 

* Landing 
" Station 

Royal City Pitting mils 

* Engineers 

* Humane Society, medal 
Rugby 



S56 

73,75,109,115,136,127,166, 

185,189,263,271 

271 

17,35.1,38,49,62,63 

39 

204 

4, 32,45, 94, 107, 118, 255 

102 

116 , 148 , 149 , 214 , 241 , 243 , 248 , 

251 

113 

161,169,170,269,287 

261,262,264,269 

220 

29,89,134,259,260,262,270 

10,12,172 

235 

52,53,61,71,72,119,120,161 

37 

235,272 

210 

182 

238 

236 

238,239 

160 

238 

288 

23X, 112, 149, 160, 238 

202 

195 



Seffln, Kre. T. 

Sahix . 

Sahp-luck (see Capilano) 

Sail(e) 

Sailing ahips 

Sails, deer akin 

Saltupsua 

Sally 

Saloon 

Saloon 

Salpean 



245 

189 

104,106 

Qi .03 .,167, 293 



104,106 

91,93,167,293 

108,163,167,168 

251 

67 

4 , 14 , 99 , 165 . 241 , 249 ,270 , 2( 

2 3,i4,33,9Ll62,e7T,236,i 

82.197,198,209 

255 



,270,284 
286 



344 



332 



Sandbar (Branville Island) 

Sandflata 

Sandstone 

San Ftanciaco 

Sardla 

Saaamat 

Sausage 

Sawmill, Dominion 

■ Jader Bros. 

" Hastings 



" • , storekeeper 
" Captain Stamp's 
" Moodyville 
" Hat Portage Co. 
Sawn boards 
Scales, Logging 

» Mr. 
School (see Iducation) 
" , Alexander 
" , boys and girls 
" , Haatings Sawmill 
" , Protestant 
■ roll 
Schooling 
Schooner (s ) 
3c junk 

Scoalak, Chief 
Scott, Charles 
Scow 

", Johnny 
Sculptor (Harega) 
Sea forth Drill Ball 
Sea forth Highlanders 
Sealing 
Seal Rocks 
Seals 
Sechelt (Stawk-ki-yah) 

« Indians 
Second Beach (Staitwouk) 

» Narrows 
Secret order 
Seoret Societies 
See-ahm (a chant) 
Seeyikclaymulk 
Semelsno , Chief 
Semiahao Bay 
Sentell, S.B., 
Serpent, legend, 

• slayer 
Servants 



,Oi,oa,oi,a<t,Da, 

26,144,214,249, 

,284,286,287,288 

«T 

19, 20, 541., 64, 161 

55 

287 

15,18 

26 

163,164,252,290 

290 

173,174 

102 

243 

102 

183 

91,100,180,210 

90,153,201 

128 

105 

290 

163 

185,202,223 

41 

210 

258 

63 

42.56,260,261 

5,34,35A.,90 

27,31,101,136,184,265 

49 

173,174,175 

97 

287 

50, 841 

216 

162 

219 

15,16 

186 

261 



345 



333 



Settler, first at Snauq 3 

Settlement, first Indian 1 

Sewing machines 284 

Seymour Creek (Chay-chil-wk) 29,31,65,118,144,157,161,162 

" " Indian Reserve 29,264,266 

" ■ Milk Ranch 264 

Shakes, cedar 91,94,161,262,264,266 

Shalal 176 

Shap-luk 104,106 

Shaughneasy Heights 226 

Shawl 8,105,267 

Sheep 51,132,163 

Sheepshanks, Bishop £32 

Shells (clam) 49,60,152,153,219,241,242,258 

" " , mounds of 175,260 

Shoea 246 

Ship (a) (see Schooners) 93 

" , First sailing 108,167,168 

" , H.M.C.S. Discovery 154 

" , Steam, Capilano 33 

" , War 93,94,125,126,180,196 

Shoot 74,91,92,93,101 

Shooting 290 

Shop, First butcher 82 

Shot, Cannon 93 

Siok 56,80,112 

Silvey, Joe (Portugese Joe) 94,195,196,197,208,209,210, 

211,220 

" , Mary -Ann 

(Khaal-tln-aht) 197,198 

Sim-aah-mulla 73 

Simmons, Joseph Silvey 195 

Simpson, Fort 167,173 

Slmson, Calvert 284,286,287,288 

Singing hymns 180 

Sister (s) of Khahtsahlano 4,8,94,132,165 

Site, camp 241 

Siwash Camp 219 

" , Epithet 250,254,285,289 

■ Indians 289 

" Legend 253 

» Rock (Slahkayulsh) 73,75,109,115,126,127,166, 

185,189,263,271 

" " , Wife of 75 

" , The word 124,146,155 

Skaslsh 263 

Skakultum 541 

Skate 61 

Skaywitsut (Point Atkinson) 187 

Skeletons 241 



346 



334 



Sko-mush-oath 
Skwa-lock-tun 
Skwawaish Indian Reserves 
Skwa-yoos, Chief 

" (ritsilano Beach) 
Slabs, cedar 

" , making 
Slahkayulsh (Siwash Rock) 
Slail-wit-tuth (Indian River) 
S la la cum Rock 
Slate chisel 
Slave (s), Indian 
'Slawn, (North Vancouver Mis- 
sion) 
Sleep 
Sliamson 
Sling 

Slippery, Dick (Supple Dick) 
Small Bands, Reason for 
Smallpox 
Smamchuze 
Smelts 
Smith, Joe, (buried alive) 

" , Harland, 

" , Mrs. D.R. 

" , Peter 
Smoke 

"Smoke got in my eyes* 
Smoking 
Snakes 
Snauq. (Burrard Bridge) 



Snow 

Snowstorm 

3nowa", "Two 

Soap 

Societies, secret 

Songhees Reserve 

• " , value of 

" " , amount re- 
ceived 
"Sore Neck Billy" 
Sores 

Spackman, Her, F.S. 
Spaniards 
Spanish 

" Banks 

" Explorers 

" " , Record 



354. 

187 

217 

137,253,255,357,268 

138 

24,26,44,45,58,61,126,129, 

148 , 159 , 169 , 190 , 279 , 281 , 287 

129 

172,185,189 

22,49 

271 

38,130 

66,67,68,179,203,261,269 

51 

44,84,264,266 

51 

17,248 

232 

162 

21, 23, 23A, 25, 241 

5,354,190,254 

2,4,8,18,33,191,217 

159 

211,285 

32,64,201,210 

261 , 264 , 269 , 281 , 284 , 287 

287 

293 

41,252 

1,3,5,7,10,23,31,40,44,45, 

49,51,55,65,71,75,86,88, 

118 , 140 , 149 , 167 , 171 , 176 , 181 , 

245,255,257,270,281,286 

37 

183 

293 

39 

97 

118,128,172 

172 

172 

220 

174 

289 

21,22 

90,91 

71,72,125,217,278 

100,217 

100 



347 



335 



Spars 
Spear (lag) 

" (•) 

• flint 

" iron 
Spectacle 
Speech 
Spelling 
Split cedar 

Splitting cedar, method of 
Spoon (a) 
Sprague, Jack 
Spratt's Ollery 
Springer, Ben 
Spruce 

Spuc-ka-naah 
Squaw ( a ) 
Squamiah 



Buildings 
Dree* 
Tlaga 
Houaea 
Indian Canoe 

" Council 
Indiana 



82,270,271 

27,30,33,46,52,63 

100,143,177,235,21 

279 

100 



"Squamiah Jacob" 

" Language 

" Maaka 

" Northern boundary 

" RiTer 

■ Territory 

" Tribe 

• (Whoi-nuek) 

Squatter(a) 
Squirrel 
Stable 
Stage 

Stait-wouk (Second Beach) 
Stanish 

" Beaerre 
Stamp, Captain 
Stamp 1 a Mill 
Stanley, Lord 

" Bon. Mr. 

" Park 



279 



34,56 

189 

30,42,90,159,281 

130 

39,56 

232 

239 

54a., 843 

89,122 

22 

231,232,233,270 

5, 7, 10, 12, 14,234, 25, 31,33, 

44,47,49,62,66,68,75,81,90, 

94,133,183,186,187,253,257 

287 

70 

92 

47,188 

170 

201,215,216 

5, 17,18,351., 44, 50, 53, 63, 71, 

108,113,162,173,187,213,215, 

241 

220,221 

22,59 

148 

47 

3,4,8,11,15,34 

34,47 

15,29,34,53,70,99,160,162, 

186,215 

90 

66,99,185 

150 

101 

266 

31,32,33,51,136,189 

81,91 

47 

99 

99 250 

1,26,79,149,263,275,276 

276 

1,4, 7,8, 14,19, 21,23, 23i.,85. 

26,39,40,51,53,55,64,79,101, 

109,132,161,184,185,201,229, 

231,240,241,246,258,263 



348 



336 



Stanley Park, cattle in 27,277 

" " dedication of 1,79,149,259,275,276 

" " driveway (see 

road) 23-49.229,258 
" " community bouse 159,161 

" " , houses at 21,23,231,42,58, 

• " Indians 157,160,162 

" " , proposed fort at, 100 

Indian village, 246 



Starr, Captain 


162 


" Jim 


162 


Station, Bowlings 


238 


Staw-ki~yah 


351., 47, 90, 201 


Stawmass 


186 


Stay-meulk 


140 


St. Catherines Street 


290 


Steam bath 


219 


Steamboat 


273,274 


Steamer "Beaver" 


155 


" "Capilano" 


33 


Steers 


101 


Stephenson, Dr. F.C. 


181 


Sternwheeler 


209 


Steven's Ferry 


160 


Stereston 


163 


Stick, fire 


87 


Sticks, pitch 


258,272 


Stikine, Joe 


261 


Stoak-tui (or Stuk-tuks) 


185 


Stockade 


187 


Stogan, Chief 


195 


Stone 


17,89 


" Arrowhead* 


91 


" Anchor 


71,72,73 


» Chisel 


29,61,89,148 

83,86,291 

232,233,234 


" , fire 


" , grind 


" Hammer 


29,30,61,89,148,291 


" Knife 


30,39,72 


" , lacrosse 


81 


" Tools 


235,236,291 


Store 


196 


" , firs* 


165,241 


Stories (see Legend) 


109,279 


Storekeeper 


288 


" , third 


284 


Strangers 


293 


Stream 


7 


Street car line 


226 



349 



337 



Streets, Abbott 



Balaam 

Bayawater 

Broadway 

Gamble 

Carrall 

Cedar 

Chestnut 

Cordora 

Cornwall 

Cypres* 

Denman 

Mr 

Georgia 

Granville 

Hamilton 

Heather 

Herald 

Homer 

Howe 

Imperial 

Main 

McDonald 

Ogden 

Powell 

St. Catherines 

Trafalgar 

Water 

Tew 

York 
Stuckale (Greet Northern 

Cannery) 
Stuk-tuka (or 3 t oak- tux) 
Sturgeon 

" , fishing for 

rod 
Sugar 

* Jake 
Somas 
Sum-kwa-ht 
Sun, Vancouver 
Sunnyaide Float 
Sunz (Fir at Narrows) 
Supper 
Supple Dick, Chief (or 

Slippery Dick) 
Supplejack (Khay-tulk or 

Hay-talk) (see 

Hay-tulk) 



,2*5, 



156,160,294 

226 

94 

226 

73 

226.290 

82,87,215,259 

5,82,228.235,272,286 

1,6,45,70,245 

44,45,71,73 

19,56 

156 

64,118 

228 

6 

19 

19,160,254,257, 

270 

164 

294 

5,35A,254 

122,125,126 

160 

107 

64,71,73 

19 

290 

226 

82,197,246,248,266,294 

45,253,255 

226 

90,91,173 

185 

10,237 

71,72,73,204,257 

204 

10,12,164,279 

220 

83 

107,204 

113 

82 

26,49,75,109,223,263 

56 

232 



1,4,5,7,8,20,23,63,84,86,99, 
100,101,102,111,114,199,220, 
249,258,275 



350 



338 



Supplejack, grave (see mausol- 
eum 1, 19, 23A, 26, 88, 132, 133, 258, 
259,263,276 
Supplien Guinne (French John)79,208 
" " Genealogy 275 



" " Mrs. 
Supreme Slam 
Survey 
Surveyor 
Susan 
Swamp 
Swanamia 
Sweeny 

Swet, Philander 
Swhy-whee (Swywee) 
SwiUamcan 
Sword 
Swymuth (New Westminster) 



208,275 

215 

132,190 

26 

210 

159,160,257,260,286 

1,4,8,28,83,88A,153 

288 

251 

69,239 

255 

293 

172 



Taat- turn-sum 
Table 
Talt, W. L. 

" Sawmill 
Tales 

" , "Jlairy" 
Talton Place 
Tate, Rev. C. M. 

" " , Autobiography of 

" " , books by 

" * , death of 

" " on Indian graves 

" " " Nomenclature 

" " , memorial tablet, 

" " , narrative 

» " , pastoral travels, 

Tay-Hay 

T.B. 

Tchwashins 

Tck-qualia (Tck-Kwalla) (see 
lacrosse) 

Telegraph 

Telford, Dr. 

TsTshes 

Tea 



22 

38 

55 

55 

109,279,280 

287 

226 

3,4,9,23,30,155,195,213,214, 

215 , 240 , 255 , 260 , 269 , 281 , 294 

163,164 

181 

181 

230 

222,226,229 

59 

156 to 180 

157,158,160,164 

23, 23A, 42, 49 ,118,199 

142 

293 

80,245 

196 

116 

85 

10,12,56,158,279 



351 



339 



Teacher, school 


252 




Teaching, Christian 


174 




Teal, ducks 


290 




Teeth 


73,173 




Tee-who- qwem- kee 


32 




Tender Jim 


113 




Ten widowa 


118,128 




Texada Island 


93 




Third Ayenue 


55 




Thit-see-mah-lah-mough, Chief 
Thluk-thluk-way-tun (Barnet 
Kill) 


160,195,226 








22,49 




Thoaaa, Chief 


160 




" , Joe 


203,204,210 




Thompson, 7. J* 


264,267 




Thunderbird 


137,289 




Tide 


52,284,286,290 
280 




" extreme low 




Timber 


32 




Timber t Trading Co., B.C. 






mils 


288 




Time, measurement of 


62 




Tim Moody (Tabmas) 


58,64,145,155,185,186, 


,201 


Tin-tw-mayuhk 


44 




Toboggan, Indian 


61 




Toe-who-quam-ki (Tow-hu- 






quam-kee), or 


56,74,286 




Tow-who-quam-kee 






Tom-quam-kee 






Tow-hy-quam-kee 






To-who- quam-ki 






Tooktakamai 


3,14,49 
1,149 




Took-tpaak-mik 




Tom, Alec 


20,21 




Toman, Tommy 


273,274 




Tom, Chief 


5 




Tomb 


1 7,19,23*, 





Tom-toms 231,264,267 

Tools 130 

" . stone 235,236,291 

Totem poles 24,49,57,103,246,261,289 

Tow-hu-quam-kee (see Toe- 

who-quamki) or 42,45,73,94 

Tow-hy-quam-kee 

To-who- quam-ki 

Tom-quam-kee 

Tow-who- quam-kee 
Tractor, stemm 107 

Tracy, Col. 263 



352 



340 



Trade 
Tradition 
Trafalgar street 
Trail(a) 



" , early 

" , Indian 

n , wagon 
Train, first C.P.R. 
Trapping 

Travels, pastoral 
Treasure 
Tree, burial 
Trees 

" , abandoned 

" , alder 

" , apple 

" , cherry 

" , crabapple 

" , cedar, falling 

" , fruit 

" , hemlock 

" , maple 
Tribe(s) (see Indiana) 

" Nootka 

" Skqomic 

™ Squamish 

" Yuclataws 
Trim, Harry 

», Mrs. 
Trites, Mrs. S.E. (nee Madd- 

ams) 
Trotter, Quinton James 
Trout 
Tsa-atalum (Point Grey) or 

(Tsa-taa-alum) 
Tsaa-tsmat 
Tsawnassen Beach 
Tse-nark, Charlie 
Tsimpseans 
Tumbth (point) 

Tum-ta-may(h)-tun (Belcarra) 
Turner, Corporal 

" ReT. James 
Turnips 
Tutamaht 



29,255 

84,183,184,292 

226 

23,25,44,101,160,175,185, 

218,228,260,287 

257 

25,26,28,110,235,246,247 

5 

193 

29 93 

157,156,160,173 

64,71 

159,190,229,230 

127 

185 

33,62 

116 

123,127 

129,185,235 

6,45,94 

33,122 

190 

158,163,174,289 

169 

213 

15,29,34,53,70,99,160,162, 

186,215 

34,68,175,180,189 

201,210,211 

211 

290,291 
248 
10 
22 

193 

279 

102 

176 

62 

22,49 

218 

157,239 

on 



27 

,144,207 



51,] 



353 



341 



Ulkaen 213 

Uncle 55 

Undergarments, cedar 190 

Union Steamship 33 

United State* 102 

Ustlawn (North Vancouver) 31,65,272 

Uthkyme 252 



Valdez 193 

Vancouver 41,115,193,248,265,267 

" . Capt. 5,21,22,23A,47,50,54A,68, 

107,144,183,184,188 
" i " Excerpts from 

Journal 191,192 

" , City Archives 275,276,279,291 

" , Harbour 12 

" , Hotel 19 

" , Island 212,289 

" , North, (Ustlawn) 31,47,65,239,240 

" , " , Mission 57,64,240,248 

" .Pioneers Assoc. 279 

" .South 238 

" Sun 113 

" , West, 93,129,189,218 

Vegetables (see food) 26,27,39,89,270 

Cabbage 270 

Carrots 26 

Onions 270 

Potatoes 26,89,249,250,270 

Turnips 27 

Venison 38 

Vietorie 21,30,32,42,101,118,151,157, 

163,167,177, 180, 195, 196, 288 

■ Indian Mission 163 
Village (see Chaythoos) 
" False Creek 
" Settlement 
" Snauq. 
" Yekwapsum 

Villages, Indian 279 

Voigt, A.J.Julius 213 

Virgin Mary", "The 220,287 



354 



342 



Walker, lira. James 



Graves 



,father 
, Genealogy 
,Indian 

Narrative 



Wagon 
Walls 
Warrior (s) 
Warships 

" , Better Than 

" on English Bay 
Wash 

Washington State 
Water 

» , fresh, creeks 

" pipes 
Waterfowl 
Water street 
Waterworks, Capilano 

" pipes 
Watson, Jim 

■ , Bohert 
Watts Point 
Wealth 
Weapons 
Wedding, first 
Wells, Mr. 

Wesleyan Methodist Church 
West Coast Indians 
West find 
Westminster 

" Avenue 
"Westminster to West End" 
West Vancouver 
Wha-halia 
Whale oil 
Whales 
Whaling 

Whalwahlayten (Watts Point) 
Whee-why-luk, Chief Johnny 
"Where is Hell" 
Whetstone 
Whiskers 
Whisky 
Whi tenon, before 

" , coming of 
" , first 



94,107 

206,209 

204,208,210 

230 

195 to 201, 203 to 212 

49,286 

262 

175,187,215 

93,94,125,126,196 

180 

93 

15,17,39,40,124 

157,166 

1,3,10 

192 

109,258 

184 

197,246,248,288,294 

19 

109,258 

45 

156 

100 

74 

100 

79,102 

171 

163 

167 

44,45,160,218,228 

21,28,32,65,92,101,158,163,274 

257 

228 

93,129,189,218 

208,209 

210 

32,210 

210 

100 

204,205 

207 

279 

84 




5,47,198,293 
5,10,11,47,50,54A,107,115,192, 

213,223,25V»3 



355 



343 



Whltemen, bouses of 

* , Indian wires of 
White paint 
Whoi-nuck (Squamish) 
Whol-Whol (Lumberman* s Arch) 



Wbonnock 

Why-wat 

Wicks, Thomas P. 

Widows, ten 

Wild animals 

Wilfred 

Wilkie, Otway 

Willahmcan 

William", "Old 

Williams, Alfona* 

" , Mrs. 

• * 

Willie Jack 

Willis, Lieut. 

lilson, Ben 

Winter 

Wise men 

Witeh doctor 

Wires, Whit eaten* s Indian 

Wolf 

WolTSS 

Women 



Madeline 



Wood, firs 

Woolen cups 
" dipper 
■ plates 
" spoons 

Wool 

Work, Indian 




52 

272,273,274 

2,8,56,70,71,92,118,143 

45,58,70 

165,288 

101 



108,288 

101 

51.76,84,167,183 

261 

64,94.199,201,209,210,251 

47.230,254 

261 

8,12,15,36,51,58,74,89,94,118, 

120,136,142,175,179,240,243, 

249,260,263 

84,87 

39, 

39 

38,39 

39,56 

170 

29,53,289 



Tahmas (Tim Moody) 
Tale, "Port") 

a 

" Indians 
Talmn (Jericho Core) or 
(lyalmu) 



58 

274 

157,167,171,178,195,196,209 

196 

122 



356 



344 



Yekwaupavua 4 

Yellow paint 62 

Yew street 45,253,255 

Ye« 48 

Yho-whahl-tun 116 

Ykhopaln Reserve 2 

Young, Ada (Addle) 79,94,102,208,275,277 

Yukite 81 

Yookwits 91 

Yucklataw Indiana (Yuclataw) 34,68,175,180,189 



"Zambeai" 288 



357 



358 



Umi QT IHDIiM PKR30SS 

COMFIUD 1ROM C0MYHBSATI0H3 

1951-1940 



Major J,8. Itrtthw. T. D. 
City ArehlTft. 

YaneouTar. B. C. 



359 



360 



IHDII 

NAMB3 Of IHDULH PSRS0N3 WHO LIVE) OH 

BOHRAHD IHUT AMD NORTH ABM. TRASBL BlVffi 

(Prior to 1900) 



Ayatak 6 

Aht-aolka 10 

Aht-aulk 10 

Ca-qual-lia 

CtltMlit 8 

Ca~whahl-tun t 

Charlton 10 

Cka-arhl-tnn 13 

CUulMt t 

Chilahminat 11 

Chllwlohtun . • t 

C MbImJi ••••••••••• «»*B 

Chip-k*ay-« 1,14 

Cho-fcah-mai 14 

Caiaa qnaht 9 

Chants 10,12 

Cbupaylna IS 

Dtatichhookahnan 4 

Staa , 5 

Qahlinultoowh 7 

Gaargaa S 

Barton 1 

Hay~aaeh-tua 15 

Jow-yak .8 

Ka-ak-aala It 

Kahn*kul-tun 7 

Kanaohmok 14 

Karaak 4 

Kayalah T 



Kay-ya-yoyt-kin 11 

Ksa-ah-plah-noo 4 

raa-olat 1 

Khaal-tln-aht 6,9 

Khan-nay 1 

Khahta-aahlano 1 

Khahtaahlanough 1 

Khar-Ink 1 

Xhay-kail-tun 7 

Xhay-tulk 1.2 

Khy-nook-ton 14 

Kl-ap-a-la-no 4,6 

ELa-o-aaht 15 

Ko-ko-hah-luk It 

Kftanatan 15 

Kwa-hoa-aah 10 

Kaa-ah-kulton 9 

Xfta-yab-ohnlk 11 

Bra-al-am IS 

Lay-klya 6 

Lahwa 5 

Lanwh-loat i 

Lay-hn-latta 1 

Lay-uoh-loat .7 

Lohta-kvanaaht IS 

Lok-y-lok 5 

Loav-tin-aht 8,9 

Manatlot 8 

Hon-atal-ot * 

Man-ah-tla 8 

■ah-hay-naa It 

Fap-qualk 144 

Payta-aa-a a nq, 4 

rai-kvay-lwa It 



361 



Qoit-che-tahl 11 

Qnal-kln 111. 

Quataaylea 1 

(>iil-«at-rok 6 

feilt-aay-aot 13 

Qpa-hay-Ha 11 

Qahy-wat 1,2 

Bowla 8 

Sahp-lok 7 

Saita-kul-tun 14 

Salp-oan 14 

Satahaia V 

Baa-aa-la 12 

Saa-klk-klay-cittlk ....9 
Saa-yow-khwa-lia ...... 

Samllano 15 

Sklab-lapt-ohan ..... .4 

Skwa-loek-tun 12 

Skwloh-ah* .8 

Sqoalth-kain ..5 

Stanialaa 2 

Stawnae-qjii-ya 4 

Suk-aay-kloat 2 

SttB-ksaht 9 

Swanaaia 2 

Svlllaaoaa 14 



Tab-hay 16 

Ta-outs 6 

Thelka 6 

Thltsee-uah-lanough ..15 

Total-aaut .13 

Tow-hu-quan*-kaa 14 

Tse-all-ia 6 

Taamalano 15 

Tokut 15 

Tul-ain-auat 16 

Tuaah 5 

Tu-tah-aabt 5 

Wal-wai-ken 15 

Whal-aptaa 4 

Whae-why-luk .........15 

Vbel-tuB-tun 12 

Vlll-ahav-oan 14 

Wla-chay-lia 13 

Yahaaa 5,5, 11 

Taaaehoot 14 

Tbo-whabl-tun 3 



362 



KHAHTSABXANO (Kltallano) 



INDIAN wy ^t 
Quat-aay-lwa 



ENGLISH 
None 



BTCT.ATIONSHIP 



lather of Qvhy-what, wife of 
August Jack. 

(Authority - AJK Oct.8,1939) 
Corrected June 12, 1942. 



Khaht-aah-lanough None 



Son of Chief "Old Han" 

Ehahtaahlanough . 

(Authority - AJK July 7,1932) 



Cbip-kaay-a 



Chief George Brother of Khahtaahlanough 

(Authority - AJK July 7,1932) 



Khay-tulk 



Supplejack Son of Khahtaahlanough 

(Authority - "Karly Vancourer", 
Vol.2, p.14,40,42) 



Kee-olat 



Peter 



Brother of Khay-tulk. 
(Authority - AJK Apr. 20, 1939) 



Khar-luk 



Brother of Khay-tulk 
(Authority - AJK Apr. 20, 1939) 



Khah-ny 



Slater of Khay-tulk 
(Authority - AJK June 2,1939) 



QHhy-wat 



Sally 



Wife of Khay-tulk 
(Authority AJK Aug.8,1932) 



Haxten 



Mra .Harriet 
George 



Slater of Qwhy-wat 
(Authority - Andy Paul, 
Jan.10,1933) 



Khaht-aah-la-no August Jaek 



Son of Khaytulk k. Qshy-wat 
(Authority - AJK Hot. 23,1936) 



363 



Li. 



tot huk rrrsiujjo and khahts-sab-lah-ho 



I have always claimed that the true meaning is "Man 
of the Lake", i.e., aa we use title* Prince of Wales, 
Cake of Connsught, larl of Derby, etc., etc. The fol- 
lowing more or less confirms it. from 

TBAYXL AW) ADYBITORE IN ALASKA." . 1868 . by Whymper, 
Copt in City Archives, bine binding, gold letters . 
Page 47; The Indian name for Cowiehan Lake Is 

isstsa". 

The Cowiehan Indians and the Indians at the mouth of 
the Trsser Hirer were closely allied. If then •lanough* 
or *lano* means •man*, then ESatzalanough, and Ihahtsah- 
lahnoough are so similar ss to be indiatingoishable when 
converted into letters of the Jtagliah language alphabet. 
Besides, no two Indians pronounce their own words exactly 
silk*. 

J. 3. M. 



364 



t«>ta» gym 
Khsytulk 



BBfflmBJB (r 1 *» U«ao) cont'd. 
XNGLXSH 



Willi* Jack 



BKLATI0H3HIP 



Son of Khaytulk at Oshy-wat 
(Authority - AJK Hot. 23,1936) 



Mariaa 



Wife of August Jack 

Khahtsahlano. 
(Authority - AJK July 7,1938) 



Chll-wioh-tum 



Wilfrad 



Son of A. J. Khahtaahlano k. 

Swanaaia. 
(Authority - J3M Umo July 1930) 



Suk-say-kloat 



Iran* 



Daughter of A. J. Khahtaahlano 

ft Swanaaia. 

(Authority - JStf Ifeao July 1939) 



Qwhy-wat 



Louisa 



Daughter of A. J. Khahtsahlano 

flt Swanaaia. 

(Authority - JSH Memo July 1939) 



Chin-al-set Jerieho Second husband of Qwhywat. 

Charlie (Authority - AJK Hot. 23,1934) 



Menatlot 

(Mea-atel-lot) 



Jirat wife of Shinaotaet (Chin-al-set) 

(Authority - AJK July 16,1940 & 
Baptismal certificate 1879) 



Men-eh-tia, aaaeuline 
of Men-atel-lot 



Cs-whahl-twn 



Celssslst 



Doalnie 



(Authority - AJK July 16,1940) 
Son of Chin-al-set and Qwhywat 
A wife of Chinaouaet (Chin-al-set) 



Stanislas 



A son of Chinaouaet and Celeselat 
(Authority- Baptiaasl cert. 1869) 



365 



tow w tf rt 

Gaorga* 
Tho-Wiahl-Tun 



tw^to^ht jjuq (Kits llano) cont'd, 

BJGLI3H 



RgT.^TTOWSHTP 



A son of Chinaouaet and 

Celeaalat 
(Authority - Baptiaaal cert. 



T 



1669 



A Squaniah chief on reaerra 85 
Miles up Squaniah Hirer . 
(Authority - UK 0ct.24,18*0) 



366 



3A 



COMVIBSATIOH with August Jack Ihahtsahlano, my old Squamish 

f£ !?. ?I r 8 *** 5 ^ J. 8 *^}?" 11 """"S greatest liYlng authority 
•a the history of his tribe—who does not read nor write— 

J&w*!! 1 *??*?? th « ^P 11 "© In*i«> Beserre, Horth Vancouver, 
with hie little wife, Mary inn, or Swanamia, a demure lady, 
now the only Indian woman in these parts who continues to old 
Ctt,to * of wearing a shawl. I respect and admire August more 
and more the longer I know him; a kindly man, and wise. This 
KSE'X.f* °* Ba "trolling into my office, the City ArehiTes. 
City Hall, to see mm; nothing especial on his mind. 




May 16th 1949. 

AUGUST JACK Major Matthews; "What does this 
mean? It says here on this bap- 
tismal certificate of yours, sign- 
ed by lather Jregonne in 1879, that 
yon are the son of Shinoatset, 
When you Were a small boy, dldn»t 



(Chinalset) end Menatalot. 

they call you Menatalot, because you were a baby, and had not 

been named. 



n»eht«jih-iiinr.| "I don't know posi- 
tively who Menatalot was; she must have been my godmother; if 
so she must hare been a Sechelt woman. When I was a very lit- 
tle boy I was oallsd Manatia; Man-at-ia. Menatalot mirfit have 
been a half sister. 

.bout tw.lwe, they e.ll you Sta^S?^ '*"*' *** »" ™ 

Ihahtsahlano; "That's right. 

Major Matthews ; (endeaTorlng to copy 
August's pronunciation) "Stay-Sulk; Stay-maugh; Stay-mauehlk; 
(impetuously) "Oh, I give up". ^^ 



is 



. A Khshtsahlanot "Tou»ll have to get 

your tongue set right. So that it will click like mine, 
(finally, and almost exhausted, the best Major Matthews oaa do 
"Stay-mmulk".) "So, after a time, my peoples say to me, 'Ton 
go* tired of that name; tired of Stay-maulk; we give you another 
name. So they had a potlatoh at Snauo., (False Creek Indian Be- 
serre) and call me Khahtaahlano* (see "SiBLT VANBOUVBt," Vol. 4; 
page 10 It 11, Matthews. "Hamlng of Khahtaahlano".) 



■• Oo> 



367 



it HOMPLcmanr 

EK2.ISH 



RJCATIOHSHIP 



Vhalaptaa 



■on* 



He had eeren mbs and alx dau- 
ghtara; his fifth child was 
Staw-aeyqni-ya, a If a of Peyt- 
eaaauq, half brother to Chief 
Ki-ap-a-lano , and grandmother 
of Andrew Paul, at Uatlawn, 1940. 



Ste m ■ — '-qnl-ya 



Fifth ehlld of Walaptaa, and 
grandmother of Andrew Paul, North 
Vancouver* 



Mclah-lapt-ehea 



Yarloualy apelt "Sehalehptun" 
and "Cheekulkaaan", father of 
old Chief Ki-ap-a-lano, and hla 
half brother Payteaaauq.. 



Ptatlohooi*ahn— 



■one 



Another father of Kee-ah-plah-noo, 
or Ki-ap-a-lano, and hla half 
brother Paytaaaauq. 
(Authority J. J. C.Bell, Indian 
Agent latter, Sept .£1,1937) 



Kl-ep-e-la-no 



Mono 



Chief Kl-ap— a-la-no, or "Old 

Chief Ki-ap-e-lano, aentloned 

by Capt. Hlcharda, diapatohea, 

1059. 

(Authority - "torly Tanoourer", 

Tol. 8, p. 50.) 



Keeahplahaao 



aa Capt. Richard' a 
Kl-ap-a-la-no . 

(Authority - JJC Ball, Indian 
Agent letter Sept. £1,1937) 



Payf-oa- a ana. 



■oaa 



Son of Sklah-lapt-ehen, and 
half brother to Chief 

Ki-ap-a-la-no, 1859. 

(Authority - "IARLT VANCOUVER", 
Tol. £, p. 50) 



368 



AT HflMDL nffpnp ( apnt'd) . 
EKSLISH 



IHDIAH HAMB 
Lok-y-lok 



KEXA.TIOHSHIP 



Bon* 



Wife, from Cape Madge, of 
Paytaamauq.. 



Lahwa 



■one 



Son of "Old Chief" Kl-ap-a-lano , 
who, as Chief Lahwe, be 
sueoeeded. He lired at Homul- 
eheaun, First Harrows. 



Squalth-kain 



■one 



Xlder brother of Lahwe. 
Also apelt "qual-kin" 



Ta-tah-maht 



Mrs. Chief 



Dau. of "Old Chief" Klapalano 
by hie Sliamon wife. Tu-tah-maht 
waa full aiater to Chief Lahwe, 
and half slater to Ayatak*a 
father Kar-nuk, all three were 
children of old Chief Kiapalano* 
(Authority - Sled on or about 
Sept. 24,1923, and monument in 
North Vanoourer Indian Cemetery) 



Tehama 



Chief Tom Tatahaaht*a husband. Bat after 
Chief Toa*a death, Tim Moody 
assumed Tahaaa. See below. 



Chlm-hah 



Mr a. Chin-bah 



Daughter of Tatahmaht. 

They were both of same family. 



Itas 



Mrs. Toaab Daughter of Mrs. Chinbah, grand- 
Johnny daughter of Tutahmaht. 



Tamah 
Ta 



Tumah Johnny 
Tim Moody 



After Chief Tom's death, Tim 
Moody, last Indian with flat 
head, aesumed "Tahaaa". He died 
22nd Dec. 1936. (See aboTe). 



369 



il HOMJLCP fgfTH fft.rmtM), 



Kar-nmk 



HJGLISH 



Charlie 



PWT^-rrnwafflp 



Sen of "Old Man" Chief 

Ki a pa lane. 

(Authority - A.J.K. June 25, 

1942. Auguat said "Son of "Old 

Man" Chief Kiapalano".) 



Ayatak 



frank Charlie 



Son of Charlie Kamuk of the true 
Cepllano family at Muaqueam; 
Prank Charlie' a father was half 
brother to Tutahmaht, who waa 
full slater to Chief Lahwa. 



H-ap-e-la-no 



"Young" Kiapaleno, son of "Old 
Chief"; he llred at 'itaaqueam. 



Te-outo 



Hone 



Son of Paytsamauq & Stawmequlya; 
a child of hla (Te-oute) family 
waa "Big Sam" of Powell BlTer. 



Thelha 



Mrs. Christina 

Jack 



Daughter of "Narry Jack" (John 
Thomas) pre-empto.r West 
Vancouver, and his Indian wife. 
(Authority- Mr a. Alice Crakan- 
thorp, conversation Jan. 8, 1944) 



Ta*-all-ia 



(Mrs.Jobnay Baker 
(Mrs. "Squaaish 
Jacob." 



Ancestor, et time of death Apr. 

4,1944. of 194, deacendants, see 

"Baker's Clearing*, Stanley 

Park* 

(Authority- "Province", Apr. 5, 

1944, and Pile "Baker, John.") 



Lakeya, or 
Lah-klya 



■one 



Another aon of Patsamauq.; think 
half brother of Te-outa; he 
waa a murderer. 



370 



AT HOUOLCHKSUH (cont'd) . 



INDIAN NAM! 



ENGLISH 
KAMI 



RTCT.AfTnMgpp 



Khay-kail-tun or Nona 
3kha-»kul-tun, or 
KabukultuB 



Son of Payte-sa-mauq, and 
father of Agnes, coaannly called 
"Mrs. Mary Capilano", wife of 
Chief Capilano Joe. 
(Authority - UC Ball, Indian 
Agent, letter 3ept*21,1937) 



Gehlinultoowh 



Squanieh Son of Kahukultun, and siater 
Jacob to Lauwhloat. 

(Authority, FJC Ball, Indian 
Agent, letter Sept. 31, 1937) 



Lay-hu-lette or 
Lauwhloat, or 
Lay-uch-loat 



lira. Mary Daughter of Kahukultun 
Capilano. Daughter of Khay-kail-tun. 
Also "Old Mary" Wife of Chief Capilano Joe; 
Also Agnea. conaonly called "Mrs. Mary 
Capilano." 

(Authority- T. J. C. Ball, 21/ 7/37. 
A.J.E. 30th June 1939) 



Sahp-luk 



Eyaa Joe, 
Capilano Joe, 
Chief joa 
Capilano 



Husband of Lay-hu-lette , or 
Agnea; father of Chief Mathlaa 
Joe. 



Kaya-lah 



Chief Mathlaa 
Joe 



Son of Chief Joe and "Mary" 



Satahaia 



KLlen or Helen 



Wife of Chief Mathlaa Joe of 
Capilano . 
(Authority - AJE) 



371 



muajua 



AT H0MOI^ F|«nft ( cont'd). 
BIGLISH 



RSUTIOMaffTP 



Skwleh~ah« 



Buffalo 



Son of Chief Methlas Jo* and 
Satahaia 



Qnil-eet-rok 



Son of 'Old Chief Kl-ape-la-no 
of lluaquean and Honulchesun. 
(Authority - Bra. Jasea Walkar 
nae Elisabeth SilTey Sapt. 23, 
IMS) 



Joe-yak 



Susan 



Ildeat daughter of Quil-eet-rok 



Ihaal-tin-eht 



Mary Ann Saoond daughter of Qiutil-eet-rok, 

and nothar of Marian Elizabeth 
Siirey, eldest child of Joseph 
SilTey, or 'Portugese Joe* of 
Oastown. 



Bowls (pronounced 
ss in tttow' or 
»•) 



Third daughter of Qull-eet-rok. 



tin-aht 



Louise 



Toungeat daughter of Qail-eet-rok. 



(i.s. the four daughters of Quil-eet-rok, all granddaughters 
of 'Bid Chief* Ji-ap-a-la-no Mentioned by Cspt. Richards, of 
H.M.8. 'nonpar'' in his report about 1859 of his Yieit to 
Bnrrard Inlet.) 



372 



AT WBOI-WHDI YILULGI 



IMDIAM HAM 



INGLI3H 



BILAII0H3HIP 



aua»k*aht, or 
Oa f fat 



Hon* 



Wife of Squamiah who waa son of 
Old Chiof Xlapalano, 1850, and 
Mother of Ihaaltlnaht and 
Lontinaht 



Ihaal-tin-aht 



nary 



flrat wife Joseph Sllrey, 
'Portugese Joe, Ho. 1*, full 
•later to Lom-tln-aht, both 
granddaughters of Old Ohlef 
Klapalano, 1869, and mother of 
MT a. James Walker. 

(Authority - Mrs. James Walker, 
Aug. 17, 1939. 



tln-aht 



Louise 



Sister of Xhaaltlnaht, and Aunt 
of Mrs. James Walker. 



Kwe-ah-kultun 



Brother to Suakwaht, and a chief 
at Whoi-Whol. 

(Authority - Mrs. Janes Walker, 
Aug. 17, 1999) 



3eo-ylk«4aay-BM lk 



Oldest women, and the only woman, 
liwlng at Whol-Whol, 1886; all 
the others gone away. 
(Authority - A.J.I. 15th Apr. 1936. 
"larly ▼aneourer," Vol.3, p.7) 



See-yew-khwa-lla 
or Ce-oual-lia 



Had one of the houses at Whol- 
Whol in 1886. 

(Authority - A.J.I. 19th Hot. 1937. 
"larly Vaneouwor", Tol.3, p.7) 



373 



10 



AT WHOI-WHPI VILLAGE (cont'd) 



IGLISH 



WTeT^TTOWHTTTP 



Aht-Sblka or 
Aht-eulk 



Had another of the laat houaea 
at Whoi-Khoi in 188ft. 
(Authority - AJK Not.19,1937, 
"larly VanecuTer", Tol.3, p,7) 



Ckuntfc 



An old Indian man who occupied 
a third Indian houae at Whoi-whoi 
in 188ft. 

(Authority - AJX 19th Nov. 1937. 
"Early Vancouver", Tol.3, p.f) 



Aunt Sally Mowitch Jia«» wife, ahe died 

April 1983. 



Mowitch Jla Aunt Sally* a husband 



Pra-hee —A 



Lney 



Seoond wife of Joaeph Sllvey, or 

"Portugese Joe", but ahe waa a 

Seehelt, and mother of Kra. Mary 

Bona. 

(Authority - Mr a. Mary Busa, 

June £9, 193ft) 



374 



11 



THnTip am 
Kwe-yah-chmJbk 



AT U3T-LAWH (TOg VAHCOUVER) 
BTOLISH 



RELATIONSHIP 



Sick Isaacs LiTing in 1940. 

(Authority - "Early Vancouver", 
Vol.2, p. 7, and AJK Deo. 29, 
1930) 



Qua-nay-lia 



Madeline Living in 1940. Second wife of 

John Deign ton, alias "Gassy 
Jack" of Gastown. 
Died Aug. 10, 1946. 
(Authority - Mr a. James Walker, 
April SO, 1940) 



Tab-ass 



Tim Moody The last flat head, died Dec* 
22x4 1938 (About). 
(Authority - "Early Vancouver", 
Vol.2, p.7) 



Chil-lah-minat 



Jim Frank Living in 1940. 

(Authority - "Early Vancouver", 
Vol.2, p. 12, IS) 



Chil-lah-minat 



Hone 



Jim frank' a father. 

(Authority - "Early Vancouver", 

Vol.2, p. 12) 



Chil-lah-minat 



Hone 



Jim Prank's grandfather. 
(Authority - "Early Vancouver", 
Vol.2, p.12) 



Kay-ya-yoyt-kin 



The legendary father of the 
legendary Qpitehetahl. Said to 
be great grandfather of Staw-me- 
qui-ys, grandmother of Andrew 
Paul. Staw-me-qui-ya was fifth 
ohild of Whalaptsa. 



opit-che-tahl 



Andrew Paul Living in 1940; Ust-lswn Indian 
Reserve, Horth Vancouver. 



375 



IS 



AT 



U3T-LAWH (NORTH TAHCOUTBO cont'd. 

ENGLISH 



IHDIAH »*» ^ 
Ko-ko-hab-luk 

Skwa-lock-tun 



MOM 



IMk-uU 



Lizzie 



BKLATI0N3HIP 



In Indian beauty, and captive 

"princess". 

(Authority - "laxly Vancower", 

Vol.2, p.56) 

Squaaish Indian warrior. Ha 
fought tha raiding northern 
Indiana near Pt. Atkinaon. 
(Authority - "Barly Vancouver", 
Vol.2, p.56) 



Capt. James Tan Bramer'a Indian 

wife. 

(Authority - "Harly Vancouver", 

Vol. 4, eonYeraatlon, Bill 

Nahanee, 12 Sept., 1941) 



Whol-tiia tiiii 



See->ea~la 



George 



Nab-hay-nee 



Chun-th 



Pul-kway-lt 



Jo* 



Jo* Thosaa 



Second husband of la-ak-aala. 
(Authority - "Barly Vaneouver", 
Tol.4, conversation Bill Hahanae, 
12 Sept., 1941) 



Mary lilra Mother of Bill Nahanee, wife of 

Joe Kahanee. 

(Authority - "larly Vancouver", 
Tol.4, Convereation, Bill Hahanae 
12 Sept., 1941) 



Husband of See-en-ia. 
(Authority - "larly Vancouver", 
Tol.4, conversation Bill Nahanee, 
12 Sept. 1941) 



An old Indian who died at 
Squaalah about 1930. 
(Authority - A.J.Khahtaahlano) 

Indian aged about 85 at North 
Vancouver, 1946. 
(Authority - Capt.Chas.W.Cates, 
Aug. 13, 1946) 



376 



13 



AT P3T-LAWN. (or 'Slawn'). NORTH VANCOUVER (oont'd) 

ENGLISH 
INDIAN g|B Wfli» RELATIONSHIP 



Qult-aay-aot 



The Mlaalon" 
Family of Dominic of 'Slawn* . 



Grandfather of John Antona 
Dominie. 



Che-arhl-tun 
Chu-pay-lum 



John Antona 
Dominie 



lather of John Antone Dominie. 



Lire* No. 27 Cottage, aaya he ia 
80 now (IMS) 



Kwe-el-am 



Elizabeth 



Wife of John Antone Dominie. 



Totel-amut 



Mra.Juatina Kelly, Daughter of 
John Antone Dominie. 



Lohta-kwa-maht 
(Pronounced with 
Tery ahort *kwa* 
almoat *lotaq.-maht* 



Wia-chay-lia 



Slater of lira. Kelly, Daughter 
of John Antone Dominie. 



An old deaf lady, who Uvea 
with Dominic. Hia mother died. 
She ia hia atep-mother. 



(Authority - John Antone Dominic, himself, with the aid of thoae 
wboae names are herein shown, who were preaent while I waa, 
with their help, struggling to convert their utterance into 
worda. All whoae names are shown were preaent, and moat 
helping aa beat they could, during Tiait, aocompanied by Mrs. 
Alice Crakanthorp, and her daughter, Miea Muriel. 11 Sept., 1942. 

J.S.Matthewe. 

"Slawn" waa the way Dominie, or John, pronounced it, though really 
I think it ia "Datlawn".) 



377 



14 



AT SNAP. VILLAGE 



INDIAN HAKE 
Tow-hu-quam-kee 



ENGLISH 
_HAJOS_ 

Jack 



RBLATI0H3HIP 



A paddlemaker, father of Chief 

JlMXT Jl*»y. 

(Authority - C.T. P. In. 28. 
"Early Tana»u*er", Tol.S, page 
150) 



Will-ahm-can or 
Swillaaoan 



Chief Jinwy Jlany'a father. 
(Authority - "Early Taneouver", 
Tol.S, p.16) 



Taw-schoot 



Mary 



A baaketmaker, aether of Jimmy 
Jimmy and slater to Chinalaet. 
(Authority - C.7. P. In. E8) 



Cho-hah-num 
Khy-nook-tun 



"Old Cronle" (Authority - AJE. Aug.16,1935) 



"Old Cronle* a" 

father (Authority • AJE. Aug. 16, 1935) 



Kana-chuck 



Think brother to Chip-kaay-m. 
(Authority - "Early Vancouver", 
Tol.S, p. lft) 



Saita-kul-tun 



"Fie faoe" He lived on Inlae Creek Reserve. 

(Author! ty-Calvert Simeon, 
Dec. 16, 1938) 



Salp-can 



lira. Salpcan May be his wife. 

(Authority -"Early Vancouver", 
Tol.S, p.16) 



Chip-kaay-m 



Chief George Brother of Chief Ehahtsahlanough 
(Authority - AJE July 7,1932) 



378 



15 



™"" w tfff 



atmusopeam 
English 



RELATIONSHIP 



TMt-Tirit iih k nrnicji 



A chief at Muaqueam about 1680, 
or earlier. 

(Authority - »Barly Vancouver", 
Tol.2, p.33) 



Seotilano, or 
Taa-M-lano 



Chief "Stogan" of Muaqueeue; 
living in 1939, aon of Tukut. 
(Authority - "Early Vancouver" 
Vol.2, p.51) 



Tukut 
Whee-why-lrak 



johnny 



Father of Semilano of Muaopieam 



A chief of Muaqueam who went to 
•ee King Edward Til. 
(Authority - Mr*. James «alker) 



Kle-o~saht 



lull cousin to Khaal-tln-aht. 
(Authority - lira. Jamea Walker, 
Aug. 17, 1939) 



Wai-wai-ken 



Chief Henry Either hia Indian name or that 
Jack of his reserve. 



Kwanaten 



Charlie He was an Indian dancer, died 

at Muaqueam, Jan. 9, 1934. 
(Authority - "Early Vancouwer", 
Vol. 3, p. 2) 



Kay-nuch-tun 



Hay-mich-tun, Charltun, Tow-hu- 
quan-kee, and Chinalset gave a 

Seat potlateh at Jericho, 
uthorlty - AJK. "Early Vancouver" 
Vol.3, p. 150) 



379 



16 



foont'd) 



Tffl?Tltt MM1 



HJOLISH 



Charl-tua 



Old Tom (Authority - AJK "Early Vancouver", 

Vol.3, p. 150 aad conversation, 14 
Oot. 1941) 



Tul-ain-auat Charlie Had a taouaa at Snauq, olrea 

1690. 

(Authority - UX. "lerly 
Vancouver", Vol.3, p. 15 J) 



Tab-hay 



Polleeaan Indian Beaerve police. 

Tom (Authority - UK "Sarly 

Vancouver, Tol.3, p.l5J, 
conversation 14 Oot. 1941) 



380 



16 A 



suppLfflflgrrjLL 






ENGLISH 



BT^^TTnwawrp 



Elder brother of Lahwa, 
same as Squalth-kaln. 
A.J.Xhahtsahlano in "Early 
Vanconrer", Vol. 3, p.l3A: 
"Then they hold a potlatoh 
at 3teit-wouk (Second Beach); 
Qjual-kin gave that pot latch." 



Pap-qualk 



A.J.Khahtaahlano in "Early 
Vancouver", Vol.3, p.lOL: 
"Qnawklka, i.e., New Brighton. 
▲ little bay and creek on 
the vest side of Gambler Id. 
An old Indian, Tom Cell or 
Sell— he Indian name Pap- 
quelle, liTed there". 



381 



17 



INDIAN VILLAGES AND I-A^mM^Rira 
BURRARD INLET AMD HOWE 30UHD 

"Before the Whltemans Came." 

NOMENCLATURE 

The Whltemans' tongue cannot always echo 
the sound of Indian speech. Succeeding 
generations,— grandfather, grandson— 
have Taried pronunciations. "He's got 
no pencil." Ehahtsahlano. 



"This part (names) of our history had 
been lost." 

Chief Mathias Joe, 
Capilano Indian Reserve* 



"One or two names may have been missed; 
not many"* Khahtsahlano. 



Compiled 1931-1937, with the aid of August 
Jack Khahtsahlano, born Snauq, False Creek, 
1877, who cannot read or write; grandson 
of old Chief Khahtsahlanogh — no English 
name—, and other Indians of the Squamlsh 
and Musqueem tribes. See "EARLY VANCOUVER' 
Vols. 2 and 3, Resolution of Squamlsh Ind- 
ian Council, January 13th, 1933. 



Major J.S. Matthews, V.D. 
City ArchlTlst 
Vancouver. 
1948 



382 



NOMENCLATURE 



18 



INDIAN VIU^OES 


AND LANDMARKS. 




BORBARD 


INLBT . 


&ND HOWS SOUND 




Ahka-chua 




41 


Kae-kharl-atutt 


51, 57 


At-aa ym-kwuB-kwua 




64 


Kew Baacta 


57 


Aun-mayt-aut 




36 


Kha-kow 


69 


A-yul-ahun 




38 


Eha-nah-ffloot 


46A.72A 


Ay-ay-yulahun 




38 


Khahta-nioh 

Kharl-kum-atauwk 

Khay-kul-hun 


47,72 
58 
69 


Burrard Inlat 




46 


Khul-kaloa 

Klakaa 

Kl-ap-lan-ogh 


60 

49,72 

71 


Cha-hai 


52 


,57 


Kltailano 


35 


Chant* 




39 


Kl-wah-uaka 


36 


Chaich-ph 




68 


Koi-yok 


69 


Charl-kunch 




65 


Kbh-qwot-kum 


63 


Charl-aum 




67 


Ko-koh-pal 


30 


Chay-chul-wuk 




47 


K»pul 


65 


Chay-thooa 




40 


KUl-ate-atun 


58 


Chay-whaa 




71 


KUl-la-kun 


28 


Cna-ahtun 




27 


KUm-kum-lye 


46 


Cheakanus 




71A 


Kwa-hul-cha 


47 


Ch«~ohe-yoh-*e 


52 


.71 


Kwa-layt-kum 


64 


Chea-aypk 




70 


KSrum-kwum 


64 


Che-ahy-u-hai 




62 


Kwumch-nam 


67 


Chet-eha 11 -nun 




46 


Ky-oo-ham 


28 


Che-woat-aun 




71 


Dry-yowka 


52,71 


Chlt-chul-ayuk 


29 


,40 






Chulka 


51 


,56 






Chulwhahulch 


44 


•*• 


Lock-low-kala 


62 


Chu-taum 




49 


Luck-lucky 


46 


B-ayalmu 




30 


Mah-hum 


69 


B-yalau 




30 


Kably 


27 


Sya-aycha 




52 


Kusqueam 


27 


Bat-afal-tohk 




48 


Naych-cbalr-kun 


67 


Haah-ugh-nah-moot 




73 


Nay-naych-kwa-laytkun 65 


Haata-nloh 


47 


,72 






Boak-pua 




68 






Ho-aaakh 




66 


Oak-wum-ugh 


25 


Boaulcheaun 


46 


,49 






Homulaua 




28 






Baay-qwt.h-lahun 




61 


Pah-pea-ak 


43 


Bup-taah-pai 




46 


Pahpi 


57 


Hupha-pallth 




28 


Fook-eha 
Puok-ahla 

Puapua-ko-ae 


29 
45 
65 



383 



19 



Qhat-aay-kee-awk 


63 


Stoak-tuka 


51,57 


Qbut-ehat-aoat-aln 


63 


Stuk-tuka 


57 


Quawklka 


66 


Stuck-ale 


50 


Quin-aca 


70 


Swanch-niM 


70 


Quoi-yu-quol 


65 


Swah-ko 


61 


Q»el-hooat 


67 


Swuapua-tah-quinaee 


67 


Quteh-tinlm 


69 


3wy-awth 


71 






Swy-wee 


49 






Sy-lta 


60 


Sahlx 


48 






Sahunz 


40,71 






Saita-ea-kan 


62 


Tay-hay 


71 


3elta-ao-aua 


69 


Tay-tum-eun 


72 


Saita-up-»u» 


69 


Thla-hocai 


64 


Saaamat 


73 


Thluk-thluk-way-tun 


72 


3c Junk 


68 


Thowk-tich 


65 


3a e- yah- tun 


68 


Tbuk-teyn-ua 


67 


Sal-taaa 


66 


Thum- t hum- qua 


69 


Shuk-uk-aen 


59 


Thu-thowt 


60 


Slm-aah-ffiula 


31 


Tla-ta-aayuhk 


56 


SkaeTaE 


40 


Tlndall'a Creek 


45 


Skay-*lt-«ut 


51,56 


Tlath-mahulk 


48 


Skoa-alah-oath 


56 


Taa-atalum 


30 


Skul-ow 


63 


Tum-ta-fflayh-tun 


52,72 


Skunk Core 


51 


Tumth 


52,57 


Skwa-chlce 


36 






Skwa-yooa 


31 






31orak-ea« 


67 


Ulk-aen 


26 


Skwa-lat 


71 


Uth-kyme 


47 


31all-wlt-tutb 


72 


Oat-lawn 


48 


Sla-kay-ulah 


39 


Un-w ith-apa t-aim 


59 


Saaaapt 


66 






Snaa—chuza 


37 






Smla-inua-Bulch 


65 


Wahk-woak 


67 


Smul-laqua 


49 


Whal-wha-layten 


62 


Snauq 


33 


Whau-cha-ha 


59 


So-aah- latch 


64 


Wha-whe-why 


47 


So-yat 


70 


Whin-noa 


63 


3puka-nay 


72 


Whob-nuek 


63 


3puka-nah-ah 


72 


Whol-whoi 


41 


3qut-aaha 


43 


Whul-un-yoa 


61 


Sunz 


40,71 


Why-klt-eun 


52,71 


Staw-ki-yah 


68 


ffuk-wuk-kua 


60 


Stafa-pua 


65 






Stalt-wouk 


38 


Tay-kim 


61 


Steeta-e-oah 


47 


Tung-quawkl-ka 


66 



384 



21 

ikdian villast 1 A 7™ ligayBB 

BPKBARD INLET AKD ENGLISH BAT. 
Before the Thlteman Came to Ulksen 

The populous Indian communitlea of the Musqueam and 
Squamiah tribes, resident before the advent of the whltemans upon 
the ahores of English Bay and Borrard Inlet, and adjacent waters, 
had numerous appellations in their own tongue for localltiea within 
their territorlea; a practice no leaa necessitous to reaidenta in 
a land clothe* with foreat than are the name of streets in a city 
to us. 

Theae Indian place names, once ao numerous, have 
fallen into almost complete disuse; one only, the Indian village 
of Muaqueam on the north arm of the Iraaer Biver, flrat mentioned 
by Simon Traeer in hla Journal of the exploratory expedition down 
the Iraser in august 1808, as 'Misqui8me», survives to be used by 
English speaking people as the designation of a place within the 
11ml ta of the city of Vancouver. The names Kitallano and Cap- 
llano are founded only in Indian names. 

Excepting the more elderly Indians, now numbering 
probably ten or a dozen only, and aurvivors of pre-railway days, 
together with two or three white pioneers, all knowledge of the 
sixty or more place namea In and about Vancouver Harbor appears 
to have been lost. A few of the younger Indians are aware of 
one or two namea; even among the older Indians none can give a 
complete list. The following list waa prepared by the City Arch- 
ivist, Major J.S. Matthews, after diligent enquiry among a large 
number of Indians over a period of months; the proper spelling 
was not known by any peraon, Indian or white, and, as recorded 
here, was adopted after many conferences with the more elderly 
Indiana In company with Andrew Paull, (Qoitchetahl), secretary 
of the Squamiah Indian Council of Chiefs. Prof. Chas. Hill-Tout, 
and Bev. C. M. Tate alao lent their aid. Aoknowledgmenta are 
also made to I.J.C. Ball, Esq., Indian Agent, Vancouver, August 
Kitsllano, Chief Matthiaa Capilano, Haxten, Tahmaa, Queyahehulk, 
Ayatak, and Chlllahmlnat. 

In commenting upon the effort, Chief Matthias 
Capilano said "That waa a part of our hiatory which had been loat; 
we have it now". A reaolutlon of thanks to Major Matthewa was 
passed by the Squamiah Indian Council. 

The preservation of these Indian namea is largely 

due to , *ho suggested that the archivist be 

requested to furnish a list of pioneers of very early days 
to be guests of the city at the opening of the Burrard Bridge. 
The archlviat included the name of Auguat Jack, otherwiae Auguat 
Kitallano, born under the bridge about 1878, and in conversa- 
tions with this Indian, a man of ajlendid charaoter and commanding 
stature but not of chief's rank, waa told one or two of the old 
Indian names, and this led to the completion of the list at the 
end of nine months endeavor. 

Kitallano Beach "J- S. Matthews- 

March 17th, 1933. 



385 



LOCATIOB IMP SP «rpptt 
TMPTAM TTT lM fiy AWT, 



•rFiTTM?T»Jll 



rd Inlet and Aagllah Bay 
Is. 



H IJBJfi by the Chief a of *f»j jgaMw awi Indian Council 

msKrivo or tbi sqjamish ihdiah couhcil hkld 

AT OmCI 0T InDIAM AOKT. 203-6 BOORS BLDO. , 
TA MggjTW B. B.C., OB THIDAT, JAMOART 13, IMS, 
FBXSBT, J. J. C. Ball, president of the Council, 
Secretary, Andre* Paull. 

Councillors, Matthias Joe, Oaorga Williams, Qua 
Band, ■»••■ Joseph, Jimmle Jimmle, Henry Jack 

Abaenteee: Idward Joaeph, Danny Paull, frank Baker. 



bbsqiptiom 

Moved by Cottnolllor Go* Band. 
Seconded by Councillor Matthias Jo*. 

Tost th* manuscript submitted by Major J. 8. 
Matthews, arehlTlst, giving the Indian nana* of 
oertaln placea around th* City of TanoonTar, b* 
approTed by th* Squamish Indian Council on behalf 
of tha Sauamlah Tribe and that the apelllng of the 
names be eonaidarad satisfactory aa It la impossible 
to express than in Ingllsh, eapeclally in view of 
tha fact that even among the Indiana themaelTea, 
there la a variation in the pronunciation of soma 
of the names. 

CABBIE) tnUHIMOUSLT. 

I hereby certify that I was present end presided 
at a meeting of tha Sauamlah Indian Council at which 
tha foregoing resolution waa umanimoualy paaaed and 
carried 

Trea'k J. C. Ball 
Indian Agent."" 

*$m ihp pygyt 8 . , ^ T , n 

Chief Matthlaa Jee, Capilano, 
Chief Oeorge William, Kowtaln. Chief Qua Band, 
Chaakamua. Chief Hoala Joseph, Horth TaneouTer. 
Chief Jimmle Jimmle, Skowlahnn. Chief Henry Jaok. 
Skaimaln. Chief Idward Joaepb, Poquiosln. Chief 
Danny Paull, Seymour Creek. Chief Frank Baker, 
Chaakamua. (Three vacant ehlafahips also exist). 



386 



S3 



CHIPS APPBOVK 

gPWT.T.TWft P.TV^t 

1MCIMT HAMP 



Squamish Indian Coanoil, comprising the 
t«n chiefs of the Squamish tribe, has given 
unanimous approval to the spelling and loc- 
ation of sixty-five Indian names of villages 
and landmarks which existed on Burrard penin- 
sula before the arrival of the white man. 

The names have been compiled and mapped 
by Major J. S. Matthews, city archivist. A. 
resolution of thanks was adopted by the chiefs 
st their council meeting in the department of 
Indian affairs office, Sogers Building. 

Chief Matthias Capilano paid the compiler 
a compliment when he remarked: "It Is a 
story of our history which had been lost and 
is now largely recovered." 

Major Matthews has been six months in 
the preparation of the map and dictionary. 
He visited and interviewed many aged Indians 
and white pioneers and searched early maps 
and old manuscripts. 



From an undated newspaper clipping, 
probably the "Province", soon after 
January 13th 1933. 



387 



NOMENCLATPRl 

INDIJ M VTT.T^P .MS j MT) T^.HHUHB 

Burrard Inlet and BnKllah Bay 
Before the Whltemans Came to Ulkaen 



S4 



A* adopted by the Chief a of the Squamiah Indian Council. 
13 th January. 19537 



MOSqrjBAM 

MAHL T 

CHJ-AHTUN 

KT-OOHAM 

H01IDIS0M 

BTPHAPAILTH 

KULLAKAN 

CHITCHOLAYUK 

TSA-ATSLUM 

POOKCHA 

KOKOHPAI 

KYAUtO 

B-KYALMD 

3DS3AHUPL3 

3KWAT00S 

SNAUQ 

AUNMAYTSUT 

KIWAHU3K3 

SEWACHZCB 

3MAMCHUZK 

AT-AYUL3H0N 

AYOLSHBN 

STAITWOUK 

3LAHKATOL3H 



SAHUNZ 

CHAYTHOOS 

AHKA-CHD 

WBOI-WHOI 

PAAPM-AK 

SQPTSAHS 

CBBLWHABULCH 

POCKAHLS 

H7CKLUCKY 

EDHKDKLTI 

CHBT CHAIUCN 

HJJPHAPAI 

3TEETSBCAH 

CH AYCHUJra Pg 

WHAWHBWHT 

KWAHPLCHA 

TTTH-KTMS 

SAHII 

B3TAHLT0HK 

USTLAWN 



•Hating Tillage 

» a 

a boulder, legendary 



'a place of cedar trees' 
a boulder, legendary 

'a cool place' 

'floating sandbar' 

'crabtree', a bay 

'good oamping ground* 

•another good ground* 

'tool aharpenlng atone' 

Kltallano Beaoh 

a former Tillage 

'commit suicide* 

'two points opposite' 

'deep hole in water* 

a former core 

'another soft under feet' 

'soft under feet' 

•mud for white pipe clay* 

'he is standing up* 

a boulder and oaTe, legend 

a boulder, legendary 

'high bank* 

•a little lake* 

•masks' 

Brockton Point 

'an island* 

'dry passage* 

'white rocks' 

'beautiful growe* 

'maple trees* 

a group of boulders 

'a place of cedars' 

a former Tillage or camp 

deriTed from 'near* 

'little place of masks* 

Lynn Creek 

'snake slough' 

'a point or cape* 

'large pretty house' 

'head of Bay* 



TLAIB MAHPU 
H0MPLCH B3PH 

awyw n 

CHUTATJM 

SMULLAQPA 

3TOCKALS 

SXAYWITSOT 

CHDLKS 

KSB- KHAA LSOM 

3T0AKTOI 

CHAHAI 

TDKBTH 

ULK3HJ 

STBSTCHB 



•saltwater c . 
a former Tllls&e 
a lagoon 
a point 

'tragedy '.a bay 
'bad smell' 
'go around point* 
'stone in sling' 
'gnawing' 

'rocks all cut up* 
'sizzling noise' 
'paint* for faos 
'knoll* or 'nose' 
'sheltered waters' 



KWY-Y OWKA 

WHYXITSBI 



SteTeston 
Terra Nora Cannery 



CERTIFIED AS CORRECT. 

Qpitchetahl 
(Andrew Paull) 

SQDAMISH INDIAN COUNCIL 
Jan. 13th, 1933 

Ired'k J. C. Ball 
Indian Agent 

President 



388 



28 



REVISE) aPPUMC (Dee. 8th. 1932,) 

as approred by Andrew Qplchetaal, (Andrew Paull) 
Secretary 
SfflJAMISH INDIAN COUNCIL 



MDS<&JEAM 

UAHLT 

H0MUI30M 

CHK-AHTUN 

KT-OOHAM 

HUPHAPAILTH 

KDLLAKAN 

CHITCHULAYUi: 

T3A-AT3IK11 

ULKSSN (Point 

POOKCHA 

KDKDHPAI 

BTAIilO 

B-BTAUIO 

SIMSAHMUL3 

3KWAT003 

aMADq 

AUNMAYTSUT 

KIWAHU3KS 

SXWACHICE 

SMAMCHUZK 

ATAD L3HDH 

AYOL3HUN 

3TAITWOUK 

SLAKATULSH 

C HANTS 

SAHDNZ 

CHAYTHOOS 

AHKA-CHOA 

WHOI-WHOI 

PAE-PKB-AK 

SQJJT3AHS 

CHUXWHAHDLCH 

P0CKAHL3 

IECKLUCKY 

KDMEJMLTK 

CHETCHAILUUN 

HUPHAHPAI 

STKETSEMAH 

CH AYCHILWH DK. 

WHAWHEWHT 

KWAH ULCHA 

UTHKYME 

SAHXX 

USTLAWN 

TLASHKAHDIJC 



(Point Grey) 
Grey district) 



HOM0LCHESON 

SWYWKB 

CHDTAUM 

3MDIXAQJJA 

STDCKALB 

3KATWIT3DT 

CHUL KS 

KEE-KHAALSUM 

3TOAKTOX 

CHA HAI 

ETX-8YCHI 

TOMBTH 



Supplementary 

OAKWOlaUGH 'a Tillage* 
SLAIL-WIT-TUTH 'Indian Hirer' 
KWT-TO WICA Steveston 
HHYK1T3BJ Terra Nova Cannery 



389 



ami 



of the promontory of Point Grey froa Its wester* 
extremity la aa easternly direction for alios alone 
the English Boy •hare, as also the north Am of tho 
Irsser BiTar. 
Ul k - s en ( Htll-TOnt ) aaanlng » point', radical for •nose*- 

Pt. «oy. ' — 

Andrew Panllt Ul-I-son, knoll. Point Grey. 
Diet ieal"oT "(i»e~yah~ohulk); tutsan,' far •way', protruding 
frank UnarTle (Ay-st-ak), Moaqueaa: All Point dray 
teal of laf^ole aad False Crook; all belong to ausquoaa 
Indian. All Ulkaen belong to Musqueaas, not Squaaish. 
Squaaish live away oyer mountains l w eat Vancouver). 
Masqueaa go Pales Creak sandbars to fish loag before 
Squaaish aove down Barrerd Inlet and hngllsh Bay* 
Squaaish Juat ooao down to eaap summer tine, eoao 
down Squaaish t» work is Heatings Mill. 'Old Chief* 
Capilano home at Manly; he have another hoao at Bas a l" 
chesun. Manly belong Musqaeen, not Sqasalsh. Capilano 
Hlvar Musqusaa, not Squaaish (territory). Squaalah aad 
Musqueaas alwaya good friends, alao Seohelta; only those 
orssy fellows froa north want to fight; they fight 
about anything or nothing— Mov . 6th, 195* at Musqusaa. 
Tia Moody (Tahaas) Horth Vancouver: Ulk-son. Spreading 
hi a hands over entire nap froa Point Grey to Kltsllsno 
Beach, over land aad water of ahore line, ho ssid: 
'Ulkson all saao Vancouver. Old Indian up Sqaaalah, I 
say I go Skaywiteut, I go Point Atkinson. I ssy I go 
ulkson, I go anyplaoe", sad swept his wrinkled hand 
over the Point Grey-Kit a llano ahore line. 'Sen* aeans 
oape or proaoatory. "TJlkson any plaoe Masqueaa to 
Sanaa.". Tahaas, lsat flathead Indian, died about BSnd 
Dee. 1996. 

Hot. C. M. Tata . Indian Missionary: It ahould bo 
Sulksen; but frequently they leave the •a* off. 
August Jack (Khahtsshlano) . The old people used to 
talk a great deal about the coaing of the whlteman; I 
waa young, and did not pay attention, but one thing I 
aa sure they ssid that there were whiteaea up at Sons* 
alah before Mr. Vancouver came to Bnglish Bay. Tho 
Squeal ah Indiana did not understand the language of tho 
Seohelta, but aauld make thaaselvea underatood. The 
Indiana at Powell Biver had atill another language to 
the Seebelts. 



390 



a&a. 



A..T. Juliua Voight, well known pioneer, wrote to the colonial 
QortiBMBt in r.b.isfiOj 



PJPfLAiDu n, crmxj. »i bore Uttfl on the eoaat of B.C. for 
MALB . nearly a year and a half, my houaa balng 

ELlHO. naar the ranohery of tha Sqaamlah Indiana 

HifFtT oalled "Malee"; half a alia north on tha 

ooaat from tha northarnaoat mouth of tha 
Iraaer HlYer". 

"that through my inflaanea orer tha 
Squaadah Indiana, and with the halp of thair Chief Kleoplannah 
laat summer, (that would be 1889 at tha time when H.M.S. 
•Plumper" waa aant orer to Inweatlgata a reported diaturbanee 
but found none) I did prerent an attack of those Indiana oa Mew 
Weatmlnater, whan aewaral of them were taken prlaonars for an 
outrage on whit amen near Hew Weatmlnater." 



391 



*f 

MraqHAM The alte of this ancient village on the Muaqueam Indian 
Reaerve which adjoins the weet aide of the Point Gray 
Qolf Club property, D.L. 31*, la given by Frank Charlie 
(Ayatak} a very old Indian who nay* my grandfather tell 
me he aee first white nan cone down Preser; Just one nan', 
aa a slightly elevated piece of river shore on the last 
aide of a anall sluggish creek which enters the Preser 
river alnost directly sooth of Caaostm street produced. 
It is the only Indian place nana within the boundaries of 
the present city of Greater Vancouver which has survived 
the advent of the white nan. It Is first mentioned spelt 
'Mlaquiame' by Slaon Praaer in his Journal of his explor- 
atory expedition to the Psolflc Coast, August 1806. It 
Is a "River" Indian Village. 

Ayatak, or Prank Charlie, or Prank Capilano, of 
Muaquean, an aged Indian wno oan neither read nor write, 
who ssys he Is 'about 80' told ne, Hov.9, 1832, that his 
grandfather was *01d Chief* Capilano, and that his grand- 
father had told his that when he was 'a big boy he asw 
the first whits nan cons down Praser River. 'Him just so 
high, bout five feet, Just one son cone, cone fron east, 
my grandfather tell ne, Old Capilano live be about one 
hundred, then die. His first hone at Mahly; then he go 
Capilano River. Chief Lsh-wa (who succeeded Capilano as 
chief) my uncle. nuaqueam here. 'Here* being about £00- 
300 yards east of the present double towered Indian Church, 
and aay, 100 yarda east of the creek. 

Bev. C. M. Tate; Leave the spelling as it is, you cannot 
change it now, but I should have apelt it Muthaqueam. 
Andrew Paull . Secretary, Squamlah Indian Council of Chiefs; 
don*t know literal meaning; if it has any. 

maht.t. Hill-Tout. Mah-lse. Paull. Ifahly. Dick Iaaaca . Mah-lee. 
Prank Charlie , Mali-lee"; Tate . Mahly. 
Paull; If it has any literal meaning I don't know it. 
The little oreek which runs weet of Muaqueam runs 
east of Ifahly and aaparatea than. Prank Charlie says 
•Mahlee about nlddle Muaqueam Indian Reserve, chinamana 
garden there now, no water, Just well; creek oross Marine 
Drive bad water now, oil fron motor car make no good now, 
water dirty. Ifahly belong Muaquean Indian, not Squamlah. 
Ifahly waa 'Old Chief* Capilano hone one time. Old Capil- 
ano my grandfather; he Squamlah Indian, he marry Muaqueam 
woman, afterwasds go Capilano to lire. Chief Lsh-wa his 
son. All Kngliah Bay and Burrard Inlet belong Mue queens. 
Squamlah live way over mountains; Juat come Engliah Bay 
to camp, get food. They come down Squamlah work Heatings 
Mill. Capilano river Ifttsqueam land. Squamlah man marry 
Ifuaqueam girl, by and by give hin place down Mahly; way 
down by beach, not up river by Muaquean. My name Ayatak*. 

CHB-AH-TOH . Prank Charlie t *Big rock, little way east of Homul- 
mm. 0M sand him same time send Bomulsum; turn Into 

stone. I never aee Cheshtun, him on beach somewhere long 

there, my mother tell me*. 



392 



28 



KT-OOH-AM. Frank Charlie (Ayatak) t A stone on beach west of Che-ah- 
tun; It IS a dog; God send his same time as others, all 
sane dog's howl. (Ayatak opened south anu howled ky-ooh- 
an) I never see his; my father tell me. Mra. Frank Charllt 
nodded approTal; she is a grandmother. 



HpiPLao-M 



PJT.Tf^^W 



▲ large done shaped rock on the north Arm shore Line of 
Point Corey. Hill-Tout i Humul-sos. August Khahtsahl anoi 
Husulsome. Paull . Hcina i e s nl -sus. Tate ; 'I think PanTl 
Is nearest correct in sound'. Hoa-ul-son, says Tin, Moody 
(Tehmas) and adds 'Two miles west of Manly, big rock 
standing in water, at high tide in water, at low tide dry, 
about Polnt-Ho-Point'. Dick leases (&*yahchulk) 'Bast 
of Kullakan, means 'nice plaoe and good things*. 'B«» 
la-aos, say Prank Char lis, who has lived all his life 
close by at Musqueem, and adds 'Big rock there on beaoh, 
Qod make his before he make Indian, little round rock 
just by; little rock Is bowl or basin in whloh nam la-son 
wash fees. Indian wash fa.ee with hands, so. God send 
eight men there to start Indian peoples, then turn them 
into big roek Httm-la-sos, high dose ahape, bout five feet 
high*. 

Hill-Tout . Eulla-khan; Paull. Khul-khan 'refers to a fence 
or something whlsh looked like a fence or aerred as one*. 
Hot. CM. Tate; 'Sounds like 'a fence' to me', from 
Indian word Kul-ha-hean, a fence. Dick Isaacs; 'Big 
stone in water on beach at Point Grey, nloe beach at low 
water.* Frank Charlie , Musaueam: 'Big atones, creek there* 

The location is on the south shore of Point trey east 
of Chlt-chul-ay-uk. (Point Grey). 

Bew. CM. Tate ; 'In time of war they might have put 
up e barricade on the beach to obstruct the northers 
raiders: in Sagllsh we would call it 'defence*. 

Andrew Paull ; There la a legend that the big rocks 
at Kullakan were playing ball when petrified. 

Dick Isaacs : Name ia derived from Indian word for 
fence; something there must have had the appearance of a 
fence. 

HOPHAPAJITH Hill-Tout . Whap-wha-pailthp 'plaoe of cedars*, Point 

wr ^ grey. Paull nomp-khup-way-llth. 'Little place of cedars'. 

An area of land of undefined boundaries on the south 
shore of Point Grey approximately between Hosulsos and 
Kullakan where the growth of oedara ia prolific In odd- 
itlon to being a most useful timber for canoes, house build- 
ing, the Indian people also made under garments from cedar 
and the sol* downy lining of infant 'a cradles. Frank 
Charlie . Musqueem: Hot know Ruphapailth, know Buphs, 
lois cedars, lots cedar trees all along high bank, high 
up, low down, no particular place. Au gust Khahtsahlano t 
Used to be SB old log shuts down the cliff there. 
Ses also Hup-hah-pai, or Cedar Cove, on Burrard Inlet. 
Bev. C.M. Tate: 'lip' signifies *a tree*, any kind of tree* 

'Uokhpai* means 'the cedars*. 
(Hill-Tout *hspai*). 



393 



M 
flgfcflBlrtldK; 






_j>t Bl( **«k there one* i 
was earning. Indian start to pre- 
para to atrlka grant men. Ha gat ready to aaka big wind 
blow alow grant man away. while he naa working to aaka 
tba big wind tka grant ann comae. Whan tka graat nan 
comes ba says 'What nra yon working at?*. Indian aaya 
•Great Man coming, I blow bla away, anting graat big wind 
to blow graat aan away. Didn't know ha naa talking to 
tho graat nan himself • Tka graat nan told tka Indian ha 
would have to atay there , forever , ao that to tha laat 
ganaratlon It ahoold ba known that ha had triad ta atrlka 
a graat nan. Than ka torn him into atone and ha bean 
there ever alnea." 

•It la tha biggaat rook on the Point Carey shore*. 

The tree significance of all theae Indian legends 
la a aoaewhat erode ayatan of morality Tailed in allegory* 
The actual purpose of thla legend la to taaeh the folly 
of jealousy. 

Bar. CM. Tato l Tha flrat two syllables ahonld bo •Tsit- 
sil 1 ; the latter part »uk* aaans 'head' of something, 
probably the headline of Point Grey; similarly •ChlUl- 
wayuk* ( Chilli waok) aeana 'through to the head*. 



Paull : 



Chit— ehul-ay-uk, nt Big Book. 
dj i Chit-ehil-ey-uk, right at point of Point Qrey 



extreme western point of Point Qrey, wind nil time, one 
man standing in water just like 31 wash Book. 
frmnf rhyii*. amsqueam: Chit-ehll-ay-ok, Big Book, 
right 1m watlr, perhaps six feet high, five foot wide, 
juat below wlreloaa a tat ion maata. 

P00g-CB> . Paull. Jan. 10th. 1933. Pookeha derivee ita name from a 
low hummock or lump on tha aand flat a at the northwestern 
extremity of Spanish Banks, which rlaaa out of the water 
soon after the tide commences to abb. Ita literal mean- 
lag la *a book (aa of a whale) floating up above tha 
surface', which, aa the water reeedea, Pookeha preaanta 
tha appearance of* Ox Pouk-ohs. 

Dick Isssest Pook-ehs. Place west of Jericho, where it 
geta dry wnen tha tide goaa out; Spanish Banks. 



Pook-oha. share Spanish Banks goes away out 

"western and wideat part of Spanish Banks. 



Pook-oha. Great bar of ssnd st 




394 



so 
WdOKUL 

gaull: Tea-etalum, or Tea-taa-thumb. A point on the 
Spanish banka shoreline almost duo north of the main 
Univeralty Bldgs*, near a ravine oroased by a bride* » 
approximately directly below the cable hut, where a cool 
water aprlng cornea out of the ground. 'Cold place*, sand 



oaring in bank there. Iran* Charlie , atoaqueem: "Cool 
place" hot day cool breezea come. Tim Moody ; Little 
hole in cliff on Spaniah Bank ahore, the place where ravine 
la; where cable atation la. Call it »Taaata-lum. » 
Hill-Tout ; Tlay-at-lum. Auguat Khahtaahlano : Sate ei— . 
Tate t Ebn't know word or place. 

The B.C. Telephone Co. abandoned their cable hut on 
the beach approx. 1980-1985, and built a little atucco 
hut on Marine Drive above. Previouely the polea ran down 
the cliff to tbe hut on the ahore. They did not move the 
location of oablaa under aea. XUat buried the cable, aa 
far aa Marine Drive, up the cliff. 

koh(long)-- pal, aa in pie, or by. Part of Locarno 
Beaoh. Ko-koh-ple, aaya Tim Moody, at Spaniah Bank*. 

a enolt 



Long ago Indian go there oat oh ameTta, no oreek, little 
aprlng of water come out of cliff. Meens crab apples; 
drab apple treea uaed grow there. Ko-koh-patea, aaya 
Aaguat Khahtaahlano . nice little bay, lota of aand, near 
boundary of univeraity land. A little oreek ooavea down 
the hill and emptiea onto Spaniah Banka near boundary of 
D.B.C. Jim Franks : 'Where the atreet oar coaea down the 
hill '(Sasammet STT)' 



(aee B-eyalmu). A former park like Indian camping ground, 
weat of Z-eyalmo, approximately the weatern end of Jericho 
Beach, and at the foot of Imperial atreet. 
Auguat Khahtaahlano : Talmoo, where the air atation la. 
Tate t I like Talmo, or Xyalmo, better than Xyalmu. 

A aplendld Indian camping ground at the eaatern end of Jeri- 

oho Beaoh, almoat exactly where Hie Jericho Country Club 

house atanda, but to the weat of It. 

Paullt Aae-al-mough, 'good camping ground'. 

Hill-Tout i KB-al-mough la Jerioho. 

Dick leasee : A-yal-mouch. 'Jericho'. 

Jim Frankf ~(Chil-lah-minat) 'Little cove at Jerioho.' 'Ay- 

yal-moue 

Tatet I like K-eyalmo beat. 

Auguat Khahtaahlano t Aye-yal-mough, or Ayalmoo. 

Frank Charlie and hie wife: aay Se-yal, not Ay-yal. 



Thla cover la shown on the aurvey by Corp* Geo. Turner of the 
Admiralty Heaerve, Tab. and Mar. 1863. Survey poata of brass with 
imprint of crown on top were found at corner a of this reaerve 
eerly in 80th cemtury. Turner's original field notes are in Court 
Houaa, Vancouver. Ha marked across them 'berry bushes* * 

Barly Admiralty charta ahow 'logging oamp* with logging roads 
leading there from eaat aide of cove. Indian village on west aide. 



395 



*~TTiL TJ ^ continued. 31 

lUBjgi Dfhteahlano : 'My stepfather *•■ Jerlobo Charlie; 
he need to work for Jerry Hogere out at Jericho (Jerry** 
Core). Jericho Charlie had a big canoe, would carry • 
ton or store, and I remember how he used to go out from 
Hastings Hill to Jericho with the canoe loaded with hay 
and oats for the horses and oxen working at Jerry Roger's 
logging camp at Jericho.' 

-MUL3 

afeent on 'ssh'. 

Tim Moody ; Slm-sah-muls. Dick Issaos : Slm-sah-muls; 

by old English Bay Cannery. 

August Khshtsahlsno : It means 'tool sharpening rock', 

it means the beach or place on the Kitsllano shoreline 

where formerly a creek emptied into English Bay Just 

west of the foot of Bayswater street, close to the old 

English Bay Cannery (see 'Early Vancouver*, Matthews, 1931). 

"Along the beach from about the foot of Balsam street 
to the foot of Trutch, one layer of sandstone overlies , 
and another layer underlies, a layer of soft shale. This 
sandstone", says Professor S.J. Sohofleld, professor of 
Geology at the University of British Columbia, "is pecu- 
liar, in that its grains are angular, showing that it 
has not moved much; most sandstone grains are globular." 

(On being shown an oblong piece 2* x 1" z S" of 
sandstone found eight feet beneath the surface In the 
Traeer Midden, Marpole, one side smooth from abrasive 
use, probably, centuries and centuries ago). *Tes, that's 
it, that's the kind, would be very suitsble for sharpen- 
ing Indian implements of bone or stone'. 

A. large clam shell midden formerly existed 'a few 
feet, say 100-200 feet west of Bayswater atreet, north of 
Point Grey Road. formerly there was a little beach there, 
and the cliff diminished in height to almost nothing at 
all as it reached it. (See Mrs. J.H. Calland in 'Early 
Vancouver', Matthews, 1931. 

3KWA-T003 . Chlllahmlnat . Mar. 2nd, 1933: 'Oh, I remember, make canoe 
~ on hill above Skwayoos. Loggers Just take out fir, leave 
cedar, sty fs.tb.er make canoe up hill, I go see him, meet 
oxen come down lagging trail, I little boy, frightened, 
run away from oxen feet. My father have iron chisel made, 
made out Hudson's Bay file, stone hammer; make canoe up 
hill, then bring canoe down, go Point Grey, hook sturgeon; 
great big sturgeon, twelve feet, that thick— about four 
inches) very heavy, tow him to beach, turn canoe over, 
take stakes (cross pieces out) out, slide sturgeon in 
canoe; turn canoe over again.* 

•My father tell me be see first ship up Squamish.* 
'Logging road, Skwa-yoos, oh, two log road come down Skwa- 
yoos, one come one way, toother other way, little swamp 
up top hill, logging road go round swamp*. 
Hill-Tout: Sk-wai-us. Skwy-use, August Khahtsahlano. 
Tim MoodT t Skwy-yoos. Paull: Skwa-yoos, no particular 
meaning. Just a name. Rev. C.M. Tate : »yoos* ending is 



396 



3CTA-TO03 . continued. 

more Ilk* it. 'Yoos* la flash, a abort way the Modern 
Indian saya Slave is Squeus, that ia 'flesh of a slave', 
or *alave*. 'Skwy-ua', says Jjm Pranks. »I waa born 

there*. 

Prior to 1880, an Indian hut atood on the Kltallano 
Beach at the foot of Ten Street. It waa owned bk Charlie 
and presumably waa the only but. Auguat Khahtaahlanp . 
who aaya hla atep-father waa 'Jericho Charlie' aaya that 
San Greer bought it, and there waa afterwarda a lawsuit 
over the payment for lt'„ which Charlie wen. (See 'the 
Tight for Kltallano Beaflfc', Matthews). 

Jim franks. Indian nana Chil-lah-mlnat. Sot. 80th. 1938 . 

*I waa born at Skwa-yooa, right here, down by the 
corner there, foot Tew atreet, behind bathhouse, where 
the beaoh turns (weat). My father waa Chil-lah-mlnat, 
come down Squamiah with people to get amelta, about thia 
time, fall, lota amelta here Skwa-yooa. My father have 
little hut down there at corner. Squamiah peoples come 
down here to Engliah Bay to get food, go back Squamiah 
for winter. My father Chil-lah-mlnat too, make canoe all 
life, chiael, chiael, chlael, big atone for hammer; make 
canoe down Skwa-yooa.' 

Note:- Assuming that Jim Franka, Indian of the North 
Vancouver Reaerve waa, as he aaya, about 16 yeara old 
when, on the day of the Great Fire in Vancouver, June IS, 
1886, he waa working In the Haatinga Sawmill, then he 
must have been born on Kltallano Beach about 1870— he 
claims to be older than 68 or 64, but does not look it. 
He saya he remembers August Jack (Auguat Khahtaahlano) 
aa 'a little boy*; Auguat Jack ia hla nephew, Auguat 'a 
mother being Jim'a aiater. Auguat ia 54 or 55. 

Bobert Preaton waa intereated in pre-empting lanA 
at Kltallano in October 1871, but did not complete it; 
Samuel Preaton, his brother, pre-empted it in April, 1873, 
but never received deed. Mrs. J.Z. Hall, daughter of 
Sam Greer told me ahe had been told there were aeveral 
'housea* located on the site of her father'a plone« 
home. Sam Greer bought the 'improvement a* of the Indiana 
from them in Nov. 1884. Sam Greer 'a home we a burned 
down by the Canadian Pacific Bailway after and during the 
celebrated lawsuit. Presumably the * aeveral houses' 
were Indian huta. (See Tight for Kltallano Beech'). 

Mrs. J.Z. Hall narratea that her father ahot a wolf 
one night in their garden, and speaks of the myriads of 
smelt* William Hunt also mentions how prolific they 
were* The writer recoils, even in 1918, raking them 
ashore with a garden rake; they aeem all gone now (aen 
'Barly Vancouver, 1931*). 

Jas. A. Smith, moving picture cenaor, ahot ducka in 
the lagoon at the back of the beach in 1888. The laat 
muskrats caught in the awamp about Creelman Ave. were 
caught by the Matthewa boys in 1913 juat before the aand 
frost False Creek waa pumped in to fill, at Maple atreet 
and earline, to a depth of thirteen feet. Coon were in 
to Indian Reserve at this time. William Hunt apeak* of 
an old *elk yard* near Whyte and Arbutus 3ts. 



397 



38 

SHAPa . An Indian village formerly standing on the Kits llano Indian 
Beeerre. The principal part atood directly beneath the 
Borrard Street Bridge. It had a large community honne, 
seTeral IndiTidnal houses, an orchard, and a grave yard near 
the foot of Fir atreet. There were alao one or more houses 
a few yards eaat of Ogden street on the reserve, and ease 
fruit trees. Jemmet's survey (in possession Andrew Paull) 
of Indian reserves, 1880, shows a trail from village to Skws- 
yoos passing east and west about McHicholl Ave. 
Hill-Tout; Snauq. Paull: Sna-auk. Tate: on Vancouver 
Island 'pipe clay* is called Stauq, it would be easy for the 
Squamish to change it to Snauq; I don't know what it means. 

August Thuhtih iiinn: »i was born at Snauq; see Vancouver burn 
from there when I was a little boy. When grendfather Heataa- 
lah-nough from Squamieh River go to Chaythooa in Stanley Park 
bis brother Chlp-kaay-am go to Snauq; he first man settled 
there. Indian used to catch flam in big traps wmere Gran- 
ville Island Is now. The big bar was twenty or more acres 
in extent, dry at low tide, end the Indians had from time 
very long ago had fish corral there built of two converging 
fences in the water, made of brush fastened to hurdles, 
sharp stakes driven in mud to guide the flounders and smelts 
to the narrow part where they were trapped. The brush fenoe 
was built of vine maple; the small fine nets were made from 
the fibres of the stinging nettle. 

•After my father died, my father Hay-tulk, we move from 
Snauq. I got no schooling, cannot read or write, had to 
look after my mother, e widow, sometimes I go to Qastown to 
aearch in ruins for nails* When we went to Gastown we went 
by canoe to Royal City Planing mills at south end of Carrall 
street, and oross to Burrerd Inlet on rough sort of trail. 
I don't remember a trail from Smam-ehuse (foot of Howe St.), 
what would be the use of struggling through the bush when 
it was so easy to paddle. Note:- Generally speaking, no 
Indian would walk If he could paddle). Masqueama used to 
come to Snauq long ago; before Chip-kaay-am come, but they 
never settle there. Chip-kaay-am, old Chief George, first 
settle et Snauq. My mother afterwards marry Jericho 
Charlie*. 

The Indians moved away from Snauq in 1911, and the 
remains of those buried In the graveyard close to the bound- 
ary of the reserve, opposite about 1600 block First Ave., 
««r« exhumed and taken to Squamish. It was about between 
the foot of Fir and Cedar streets. The orchard went go 
ruin, the fences fell down, and the houaes destroyed, s few 
hops continued to grow until 1930, when they were destroyed 
by the building of the new Borrard Bridge opening July 1st, 
1932. Mrs. H.A.. Benbow (see 'Fight for Kitsileno Beach*) 
saya she witnessed the last Indian burial, supposed to have 
been in July 1907. The Bet Portage Sawmill closed down for 
the services. 

Be v. CM. Tate : *The population about 1880 was about fi*j7« 
There is no 'I* in Hastsa-lab-nough. •Lanough , or »lanoch» 
means *the place of* or *the property of», let»s see, the 



398 



34 

SHAPQ,. oontlnued. 

whole word would mean 'the place of lakes*. 'Heats*' is 
lake or swamp. The proper way to spell It Is Haats-sah- 
lan-ough; the terminal is pronounced as in English 'cough' • 
Hill-Tout ; The suffix lanough means 'man*; i.e., Ka- 
lanough, the first man. 

frank Charlie. (lyatek) of Muaqueam. 'The fishing on the 
bar (Granville laland) was done with hurdle nets made of 
twisted vine maple and sharp stakes so made as to form a 
hurdle, end the stakes driven in the mud so as to form a 
corral with the widest opening at the western end, gradu- 
ally tapering down to narrowness at the eastern. The 
hurdles ran for hundreds of feet In the water. The fish 
came in with the tide, entered the wide mouth of the corral, 
and were caught when the tide receded'. 

Mrs. J.2. Hall, nee Greer of Oreer'a Beach. (See 'Early 
Vancouver, 1931) speaks of the 'noises and howls' of the 
Indiana at their ceremonies and potlatches which she heard 
as she walked hone from Gestown to Greer's Beech, over the 
C.P.H. trestle bridge. 

J.3. Matthews; In 190S or 1903 I used to cross from the 
old cannery about the foot of Burrard street— Burrard 
street was just a stream rutted trail down to the shore- 
by Indian canoe to the Indian Reserve, and my children 
would play with the Indian children; usually on a Saturday 
afternoon, or Sunday morning. 

Mrs. (Capt.) Percy Hye ; In 1891 False Creek wes so quiet 
on a Sunday that we could hear the Indiana singing at their 
services on the reserve as far as our place at English Bay; 
we used to sit on the shore and listen. 

Hote:- Residents of Vancouver who arrived aa recently as 
the first decade of the 20th century, but particularly those 
about 1900-1902, can recall the enormous number of water- 
fowl and fish available for food on False Creek. Duoks 
rose in clouds as recently as 1900 from False Creek, and 
in that yeer, 1900, the big salmon year, hundreds of thous- 
ands of salmon were caught on the Eraser River, nould not 
be canned, drifted ashore on the beaches of English Bay, 
and absolutely prevented bathing for a few days. In the 
early yeara of the 20th century salmon atill swam up the 
creek as far as Ceder and Third Ave., trout were caught 
where the Henry Hudson's School stands, muskrats were in 
the swamp around Laburnum street, and smelts could be raked 
up Kltsllano Beach with a atick. William Hunt gives an 
Interesting account of catching them with his hand, half a 
dozen at a time. (See 'Early Vancouver, 1931'.) 

Chll-lah-mlnst (Jim Franks) conversation, Dec. 10th, 1932, 
in my kitchen over s cup of tea. 

"My father's name Chll-lah-mlnst, my grandfather Chll- 
lah-mlnst, too. My fsther make canoe all his life, he 
make canoe several plaoes; one place down Skwa-yooa, foot 
Tew street, Kitallano Beach, make canoe all his life, just 
canoe, his trade, when he get old I be Chll-lah-mlnst, I do 



399 



SNAPtt . eont lnued . 35 

work, take my father's name, ju»t same you do. One time 
logger take out fir tree, leave cedar, cedar not much good 
for logger, but logging road make easy get cedar tree out 
to Skwa-yoos beach for make canoe. My father all time 
chisel, chisel, chisel, big round stone In hand for hammer, 
make canoe, then burn him out with pitch. I Jim first, 
when I get married North Vancouver priest give me name 
Franks." 

"Chief Chip-kaay-am of Snauq very good man, very kind, 
very good; that's why him family make him chief". Note:- 
see Ray. CM. Tate , who speaks so highly of 'Old Chief 
George * . 

Query: Do you know who the Indians Swillamcan, Kana- 
chuck, Mrs. Salpcen, who sold their improvements* on Kit- 
silsno Beach, were; who were they? 

•Will-ahm-CBjn is Chief Jimmy Jimmy's father; not sure 
but I think Kanachuck brother to Chief Chi>-kaay-am, maybe 
Mrs. Salpcan was his wife, don't know. We leave Skwa-yoos, 
go Hastings Sawmill to work, people at Snauq sell 'improve- 
ments* to Greer for I think #100." 

"Jericho Charlie my uncle, Frank Charlie (Ayatak) of 
Musqueam, my cousin. Jerioho Charlie die long time ago, 
fell off C.P.B. trestle bridge across False Creek; he live 
Jericho, Just by slough, on bar in front of Jerry Roger's 
logging camp there. Jericho Charlie may have had a place 
at Skwa-yoos, I don»t know (August Khahtaahlano says 'yes 
he did'). Frank Charlie (Ayatak) live Musqueam now. 

KITSILiHO . For the name KITS1LAH0, see index and elsewhere, and 
the »Legend of Haatsa-lah-cough'. 



400 



AOS-MATT-SP T. 3« 

T5e exact location not quit* identified, but either the 
foot of Ash street, or the foot of Gamble street South, 
or both, on False Creek. Two moderately large creeks 
came out at each of these points; the largest at the foot 
of Ash. There was a third still farther east; Just east 
of Csmble. 

The manager's house, manager of the Leamy and Kyle 
Sawmill, the first mill on False Creek, was built at the 
foot of Ash street on a little clearing on the eastern 
bank, and by its appearance in 1900 when the writer first 
saw it, it had long been occupied; perhaps it was chosen 
by the manager on account of its having been an old 
Indian settlement* 

On the day of the Great Fire, 1866 the men clearing 
the C.P.B. Roundhouse aite were driven by the fire into 
the waters of False Creek, and were rescued by Indians 
in canoes from the direction of Aun-aayt-sut; they were 
in camp on the shore opposite the fire; about Cambie or 
Ash street. 

Paull says: 'The word means 'commit suicide'; and 
probably someone killed himself there. 

Tate says: •Kysit', to kill oneself. Paull corrects 
this To'Qpitsut, or ^>l-it-sut* meaning 'commit suicide*; 
and adds Hr. Tate's pronunciation may be effected by long 
association with the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island 
Indians. 

^^ Main street or formerly Westminster Avenue. 

Paull: Place of narrow passage, literally 'two points 
exactly opposite'; 'usks* as itf 'tusks'. August Khahts- 
ahlano , He-whaasks. 
Tim Moody : He-wha-usks . 

At least aa early as 1880, a bridge, the False 

Creek bridge, crossed at this narrow point; to the east 
was the great shallow mud flat extending as far as 
Grandvisw; now almost entirely railroad yards. The 
lagoon was dry at low tide save for the water channels 
carrying away fresh water from streams. 

Two protruding points of land Jutted out into False 
Creek. The southern one was on an angle north-north- 
east, and the highest ground ran in that direction; hence 
the forest trail from Gastown to Fraser River, via False 
Creek bridge and North Arm (Fraser Ave.) Road ran on the 
summit of that ridge, and is accountable for the odd 
twist in Main St. at that point; another Instance of the 
tradition that a calf gambled away from its mother, the 
cow followed, a man followed the cow, and finally they 
made a paved street of it, and pieced traffic signals to 
control the congestion. 

SKWA-CBlCfi^ ^ of ^^ hMd of False Cre-k eaBt Qt j^^ atree t, 

at one time, a great mudflat, much like a great circular 
pool in the forest clad hills surrounding; now filled in. 



401 



MBteflBfflU continued. 37 

'Skwa-chlce, no more Skwa-chiee', aaya Dick Isaacs, 'they 
fill him up now, nake C.N.R. Yards, big hole one time, 
where we used to get the sturgeon all the time. Great 
big deep hole, very big, up head false Creek, tunnel 
under creek, fresh water come up, come from Lake Coquit- 
lam (probably meant Lake Burnaby, but clearly aaid Co- 
quitlam). The way they know, Indians find salt water aea 
weed up Lake Coquitlam; that's the way they tell, sea- 
weed gets up there through tunnel under Skwa-chlce'. 

Geologists assert that false Creek is the prehistoric 
bed of the Iraser Hirer, and that seepage through gravel 
from Burnaby Lake to Skwechlce is quite possible. 
Hill-Tout ; Swat-chais 'Deep hole in water*. 
August gSahtaahlano; Squaw-chlze. 
Tim Moody: SkwacaTce. 

Paull; "akwa-chlce. 'Water apring, or water coming up from 
ground beneath. 

Mrs. Sanderson . Indian, North Vancouver. 'Water coming 
up out of the ground from beneath, rising up from the 
bottom, don't know why it does. 

aOM-CHDZk . 

(Smam-kuuih) August Khahtaahlano . who as a boy lived at Snauq, 
directly opposite was the only Indian who knew the 
name. August Ehahtsahlano pronounces "Smam 
(short) - Kuush". He says: 'A little cove, formed 
by, winds into a cove, a sandbar, which, afterwards, was 
crossed by the C.P.H. Trestle bridge, and was at the foot 
of Howe street produced. It implies a little island with 
a bit of grass on top, some grsves or a little graveyard 
and then the action of the tide washes grass, graves and 
island sway. 

Jim franks ; 'I think one time little Island there, may 
be two or three crab trees on top where always dry. 
Indians put dead man there so wolf not get him. Indians 
always put dead man In trees so wolf not get him*. 
Paull: 'Don't know literal meaning. The Indian system 
of Burial progressively changed. Tree burials may, at 
one time, say 100 years ago, have been the only system, 
and on an island whenever they could get one, but, in 
1907-8 or 9 I saw, for instance, bodies laid on the bare 
roek on the tops of those two little islands just west 
of Point Atkinson, bare solid rooks. The bodies were 
simply covered with split oedar slaba, about three Inches 
thick, eight Inches wide and five feet long 01 w, held 
in place by their own weight, and no other covering to 
the remains. Defence Island, near Squamish, an island 
of half an acre, was a favorite burial ground. 
Mr. Dickie, of Dickie and DeBeek, Barristers, Jan. 30, 1933. 

"When I was a bit of a boy I used to play there; we 
used to call it 'the island*. There was a little, low 
island just a few ateps east of the Kits llano railway 
bridge. I am fifty now, so that must have been over 
thirty-five years ago. 

About 1910, earlier perhaps, but no later than 1911, 
a small sealing schooner owned by a Mr- Chapman was warped 
into this cove beside the bridge, its owner, a recluse 
artist, hss lived in it alone ever since (now 1933). The 



402 



58 

CHPZK . continued 

C.P.B. has unsuccessfully endeewored to make him remove 
himself, hut he claims hs sailed In there, tied up, and 
is still at anchor In the waters of raise Greek, st the 
time he went In, under Dominion control* Actually he is 
high on dry land which has been filled in around hie 
weasel, the •Siren** 

iqir fsali t j^*.^ togli- i b.^ literally 'another aott under 
foot* 



' place, a small sandy beeoh which was formerly run- 
ning along from about Broughton and Kicola streets. 



AT-TPIr-SHPM . Sngliah Bay Bathing 
Hi ll-Tout ; Hail-shan, « 
under feet*. 



Beach, 
sngllsh Bay bathing beaoh *aoft 



ull aaya *Ay-ul-ahun t Bngllsh Bay, good under feet*. 
t Khahtsahlano t I-ail-ahun, Bngliah Bay bathing 



beach 



j>«ach. Ay-yul-ehun, aays Dick Isaacs . Jim Pranks : 
Ale-shun. Tate: *Ay» la good, 'shun* menas feet*; 
spell it Ayulshun. 

The sngllsh Bay bathing beaoh was formerly very 
much less eztenslTe than in 1932. It consisted, in 
eerly days, of a abort stretch of sand, perhaps one 
hundred yards long, extending eaat from a small creek at 
the foot of Gilford street. At both ends were clusters 
of boulders of considerable number, but of moderate aim, 
but there were two huge onea under the cliff at the foot 
of Denman street (See 'The First Settlers on Burrard*s 
Inlet; Matthews, and Mrs . Capt. Percy Nye, •Early Yan- 
oourer*, 193S). 



STAlT-gQPK . Second Beech, Stanley Park, where a small ereek enters 
the sea. 

Hill-Tout : Stay-tookq. August Btahtsablano: Staa-wauk. 
Jim Pranks : State-wok. Dick Isaacs : State-woohk. 
Paul aaysT '3tait-wouk» is a mud substance which, Interp- 
reted would be probably equiwalent to what you call 
pipe clay. It was the place, the only place where Ind- 
iana could get that particular kind of mud, right at the 
little ereek at Second Beech. They gathered the mud— 
I think from the bed of the creek— rolled It into loavea 
about the alee of breed loares, put the roll against the 
fire, and the mud would get ea white aa chalk. Thia 
white powder was used to dust upon Indian Blankets, made 
from the mountain goat's fur, to gire the blanket a 
white appearanoe. The mud substenoe is called "Stait- 
wouk". 

"I can quite understand that Capt. Vaneourer, in his 
journal, reports Stanley Park as an island blocking the 
channel; for In the earlier days I oan recall the waters 
of Bngliah Bay almost flowed— at extreme high tide prob- 
ably did do so— serosa from Second Beach to Coal Harbor." 



403 



3LAH- 




39 
wash Bock* Accent on 'Kay*. 

11-Ton t i Skalsh. Siwash Book, means 'standing up*. 
~\i Slah-kha-ulafc or Skay-ulah. It means 'he la stand- 
up*. Ha was an Indian before ha waa petrified into 
atone. 

a: Skay-ulah, 'Indian Book*. 

Skay-ulah. Jim Pranks ; Skaalah. 
alah seems best. 
Better apell it Slah-kay-ulah, they*lllahorten it. 
h-»lnst: ( Jla Pranks ) '3iwaah Rock waa once a man. 
I think one man make the world, but Indian any three mas. 
These three men, they go out the sturgeon bank, out Point 
Grey; they wash themselves, wash themaelTea, wash then 
selTes, make themselves very clean, keep themaelTea very 
clean, they get Tory powerful. Theae three men go all 

around the world making It; their namea were 

If they find people poor they give them stuff, educate 
them, ahow them how to do things, so they be able help 
themselves, and be no more poor. If they find people too 
amsrt, too clever, they say *you go to hall, we no bother 
about you*. That's how Siwash Bock came where he is; he 
too smart; they turn him into a rock so people see not 
much good be too smart." (See his further interesting re- 
marks, under his own narrative.) 

In the "Romance of Vancouver", a review published by 
Post No. 2, native Sons of B. C, 19S6, Chief Ustthias 
Capilano refera to Siwash Rock aa *T*elch', he relates a 
legend of similar character, but different detail. He 
stated the supernatural men turned the Indian into atone 
because he was the first man he had met in their travels 
who did not want anything, waa not greedy. 

Moat writers In dealing with Indian legenda appear 
to give theae legenda a covering of mythological romance. 
Prom many conversations with Indians I have concluded 
that thla is the wrong interpretation. The Indian was 
highly moral in his ambitions; he knew right from wrong, 
was proud of his blood and prowess, conceived it ss his 
duty to educate his children. They are not legends, as 
we understand legenda, but are tales to illustrate and 
Illuminate morality; the rocks are the symbols just as 
s square and compass is a aymbol to a freemason. 



CHANTS. Paull l Chanta la not only a big sandstone rock covered 
with water at high tide on the beach, aymbolically Siwash 
Rock's fishing line rolled into a ball, but ia alao a 
big hole in the cliff nearby— viaible aa you come In by 
Victoria boat — where he kept this fishing tackle and did 
his cooking. It is a round rook prominent on the shore 
between Siwash Rook and Proapect Point, traditionally 
representing a ball of thick fishing line — such aa used 
by Indians before they got whitemans fishing lines— belong- 
ing to the fiaherman Slahkayulah, and likewise turned 
into stone. The Indian fiahing linea were thick, almost 
as the little finger, on account of the material from 



404 



CHAHTB . continued. 40 

which they were made. The line is supposed to he rolled 
up, in a ball, or on a stick, hence Its representation 
as a round stone. Up on the cliff is the hole where 
Skahkayulah kept his fishing tackle. 

August Khshtsahlano ; Chant z, a sandstone sticking out on 
the shore perhaps 150 yards north of Si wash Bock, covered 
with water at high tide. August Jaok, Sept. 12th, 1940, 
Chantz la a natural fish trap; when the tide went out it 
left pools and the fish got caught. That's what Chantz 
means; not fiahing lines. 

Matthias Capllano i Chance. 'Chance means cook fish, seal, 
ducks, where Slah— kay-ulsh roasts them; it is the hole.' 
Tim Moody ; Schanze. 



Si wash Rock's wife, also turned into stone. 
Hill-Tout ; Suntz. Sunz, Matthias Capllano . 
August BEahtsahlano: Suns, a little rock a few feet east 
of the light house at Prospect Point. Siwash Bock's wife* 
Dick Isaacs; The little rook, perhaps a few feet inside 
(east) of the lighthouse. 

Tim Moody ; Sunze. A woman's name, a kneeling woman. The 
steps down Prospect Point from the signal station almost 
touch the Sunze rock on the shore. The rock is Siwash 
Book's wife; his second wife, his other wife, is right 
behind Siwash Bock. 

Paull; Sahunz, Siwash Bock's wife, also petrified, a 
little low rook on the shore at Prospect Point. (Andrew 
Paull publishes "Sun", Jan. 22, 1936, magazine section, 
page 6, a story about the rock with tree on top and gives 
a different interpretation to the legend; same general 
idea, three powerful men (Gods), Indian washing and to 
make themselves clean; impertinence totthe Gods). 
Baatsalano: (Khahtsahlano ) , insists "Sunz", and says, 'there 
used to be a little tree on ounz, but somebody chop it 
down. 
SUNZ Conversation, August Jack Khahtsahlano, 12th. Sept*, 

PBOSPBCT POINT 1940. "Sunz is not Siwaah Rook's second wife; ho 
«nt> kiant didn't have two wives; Siwash Rock's wife is right 

Chlt-chulayuk beside him; about 80 feet away. Sunz is that little 
rook inside Prospect Point with tree on top (see 
photo. Sunz waa punished too, like Siwash Rock, and 
Chit-chul-ay-yuk at Point Grey. She was washing her hair; 
she had evil in her heart, too, and got turned into stone 
for punishment". See "Barly Vancouver", Vols. 2,3 and 4. 

CHA.T-TH003 . .. M ^ „ 

Paull; Chay-thoos, a small clearing on the First Narrows 
shore almost exactly where the uapilano Pipe line reaches 
Stanley Park. Meana 'High bank', referring to Proapect 

Point. .**.*.. 

August Khahtsahlano ; Chay-sloos, or Chay-cluse. A little 
clear space at tne end of the pipe line road through Stan- 
ley Park. Where my father Supplejack, lived and died. 
His Indian name was Hay-tulk. Chief Haatsa-lah-nough 
went there to live once. (See August Khahtsahlano »s long 
narrative re Uhief Haatsa-lah-nough, or Kltsilsno). Much 
earth fill has altered the site. Hay-tulk* a grave was 



405 



CHAT-TH006 . oon tinned. 41 

where ro«d atarta to rlae; about 80 feat waat of present 
boat houae. 

Chief Matthias Canllano : 1932 'In front of Chay-thooa, 
Jail eaat or Sunz, eaat of Proepect Point Lighthouse, 
llTaa— ha la alive and atlll there — e great big cod flah 
Uvea; the father of all. codflah'. 
Tate ; Chay-thooa la the beat spelling. 

Bearer Lake, and the email stream which flowa out of It. 

Means 'little lake*. 

August ghahtaahlano ; Ah-hach-u-wa, 'little lake*, in 

Tin Moody: Ah-ha->ehu 'Little ereek out of Bearer Lake, 

pronounced aa if you were sneezing. 

Frank Charlie. Musqueam: Hach-ha; it aeana 'lake*. 

The Indian word for lake la 'Haataa',(or 'Kaataa'). 

• Hkachu, aeana 'lake, a lake of some size; 'ahkachu' 

It tie lake*. 

Bote by J.3.Matthewa , 1934 . A atone arch bridge now 
oroaaea the atreaa (Stanley Park DriTeway). 

1H0I-WHDI . The former aite of a very large, and also a prehistoric 
~ Tillage, now the site of the Lumberman's Arch, and Juat 
behind the bathing pool in Stanley Park. A great deal 
of information la available connected with this place, 
called by Qoitchtahl ( Andrew Paull ) the moat historic site 
in all Vancouver. 

l-Tou t: Whol-Whoi mesne 'Masks'. 

There flrat ceremonial masks were made; where 
the Lumberman* a Arch is. Spelt Whqy-Whqy or Whoi-Whoi. 
lok Iaaaea : Whoy-Whoy. Jim rranka : Whol-Whoi. 

-uh-hol . 




taahlano: Hoi- 



Converaation, August Jack Khahtaahlano . 
ARCH 18th. Sept., 19101 "So; that'a all 






TATHAT wrong, Whoi-Whoi, not where the firet 

masks were made; where the flrat maak 
waa found, it waa found inaide a big oedar tree; when 
they were cutting it down to make it into a canoe, and 
they found the maak inaide; that waa centuriea ago. 

Paull : Capt. Vancouver reporta that he waa received with 
civility, and that presentations were made to him. I 
will explain to you the true meaning of this; alwaya 
hearing In mind that it waa the duty of the eldera to in- 
struct the young in hiatory; that la how I have come to 
know. 

'It seems that it waa a tradition among the Indiana 
of early days that a calamity of some sort would befall 
them every seven year a; once it we a a flood, on another 
ooeaaion dlaeaaa wiped out Whol-Whoi. The wise man had 
long prophesidd a visitation from a great people. It 
ao happened that Capt. Vancouver's vlait in 1798 coin- 
cided with the seventh year in which aome calamity waa 
ezpactad, and regarding the form of which there waa specu- 
lation, ao that whan strange men of strange white 
appearance, with their odd boats, etc., appeared the 
Indiana aaid 'This may be the fateful visitation', and 



406 



4t 

«HOI-wM 01 continued. 

took atop* to propitiate the all powerful vialtora.« 
'Ob feative oecaalona, ceremonials, feaata and 
potlatehaa it waa toe custom to decorate or ornament the 
Interior of the festival or potlateh house with whita 
down feathara, the eoft eiderdown feathara from balow too 
eoaraar outer feather of waterfowl; theae wore aeattered 
or tkrowm about, ostensibly to placate the apirlta, a 
preetlce not diaalallar to Chrlstnaa tree daooratlona 
with white eotton wedding anow decoration.* 

'da Vancouver cane through the Tirst Harrowa the 
Indiana In their oanoea threw theae feathara In groat 
handfula before him. They would of course rise in the 
air, drift along, and fall to the ear face of the water, 
where they would reat for quite a tine. It sunt hare 
boon a pretty scene, and duly lnpreeaed Capt. Vancouver, 
for ha speaks moat highly of the reception ho waa 
aeoorded* . 

Prof. Hill-Tout; "Mot only waa there a tradition of a 
groat flood, and of a great deeelnation by diaeaae, but 
there waa that of a groat anowatorm of continuoua un- 
broken duration of three month*. It covered the whole 
land, and eauaed the death of the whole tribe aaTe one 
man and hla daughter. The full account la In my atory 
to the Royal Society of Canada, I think, 1696, long ago, 
anyway. 

Motet larly Admiralty charta ahow •Indian Sheda* at 
Whoi-Whoi. Corp. Turner* a map of 1863 ahowa 
Stanley Park aa *Coal Peninsula*. The offloial 
map adopted by the Mayor and Council of Vancouver, 
1886. ahowa Stanley Park aa a government reaerre, 
but inaide City Boundariea. Capt. Vancouver re- 
porta 'theae good people*, received him with 
•decorum*, 'civility*, *cordiality* and 'reapect'. 

Rev. CM. T a tet * I think that when the driveway around 
Stanley Pari waa cut, that the poata of the Indian 
houses ware aawn off level with the ground; the stumps 
would be in the ground yet; I presume they would be 
cedar, and very rot resisting.' 



mm^ - 



Potlatehaa were held there after I oame 



407 



PAA-Pkg-AK . 43 

IIlll-Tout : Paa-pee-ak, where lighthouse stands , Brock- 
ton point. 

Ti» Moody; Paa-pee-ak, name so old no one knows what It 
■Sins! all Stanley Park. 

Paull ; Tim Moody wrong; just an Indian way of saying 
park. 

JMgUJ fhf htsahlano ; Paa-pee-ak refers to Brockton 
Point; there is, as far as I know, no name for all Stanley 
Park. 

Paull ; Old Man Abraham, a very old Indian, gave evidence 
before the court at the time of the ejection proceedings, 
that Stanley Park was known as Whoi-whoi; I am very dear 
on that point. 

Chief Matthias Capllano i Burrard Inlet was a great home 
ror serpents. when I was a little boy the old people 
used to sea thai- little serpents — Just like a snake 
floating. A big one had his pillow— a big atone on the 
beach just west of Brockton Point Light, and his other 
head, they here two heads, one at each end, used to rest 
by the racing canoes Just in front of the Indian church 
at North Vancouver; the old people used to see him in the 
tide rip; there were little ones too. The last one, not 
the serpent killed by Qoltchetahl (Andrew Paull's ancestor) 
up the Squamish river, but another one, was killed by a 
powerful man up above Dollarton, North Arm, Burrard Inlet, 
in front of the B.C. Electric power station, where the 
water coses down from Lake Beautiful (Bautzen); the paint 
put by the Indiana on the rocks of the opposite shore is 
there yet, I think. One hundred and fifty years ago there 
were lots of serpents in Burrard Inlet. 
Hote: Some authority has told me that there were five 

lumber camps in Stanley Park at one time or another. 

See Mrs. Bully Eldon, W. H, Bowling, in "Early 

Tanoouver"). 

SCPTSABS. Deadman's Island. 

Rev. C.M. Tate ; Squth-aha, It means 'an island'. 

Paull ; Squo-taaha or Sqpot-saha, called Deadman's Island 

now. 

Dick Isaacs : Skoot-saha. Tim Moody : Scoot-aaha. 

In 1862, Corp. Turner, R.I. surveyed Burrard Inlet. 
His field notes in Court House, Vancouver, show in island 
without name. In 1880 W.S. Jemmett'a map of Indian re- 
serves, in possession of Andrew Paull, shows an island 
marked (government res.) »G.R.'. In 1885 H.B. Smith, sur- 
veyor, who made map of Vancouver adopted by first City 
Council ss •official' , shows an ialand 'Government Reserve'. 

It is conjectured that the appellation, Headman's, 
arose in part at least from the Indian custom of speaking 
of 'deadhouse', 'whitemans', *deadmans*. It was formerly 
a burial grove for Indian trse burials. Of the known 
whites buried there there is the McCartney baby, the Swede 
who committed suicide at UoodyriUe, and whose skeleton 
was set up by Br. Langis for instructional purposes (see 
'Bsrly Vancouver'), the man drowned off Haatings Mill, 
some Chinamen, and those who died of smallpox at the 
pest house there. 



408 



i§?j 



SQPT3AH3 . continued. 44 

rof» Hill-Toiit: In 1890, or about, I aaw several tree 
?lala, twenty or thirty fsot up in the fir trees; the 
Island was known at that time aa Deadmana Island. 
William Walton ; pioneer of 1885. "After the fire, I 

built a Snack there. One day I came home and found aoae 
one had burled a chinaman near, and a month later they 
planted another dead man near my shack. I aald to my 
partner 'I'm going to get out of thla; thia i» a regular 
deadmana ialand.* 'Good name for it' he replied. When 
the Chinese riots took place in Feb. 1884 they wanted me 
for a wltneaa, but I had gone to my ialand to look at 
some traps I hed aet for coon. They asked my partner 

where I was. He aald 'Deadmana Ialand*. They said, 
'Where' a that?' He told them, and the name stuck. 
Joseph Morton , son of John Morton, first resident of 
Vancouver: 'lather told me that when he first settled 
on the Inlet in 1863 he went over to Deadmana Island, and 
found Indian coffins in the trees and also fallen to the 
ground; their fastenings having rotted.* Hiss Bay, a 
nieee of John Morton, says she heard him say that on one 
occasion he (her uncle) had poked at a coffin in the trees 
with a atlck, the fastenings were decayed, and a ahower 
of bones fell; he slipped off lest the Indians might see 
him there. Joseph Morton's comment on this, "Ho, the 
coffins had already fallen, and were on the ground when 
f ether examined them." 

Ex- Alderman W. H. Gallagher: "Brighouae himself told me 
that, when the man who waa surveying their pre-emption (The 
'West Bad') wes laying out the boundaries, he said, 'I 
will put the islend in your pre-emption for five dollars". 
Hailstone aald 'Don't give it him, we've enough atuff al- 
ready", page 870, 'Early Vancouver', 1931. 

CHUL-WHAH-ULCH . 

August Khahtaahlano: Chol-welsh, Lost Lagoon. 
COAL HARB5S Conversation, August Jack Khahtaahlano, 

LOOT LAGOON 12th. Sept. 1940. "Chul-welsh; that 

CH0L-WAL3H means, 'the bay what goea dry'; that's 

DEAHfANS ISLAND Coal Harbor." 

Tim Moody : Chll-whalsh; south end of Lost Lagoon, means 
'dry', 'passage'; gets dry at times when tide goea out'. 
Dick Isaacs: Chul-whalsh, right up south end of Lost 
Lagoon, up by narrow neck of land between Second Beach 
and Coal Harbor. 

Andrew Paull : Chul-whah-ulch, means 'gets dry at times, 
when tide goea out. 

Mrs. Robert Strathle . later Mra. Emily Sldon, wife of an 
early pa»k superintendent, or 'ranger'. 'The first bridge 
serosa to Stanley Park waa a fallen tree across the water 
at the point where the bridge, and later the cauaeway was 
built (See "Early Vancouwer".) Ceperley and Ross map ahows 
the first entrance to Stanley Park, before the bridge was 
built, as a trail along the southern shore of Lost Lagoon, 
or Chul-whah-ulch. 

Joseph Morton: "See 'Early Vancouver' or 'The Tlrst Sett- 
Tera on Burrard • a Inlet' for narrative of hanging of 
Indian woman by her own people at the entrance to Stanley 
Park. She had murdered her child. 



409 



TfflEiU/a agog. 

Bract epelling unknown. Jo— ah Morton , 
»ye that his father told kla that Mi* mum of ttaa creek 



oa which ho located kla eobia about 100 yarda woot ef 
Barnard Street waa known aa TjaUll'a Crook, or Tladell'i 
Crook. There io another lnatanoe of changed arook ■— I 
Jenaett'a Indian reaerwation currey Bap 1090 ahewe Lynn 
Croak at 'Fred'a Crook*. 




Location approximately of tbo proaoat C.P.B. etatlon 
docks. 

X Diehtafhlano: Paekaala. C.P.B. Dock, piar »D*. 
: Fuekaals. 

loot of QranTillo at. where C.P.B. atatioa 
a. lota - big troaa there, lota boakaa, lota aha da, not 
one?, analight; thoro aaa a cliff tbara, aad above Tory 
baa- r tiabar. White roeka thoro. 

Panll i Paok-ahlo or Puck-able, it aaana 'white roeka', 
WE era the big brewery waa. M otet the old Bod Oroaa 
Brewery, roaalaa of walla of which at ill ataad jaat be- 
aide the entrance t» the C.P.B. toanol; oa Bhatiaga Ot. 
oeat; atood at the aoath of the oreok boaide whleh John 
Morton had hia cabin. It drew ita water froa a daa la 
the crook. 

•The white rock* referred to weald appear to bo a 
Ugh* colored ahaka rook whloh la to bo aaoa expoaed by 
the ozeawatloaa of the railway below 'The Bluff, that 
oliff deration ruaalag between OranTille atreet aad 
Barrard Street. 



(Oa back of p. 46 la Major Matthews' 
handwriting. ) 

MICH or HAA3BB-MICH. 

~~m Oct. 15, lw5l, Capt. Chaa. W. Catea tela aa that Pul- 
I*ay-lua, or Joe Those a, bow dead, bat about OT whoa ha 
died recently, told hia that the aaao of the Mo. 3 Indian 
Boaerre at Seyaour Creek waa aa ahown la aargln. 

J. 0. Matthewa. 



410 



UCK-LPCP. 46 

frjffMrt ""fctsejflypr.- Luk-luk-kee is soma place rat 
or .rttm-jttm-iee, i don't know just where. 
fU Franka (Chll-lah-minst) sejrs: Luek-lucky is Old Oes- 

D lok Iraw means s grove of nice trass'. About tba 
sua of old 'Qastown't probably the famous 'Maple Tree* 
of Carrall street waa one of thorn. They stood between 
Portugese Joe's shack (at the foot of Abbott street) and 
the Sumnyside Hotel, foot of Carrall St. They stood some- 
where In the little eurre of the shore, and about the 
point where the Indian Church and Methodist parsonage 
atood. Very pretty*. 

Tate: (who helped in the dedication of the first church, 
at the foot of Abbott St.) 'There were a lot of pretty 
maple trees about there. 

Paullt It means 'grove of beautiful trees'. Luek-luek-eo' 
is the pronunciation. 

KQsVKPsVL'Tj . August Khahtsahlsno; Kun-kum-lee , means 'Tine maple' j 
the place Is the point on which the Hastings Sawmill stood. 
Pick Issaos : 'Kum-kum-lye. Point where the Hastings Saw* 
mill wss; there were a lot of maple b reee there.* 

ttll ; Kum- ktm i lye is better than Kon-kum-lai, it means 
pie trees', not vine maple'. 

CHmT-CHA UfMOT . A. number of smooth rocks or boulders grouped to- 
gether on the shore at the point where the B.C. Sugar re- 
finery now stands, up which the seals used to clamber, 
beak on the summits in the sun and sl'ther down again in- 
to the water. Location about the foot of Baymur Are. 
Hill-Tout! Chet-eheal-men. 

P*'1f 1? Cnu-ohael-men, st sugar refinery, foot of Baymur 
lreTT don't know literal meaning. Where the seals used 
to come s shore. 

piok Isaacs: Chet-ail-men, west of the sugar refinery, 
lots of sesls used to come out of the water there, and 
get on the big rocks. 
Tim Moody ; Chet-ale-mun, 'mun' not 'men*. 

""T-flmff-f II Paull: Hup-hah-pai, or pie; the early settlers called 
~t 'Cedar Wove', at the foot of the hill on Powell street; 
s large oreek entered Burrard Inlet there; it mesns 'lots 
of cedar trees there*. 

August Khahtaahlano ; Hupup-pye, or Hup-hup-pii, old 
'Cedar Core'. 

Compare Httphapallthp (Muaqueam) with Huphahpai (Squamiah), 
both refer to cedar trees. 

BPBRARD IHLBT . The strstch of inland water known as Burrard Inlet 
seems to be without name. Tim Moody, aged Indian with 
forehead made flat by former Indian practices on babies 
to accomplish this, ssys, and Andrew Paull says contrari- 
wise, and thst Tim is unreliable, that 'Slall-wit-tuth' 
includes the entire channel faom the Narrows eastward, 
and that it means 'go inside place' out of English Bay. 
Paull ssys this is a confusion of location cauaed by the 
marriage of a Coquitlam Indian to an Indian River Indian. 
The Coquitlam Indians came down to Port Moody on their 



411 



46A 



rH*-H^H-^ooT. x smell creek mouth, now at the foot of Windermere 

street, which formerly supplied the townslte settlement 
of Banting*, and of subsequent year a known acre par- 
ticularly a* tha stream which ran through th« "BAVIKI" 
in Bastings Park* 

Ob Fab. 19th 1953, Captain Charles Warren Cates, 
well known, told no that Joe Thoaas, Squamlah Indian, 
of "The Mission" Indian Beserre, Borth Vancouver, who 
died in 1951 at the age of 90, told hln as follows: 
"At one tine a small atreanwanded its way down 
through the woods from tha direction of Burnaby 
Lake, and emptied into the sea where Bastings 
see pagos Park Is now. One day a nan and a woman ap- 

72 peered from out the creek waters; it is supposed 

T3 that the flowing water ooncelTed them* lbs 

for continuation descendants of this man and woman llred there 
of coast line until the coming of the white man, and their 

Tillage of cedar slab huts on the shore at tha 
mouth was known as "CTA.-HAH-M0OT". Appar- 
ently the word interprets the story. 



On Oct. 25th 1951, Captain Char lea W. Cates told 
me that old Joe Thomas, or Pulk-way-lum. now dead, 
told him that the name of Ho. three Indian Beserre, 
between Second marrows and Roche Point, was as shown, 
see pages Khahta-aieh. 

46* 

47 

72 



412 



wrop tf p Tity continued. 47 

*ay to Indian River, and the nana attached itself to tha 
upper and of the inlet. Properly It ahould be spelt 
•Inlailwataah' and refers to Indian Biver Indian reser- 
Tstlon. Paull knows of no nans for the inlet. 

SSESrUSsS' Oleic Isaaoa r An old channel, onoe a stream of Sey- 
■our Creek, now dry, a mile east of the main part of 
Seymour Creek, and onoe part of it. The dry old channel 
is said to be atlll to be aeen, Just west of the Seymour 
Creek pipe line road, where it leaves the main channel. 
At one tine Steeteemah waa a very popular reaort for 
Indian flaherman, lota of crab, flah, salmon, etc. caught 
referring to it aa a flahlng ground* 

Tin Moody : Little creek eaat of Seymour Creek; lota of 
aslaon, trout, crab. 

|U|Bft th« Msshlano ; Don't know neanlng, ahall have to 
ask old people. 



PjajLlt Hot sure of meaning, it nay be it means something 
about »llttle river'. 



-WTO. Seymour Cream. 

frLt Chay-chil-whoak or Chay-ohil-whuk, derived frosi 
word for *near« or *narrow», perhaps refers to Second 
Harrows, but it is the name of Seymour Creek. 
Hill-Tout ; Chay-chil-whoak. Tim Moody ; Chay-chll-whak. 
August Khahtaahlano ; Chay-ohil-woak, Seymour Creek, Just 
a name, no meaning. 

WHA-*mfr»WBJ . A location on the shore between Seymour Creek and 
Lynn Creek, eaat of a email slough. 

Dick Isaaoa: *The little place of masks'; It is dlmin- 
utive or Whoi-Whol, •masks' in Stanlsy Park. 
Paull; Whqa-whi-qwa. It means 'the little place where 
masks were made. A ahingle mill stood there on the Sey- 
mour reserve. 

Tstei 'Swhy-whee', that la really the name of the mask 
itself. Whenever an Important person died they performed 
the swhywhee, or death dance. 

IWA-HOL-CH A. Lynn Creek, alao shown on Jemmett's Indian Reserv- 
ation map of 1880 as 'Fred's Creek*. 
Hill-Tout: Whoal-cha. August Khahtsahlano ; Hal-cha, 
Juat a name. Paull; Khe-ul-cha. Dick isaaca : Hahrl-cha. 
Tim Moody; Harl-eha. 
Tate ; KhaaTcha or Xhauloha ia beat spelling. 

UTH-EIMB . A email slough at the foot of the hill eaat of Moodyvllle, 
crossed by a concrete bridge now. 

Disk Isaacs : Uth-kyma, snakes there, lota of them. Indian 
no use for snakes. When white man come they all go away. 
Hill-Tout; Whal-skyme, means 'serpent pond*. 

Whath-kyme, a little slough east of Moodyvllle. 
TJth-kyme, not Whal-skyme; snakes, 
a-ka-yum, Snake slough, where the concrete bridge 
is east of Moodyvllle. 
Tate ; *Uth» means 'snake'. 






413 



8 AHTT . a point of land where the Moodyville Sawmill stood. 

inm it Khahtsahlano : Siox, It means 'point of land*. 

flmMoodrT 3ah-yiz. pick Iaaaca : Sahix. 

Paull : Sahix. Not a headland, although ita appearance 

auggeata a hold bluff rising out of a low shore spreading 

from the Pirat to the Second Harrows, hut literally, a 

•cape* or 'point*. 

Tate : Don't know word. 

B3T-aht*-T0HK . Location almoat at ferry Landing, North Vancouver, 
hut a little to the eastward of Lonsdale Are. 
Paull : Sstahltohk was at the mouth of a small creek which 
emptied into Burrard Inlet healde McAllister's Mill, now 
gone, Just eaat, about 100 yards, of the ferry landing 
at North Vanaaurer and a few feet east of Wallace's Ship- 
yards. It means *a pretty house is built there'. 

The little harbor and creek around which is now gathered 
the North Vancouver Indian Reserve and church; otherwise 
the mouth of Mission Creek. 
ill-Tout: Stlawn. August Ehahtaahlano : Sla-han 



Ho? 



Moody : Oatlaun. 
ih vanc< 



-forth vane out er Indian woman: Ua-alawn, not Slawn. 
Dick Isaacs : Slaan, right here where I live, a little 
harbor and cove used to bs here* 

Paull; TTs-tla-aun, the little creak where the Home Oil 
flo* a. "tanks are now at the foot of Bewicks St. it means 
•hesd of bey*. 

TT.*th-ii.h-ulk . Hill-Tout: It means 'saltwater creek'. Tlas-tl 
mough. 

Paull t Tlath-oah-ulk or Klath-mah-ulk, Mackey Creek. 
Augiat Khahtaahlano : KLaa-malk or Klaamauk, exactly where 
the fiapilano Timber Co* a mill is at the foot of Pemberton 
Ave. It meana 'saltwater'. 
Tim Moody : Tlaa-maulk. 
Tate: Klaamaulk la the beat spelling. 

H0-M0L-CEK-3UN . The name of the village and fortified huts which 

formerly stood on the east bank at the mouth of the Hom- 

ulcheson Creek, now called the Capllano River. 

Paull : Homultcheson, just a name, no meaning. 

gJTIProut : Homultchiaon. Khahtaahlano : Homultohiain. 

Bick laaTcs : Homul-tchlt-son; used to be Indian Houaes 

there. 

Rev. CM. Tate : I doubt whether the village waa palliaaded 

(see Hazten, aged Indian woman interpreted by Andrew 

Paull) more likely the huts were loop holed, that is the 

only form of fortification I ever saw anywhere. The Indiana 

cut holea in the cedar walla and when attacked retired to 

their houses, and ahot their arrows at the enemy through 

those holes (see drawing in Capt. Cook's Voyages at Nootka). 

Inside the earthen floor was frequently two or three, or 

even more, feet below the bottom of the wooden wall, and 

thus gave edditlonal protection. 

Tor CAPILANO refer narratives. For the story of Kokohaluk, 

see Andrew Paull's (Qoltchetahl) narrive, The Burning 

of Homulchesun, etc. etc. 



414 



PROSP ECT PO INT. 49 

HDMOLCHESOH. Conversation, August Jack Khahtaahlano, 12th. 

CAPILAHO. Sapt., 1940: (see page 475, "Coaat Indiana" (blue 

P«l»n. bound book, small). Hill-Tout»a report, 1900, to 

"British Association for Advancement of Science") 
"Klaken, i.e. paliaade, or fenced Tillage, a place on Burrard Inlet". 
August :- "He must mean the time the Fort Rupert Indians came to re- 
capture a woman (see Story of Kokohaluk, in "Early Vancouver".) 
The Squamiah stole a woman, and the fort Rupert Indians came to get 
her, but she did not want to go; that waa where they put polea 
around stockade and she oame out and told the Fort Rupert Indiana 
to go away or they would all be killed, and they would have to 
fight if they atayed where they were aa there were a lot of men in- 
aide, but ACTUALLY THERE WERE ONLY FIVE WOMEN. So they retired 
serosa the Narrowe to Proapect Point, and that was where the 
Squamiah men were in hiding; and the Fort Ruperta ran into them, 
and they all got killed". (Still another veraion of the old tradi- 
tion). 



STY-WEE . Dick leases: Swy-wee, a slough or legoon a short distance 
weat of mouth of Capilano River, and approximately at the 
foot of Eleventh atreet produced. 

Si^J^Sg.*^ •■>■*••• August Khahtaahlano : Swy-wee. 
Hill-Tout : Swai-wl. 

f* a ffi Swy-wee, a name which indicatea a species of 
amelta, and poasibly refers to where the Indiana caught 
tnem. I think the name la derived from Sway-wee, i.e. 

Tate: 'Swse-wah* or oolichan fiah, are very much like 
smelts, and no doubt all thoae inleta were at one time 
infeated with thoae fiah. I know aaveral which were, but 
no longer are. 

W.3, jreoaett»s survey of Indian Reservation on Burrard 
inlet, ate. 1880, in possession of Andrew Paull, secre- 
tary Squamiah Indian Council, ahows 'graaa' around the 
slough, and "beaver dams" at ita head inland. 
Tradition aaya Indiana spread nets or fish weira. hurdle 
nets etc., aeroas the mouth of the alough. 
??! t -? an f OT f Tar S^* 1 *"*- Tim Moody saya there ... never 
any apeciai name ror the West Vancouver shoreline aa 
there waa for Point Grey (Ulksen). 

CffiflfcAat. Marry Jack*a Point, Weat Vancouver. 

S ill-Tout : Kitch-ahm. 
lck Isaacs: Kitch-ahm, a point which sticks out west of 
Swy-wee. 

TM*¥ood y t Chid-aulm conalderable difficulty in inter- 
preting sound, sometimes seemed like tal-ahm*. 
Paull : Chut-alm or Chut-aum. 
Tate : Chutaum is a good way to apall it. 
Auguat Khahtaahlano: A point, Navvy Jack's Point. Means 
■ "■Ixup w ; The tide flowing, and the back eddy along 
the shore meet at the point, and cause a choppy water. 
i.e. "mix up*. Pronounce "Cha-tahm". 




HllL-Tout: Smul-lah-kwah. 
1 ok Iaaaca: Smua-lah-aua r a little bay weat of Chutaum. 
~uU: Smul-lah-qua, a place west of Dundarave. 
ck Iaaaca: adds, »a little eupped bay, two miles east 



415 



SMPL-LA-qPA, . continued. SO 

of Stuckale, mall creek there. 

Jim Franks: Old people go there get Mbwieh (food) niee 
quiet place, little bay high rocks on bank, a littls 
gravel beach, only three quarters all* eaat of Stuckale* 
Not so far as Dundarave. Matthias Capilano's 
people ga there long time ago. 
Tate ; Smullaqua is good spelling. 

August Khahtaahlano : 'A lot of people, I think, killed 
there, something terrible, maybe eight or nine men, per- 
haps in canoe, all killed one time, in fight or war; not 
by accident, or drowning, but killed*. 

Paull : It may be that it is some reference to the fight 
for kokohaluk, the noblewoman. 1 don't know. 

August Zhahtaahlano: It means "a thigh" (upper part of 
leg) . I don't know why. 

STOCK-ALE . Where the Great North Cannery Is at Sherman. 
Hlll-Tout t Stuck-hail* 
Tim Moo ay ; Stuck-ale. 

Pick Isaacs; Stuek-hail, now Great Northern Cannery. 
August KhaSTaa hlano : Stuc-k-ail. 'Stuok' is a rude word 
forsmell. — That's why we say 'Stuckale', a> our children 
not become rude. A bad smell, such as made by a skunk. 
Skunk Cots (Caufield's) not far away. Terrible bad smell. 
Paull ; Stuck-ale, it means literally expelling human gas. 
jryritoble. friend of Indiana, Standard Bank Bldg. 'There 
II a man living back of Caufields who has for years been 
lighting his house with natural gas; I wonder if that 
seeped out and created a smell which the Indians thought 
very bad'. 

Tate ; Stuckale is good spelling. 
WBT VANCOWBT. lest Vancouver Hollyburn Oil Co. Ltd . (grill for 
3TUCKAL1. petroleum, 1914 . A para, in the proapectua of 

Mi HB rrewxr. this company I see docket) read: "Per more than 

twenty years, oil seepages hare been known and 

reported by old timers aa occurring in this district. Seven years 
ago, George Marr, a homesteader on D.L. 815, attempted to sink a 
well for domestic use, but states he was compelled to abandon and 
refill it on account of the too abundant gaa and oil seepage. This 
Distriot lot is Included in the Company's stakings. Upon a por- 
tion of it occurs a phenominal seepage of black crude oil or pet- 
roleum, located by Mr. Albert R. Whieldon, a practical oil man of 
■an y years experience in the Pennsylvania and Ohio oil fields, who 
will now assume the active management and supervision of the com- 
pany's operations. A sample of the seepage petroleum on D.L. 815 
West Vancouver 1* laptha 84.71; Burning oil 35.08; Lubricating oil 
80.02; Bssldue 80.19—100. Assayed by G.G. West, Provincial 
Assayer. The prospectus is dated June 84th, 1914. 

STOCXAL1. The Indlsn name for tho location of the Great Northern 
Cannery? at Sherman, Weat Vancouver, Is Stuckale. "Stuck" la a 

rude word for amell; such as mads by s skunk. "Stucksls" means 
"terribly bed smell". 

In, or about 1931, J. P. Noble, a friend of the Squamish Indiana, 
office in Standard Bank Building, told me, (See "XARLT VANCOUVER", 
Matthews, Vol. 2, ps.be 30). "There is s man living back of Caulfield* 
who baa, for years, been lighting his house with natural gms; I 
wonder if the t seeped out and created the smell which the Indians 
thought very bad". 



416 



SKAY-WIT-SPT . 51 

Point Atkinson. Accent on Skay. 
Hi 11-Ton t ; Skay-awat-aut. Point Atkinson. 
August Khahtaahlano : 3ka-whut-aoot . 
Dick IsaaciT Skay-wit-sut. 

Tin Moody ; Skay-wit-aut, meana 'going around point*. 
Jim Franks ; Skay-wit-aut. 
Tate ; Skaywitsut ia beat spelling. 
Paull t Skaywiteut, means *go around point*. 




CH0LK3 . Paull t Kew Be a oh, Chulks. 

August Khahtaahlano ; Erwin Point, Chulks north of Point 
Atkinson, south of Eagle Harbor, where there is, on the 
southern tip, and in a crerasse facing south, a huge 
rock or stone five or six feet in diameter. It means *a 
■ling with a atone in it; it is the one which the Gods 
threw at Kt. Garibaldi, and which missed the mountain*. 
•A big rock stuck in a crack", says Khahtaahlano. 
See long narratiTe by August Khahtaahlano on this legend* 

e Harbor. 

111-Toutt Ke-tlala»m, i.e. *nipplng grass* so called 
e cause the deer go there in spring to est the fresh 
grass. 

Dick Isaaca ; Kee-khaal-aum, Eagle Harbor. 
A ugust gEantaahlano; Ke-earl-eum, Eagle Harbor. It means 
▼cook fish 1 , you know, Indians cook f ism with stick split 
down from top little way, slip fish in silt, stick other 
end sharp stick in ground, toast fish in front of camp 
fire. 

Paull; Khahtaahlano is wrong. It is s nice little bay, 
anall creek Kee-khaal-aum, bear and deer used to go there 
to gnaw. It means, well, you know what bearer do, gnaw, 
chew thinga. The animals used to go there to gnaw, prob- 
ably grass and young buds in spring. 

3T0AK-T0X . 'Stoaktux* , says Paull, »mean» "all cut up", that la, the 

rocks are ail cut up in channels, fluted, a little bay, 

picnic ground, ferry runs to Bowen Ialand from there. 
Stuk-tuks is too abrupt; abruptneaa deatroys sense of 
root from which it is derired. Stoaktux is better; It 
meana that the rocka are all cut up into ehannela along 
the shore. riaherman»a Cots* "'Stuck-tooks,* saya August 
Khahtaahlano, "on Howe Sound, north of Point Atkinson, 
big dance hall there now". The aouth western tip of 
Whytecliff Point, and nor. nor. west of whyte Island. It 
is shout 150 feet aouth of a house which stsnds there. 

SKDHK COVE . Au gust Khshtsahlsnot It must hare a name, but I don*t 
know It. 

KVW ° r "go naaa*7"aays Khahtaahlano, "Indiana burled mead on 
lnalde ialand. Used to be a tree on it, and, nearly 
always, an eagle on top of tree". 



417 



Horse Shoe Bay. 



CHA-HAI . Horse Shoe Bay. 

? Ill-Tout: Tchakqai 
la Moody ; Che-hye. 
Dick Isaacs : Cha-hye. 

August KhaEtaahlano: Cha-hy. *A big bay facing north, 
Horse Shoe Bay. It means that peculiar sizzling noise, 
similar to that made when frying bacon in a pan, but 
which is made by myriads of small fish, -smelts do it — 
moYing in the water*. 

Note: At one time this faint noise could be heard almost 
any summer's evening at Kltsilano Beach. It la made by 
shoals of smelt swimming in the shallow water on the 
beach; it is said to be caused by the wriggling of their 
tails. 

Paull; What August Khahtsahlano aaya may be true. Be sure 
to make it *Cha», (to distinguish it from Mr. Garibaldi), 
"Cha-hai". 

TOMBTH . Hill-Tout : means 'paint*. 

Paull : Tumbth meana the red paint with which warriora 
and maidens adorned their faces for war, ceremonies, dan- 
ces; maidens for beautiflcation, warriors for war and 
ceremonies. White woman do it, too, only pay big price 
at drug stores for same thing in fancy boxes. 



STfcSJ-I 



" Paull : 

which : 



The general term applied to 'Protected water', 
it means, inside Passage Island and between Point 
Atkinson and Gibson's Landing. It means 'sheltered water', 
Khahtsahlano : "Eye-sycbe" is any "protected water"; in 
Fmglish "a channel". There are several "eye-syche" in 
Howe Sound; channels between islands and mainland. 



Supplementary and unverified 



KWT-TOWHKIt 



Steveston, B.C. 
August Khahtsahlano : 



Qy-youka, or Kwy-yowhk. 



Ferra Nova Cannery, south end Sea Island. 
August Khahtsahlano : Why-kit-sen. 

Chief Matthias Capilano; Tumtemayhtun was an Indian place 
afterwards known to whltemen as 'Old Orchard*. 
Khahtsahlano : At Balcarra, not loco. 



CHB-CHJC-TOH-KK . 

Khahtsahlano: 
twins. 



The Lions opposite Vancouver, meaning: - 



418 



53 
BICBBPT3 - "Burly Vanoouver". Vol. 8 - page 7 . 

Memo of conversation with August Jack Khahtaahlano . (Kitallano, 
Sob of Khay-tulk, ana grandaon of Chief Haataa-lah-nough of 
Chaythoos) at City Hall, Jan. IS, 1934. 

Auguat Jack (aon of Supplejack, or Khay-tulk) was born under 
the present Burrard Street Bridge, the then Indian village of 
Snauk, and aaya he la now 59. (See "Early Vancouver", Vol. 2, 
Matthews) . 

-WHO I Query: "How many families were living at Whoi-Whol 



"PARK in Stanley Park when you were a boy?" (about 1881- 

1886.) 

August Jack: (After reflecting) "There were eleven 
families. That»a a long time ago. There waa old 'Chunth' in 
one house, then there was Ce-yowcihwa-lia in the next houae, and 
Ahtsulk was in the next; then there were eight families more; 
there must have been more than 100 Indians all told living in the 
four houses. These man's names have no meaning; just names. I 
forget all the family names; it's such a long time ago." 

INDIAN H0U3BS . Query: 2How old were thoae Indian houaes?" 

August Jack: "Oh, very old, there long before me. 
Tou know the Lumberman's Arch in Stanley Park. Well, the big house 
was about 200 feet long, and sixty feet wide, and it stood right 
equa»e in front of Lumberman's Arch at the foot of the trail 
from the Japanese Monument. That waa the 'real' pow-wow house. 
The name of it was TAT-HAT, no meaning; just name, amd six famil- 
ies lived in it. 

"Then, to the west of it, waa a smaller house, about 30 
feet front and sixteen feet deep with a sort of little kitchen 
at the back; I think two families lived in that." 

"Then to the weat again was a smaller houae, about twenty- 
four by sixteen feet deep; one family lived in that, and on the 
extreme west wss another pow-wow house—It waa measured once, 
and I think the measurement was ninety-four feet front by about 
forty feet deep; the front waa about twenty feet high; the back 
about twelTe feet. Here two families lived." 

■All these houses stood in a row above the beach, facing the 
water; all were of cedar alaba and big posts; all built by the 
Indiana long ago." 

(The picture "Before the Pale lace Came" (Illustrated by 
John Innes, prepered by J.S. Matthews) waa hanging on the wall as 
ws conversed. It records the Indlen plsoe namea of Burrard Inlet 
and Sngliah Bay.) "That's not right," ssid August Jack, pointing 
to the hut. "That roof got two slopes, Squamlah Indian hut only 
one slope, from front to back, and the posts are always outside, 
snd" (pointing to roof beams) "the top part stick out; see the 
ends of the timbers, so" (drawing with pencil on piece of pepsr). 
"The door always In the end, one at eaoh end. of house, right in 
oorner under highest part of roof, not in the middle of end. Hole 
for smoke? Bo hole for smoke; just poke up with stick and slide 
boards off hole In roof, not like northern Indisn House. Light? 
Ho windows, but holes in side along front of house; mot very big 



419 



PCgRPTS - 'Barlr Van couver*. Tol.3 continued - page 8,9 54 

* ISA 
no lea, not very many, in big pow-wow house (800* X SO') perhaps 
maybe, four; no glass for window; Just cover hole with something 
when no light wanted or to keep out wind. The aide and all the 
walla just eedar slabs on aide; cedar alaba on roof; the beans 
stick out all round Just under roof." 

Query: "How about posts for support of sides?" 
*?*¥** J *^ kt ***** •*■• «•• «nds, only smaller. Cedar slsbs 
dropped in between posts, and posts fastened together with little 
eedar bougha twiated together. Posts only tied in two or three 
plsoss up and down; windows, night be four windows In the 200 
feet *Tay-hsy»; they don*t put in much (for light). No holes to 
shoot bow and arrow through at enemy; use windows; when they as 
light, Just open it; they had something to coyer window over w*&n 
want to. Tes; the floor was esrth." 

IMPT ^ff PaWIf- *i«ry: "Any totem poles?" 

August Jack : "Ho, not outside, but might be 
cerved on post inside house." 
Query: "Any canoes?" 

August Jack: "Tes, on beooh, lots canoes; some men got three, 
some men two, bigger canoe, smaller canoe. 
Query! "Any dogs?" 

August Jack: "oh, yes, lots dogs, Indian dogs, not whltemena 
dogs." 

Query: What about water? There's no creek at Whol-Whol." 
Auguat Jaok: "Ko creek there; have wall; Indian dig him; about 
six feet deep; uae eedar board bueket. 

CHIP HAAJgi-T^raTrngta HOBB. "Our house beside a little creek 

at Chsy-thoos, you know end of 
pipe line rood; just where you start to go up hill to Bunts." 
Query t "I though Suntz waa at the bottom of Proapect Point, a 
rook on the beech by the lighthouae?" 

Auguat Jack: "Tea; that's right, but Suntz la all the wey up the 
hill, too: up top too; all Suntz" (motioning from bottom upwarda 
with hand). 

,um of ConTersatlon with Auguat Jack Khahtsahlano . November 



IMDIAHS, number before whltemen came. 

Query: " Bow many Indiana do you suppose lived around Borrard Inlet 



and mgliah Bay before the whltemena came?* 
August Jsck: (exaggerating): "About a 'million*. There waa a 
settlement at B-yal-mough (Jericho), another at Snauq (Burrard 
Bridge), at Ay-yul-ahun (tngllsh Bay Beach), at Stait-wouk (Second 
Beaeh), at Chsy-thoos (Proapect Point), at Who! -Who! (Lumberman*a 
Arch), at Bmmuleheaun (Cspllano), at TJstlswn (Berth Vancouver), 
at Chsy~ehil~wuk (Seymour Creak)— there waa nothing at Lynn Creek 
—and more aettlementa up the inlet besides the one st KUm-kum- 
lye (Bastings Sawmill)." 

MJSQUSAIB. Query: "Boa la it that the muaoueama claim that 

Bhgllam Bay and Burrard Inlet la their territory and 
that it did not belong to the Squamlah? All the mamas for the 
places on Bngllsh Bay and Burrard Inlet are Souamlah names, but 
the muaoueama say that the Souamlah did not live down here until 



420 



EXCERPTS - 'Early Vancouver'. Vol. 3 continued - 55 

page 13A.14 fc 15 
the Haatinga Sawmill atarted, and that gave them work. 
Auguat Jack ; (amlling) - "Muaqueam'a got no claim. They claim 
Snauq, hut they've got no righta. They not build a houae there; 
Squamish build houae there. Muaqueama juat come round from North 
Arm to fiah on the sandbar (Granville Ialand) and up False Creek, 
and then they go away again, but Squamish build houae. 

POTLATCH "Jericho Charlie (Chen-nal-aet) , my atep-father, he 

build big house, thouaand feet long, cedar alab aides, 
cedar ahake roof, out at B-yal-mough, he hold big potlatch, great 
big potlatch, that before my time. 

Memorandum of Converaatlon with August Jack Khahtsahlano. on a 
special all day trip from Vancouver to Squamlah on the Union 
Steamship "Capllano" for the purpose of having him point out 
location of Indian pieces of Interest, November 28, 1934. 

Query: "Why did the Squamlah make their home at a point like 
Squamish? Squamish is not as nice a place as Whol-Whoi, Stait- 
wouk, or Syalmo; anywhere on English Bay or Burrard Inlet?* 
Khahtsahlano: "Squamlah their home; lota salmon, deer, beaver. 
In the summer time they go down English Bay and Burrard Inlet to 
get email fiah, amelta, herring, oollchana, and dry them, and get 
clams, get berrlea; lota summer food down Burrard Inlet. Suck 
easier to get at English Bay than Squamlah. Indian catch duck at 
night, apear them; go out in canoe; put cedar alaba across canoe, 
mud on top, then put fire, pitch stick ao not make noiae when 
burning (crackle) on top mud; when duck see light of fire in 
dark, he get curious, oome nearer canoe, see what it is. Man in 
bow have apear on end pole twenty feet long; man in canoe peddle 
aa hard as ha can. Canoe for (hunting) duck apeclally built; 
very narrow, very awift. Paddler in atern not ralae his paddle; 
keep it In water aa much aa he can, so aa not to scare dudtj he 
make canos go fast; that' a way get near duck at night with fire 
in canoe. 

SgJAMISH TERRITORY According to Khahtaahlano, the boundary of 

the territory of the Squamlah people extended 
over the entire area of Howe Sound and Burrard Inlet. On the 
weat, their territory commenced near the point known as Gibson's 
Landing; to the north of Gibsons, lived the Sechelts, In whose 
language the Squamlah could not easily converse. The Squamish 
Country extended aixty miles up the Squamish River to the Shovel 
Nose Indian Reaerve (Spring Salmon Creek). Eastwards it included 
all English Bay, and Burrard Inlet up to Indian River and Port 
Moody. Khahtsahlano aaya its southern extremity ended at the tip 
of Point Grey (Chit-ehil-a-yuk), but others ssy at Mahley, Just 
west of Muaqueam. The probability is thst Khahtsahlano is correct. 

Khaht sahlano aaya : "Capilano whitemana word; not Squamish; no 
*cap* In Squamlah; whitemana ssy »cap»llano. Indian word »Kee-ap- 
ee-la-nogh. 



421 



56 

INDIAN VILLAGES AWT) T,ANDMARKS 

HOWE SOUND AND HURRAED INLET. 

Before the Whltemana came to Tln-ta-mayuhk 

aa narrated in converaationa with, and spelt from the pronuncia- 
tion of August Jack Khahtaahlano, (grandson of Chief Haatsalanogh, 
after whom Kitailano is named), born at the Indian village of 
Snauq, Falsa Creek, about 1876-8, the locations being pointed 
out by him on special trips to Howe Sound for the purpose in 
1934-5. 

J. 3. MATTHEWS 



TIM-TA-MAYUHK 

Khahtaahlano ; "Means 'my country', that la, all of the terri- 
tory occupied by the Squamish Indian peoples". 

SKO-MISH-OATH 

Khahtaah'lano : in 1934: "It Is the name of the country or 
territory of the Squamish Indian peoples, and includes all 
Howe Sound and Burrard Inlet, (includes English Bay) fro* 
Staw-ki-yah, a creek west of Gibson's Landing to the tip of 
Point Grey; all the land in between belongs to the Squamish". 

Note ;- Other authorities (Indian) say to Mahly, just 
west of Muaqueam, and that Mahly was Muaqueam territory 
"leased" to their friends the Squamish; Khahtsahlano thinks 
Point Grey was the territorial boundary; Ayatak, (see "Early 
Vancouver", Vol.2, p. 7 and 8), says False Creek and English 
Bay belonged to Musqueams, and adds "Squamish and Musqueana, 
alaa Seehelta, always good friends". On the west, Staw-ki- 
yah, near Roberts Creek, was the boundary beyond which Ehaht- 
sahlano says "Squamish must not go". Skomiahoath included 
Port Moody, and Indian River, and extended many miles up the 
Squamish River, ( JSM) . 



HOWE SOUND 



EAST SIDE 

SKATWITSUT 



ahtsahlano: 
lill-Tout: 



Skaywltsut. 
Skeawatsut. 



Point Atkinson. 

Meaning: "Go around point." (See 'Early Vancouver', Vol.2) 



Chulks, i.e., "stone in sling". 
Stcilks, i.e., "sling". 

Actual location Irwin Point* 
(See 'Early Vancouver', Vol. 2.) 



ihtsahlano ; 

Bill-Tout ; 

Kew Beach: 



422 



Pg BEACH 57 

OnTouth aide; a boulder about fifteen feet diameter; resting 
in the top of a great crevice, thirty- five feet deep about; 
tapering from twelve feet wide at the top. An Indian God was 
whirling the boulder in a sling; gathering speed to throw at 
Mt. Garibaldi for the purpose of knocking off the top which 
waa considered to be too high; and his arm, touching a raven 
(or a slave), his aim was spoilt, and the boulder missed its 
mark, and fell at Chulks, or Kew Beach; and still remains there. 

KEKCTTART-STIU 

""" JLhahtaahlano; Kee-kharlsum, i.e., "gnawing". 
Hill-Tout ; EeElalsm, i.e., "nipping grass". 

Eagle Harbor: (see 'Early Vancouver', Vol. 2.) 

3TUKT0K3 



itaahlano ; April, 1937. Stuktoks, i.e., "rocka all cut up 
into grooves, or ribbed", i.e., "rocks all cut 
up". "Supposed to be a sea serpent, he has bit- 
ten the other sea serpent; two of the fight; 
one bites the other, and cut him in two, and 
the Indians call the place Stuktuka, which means 
"all cut up ". (Fluted). 
Hill-Tout; Stoktoks. 

fisherman's Cove: Actual location — The aouth western tip of 
Whytecliffe Point. 
(See 'Early Vancouver,' Vol. 2.) 

"ahtsahlano : Cha-Hai, i.e., "sizzling noise". As when frying 
bacon. Caused by myriads of small fish wrig- 
gling on surface of water. 
Hill-Tout : Tcakqai. 

Horse Shoe Bay: (See 'Early Vancouver', Vol. 2.) 



IT) MTU 

if 



htsahlano : 
1-Tout: 
aoichetahl : 



jpi«ht.«nh1i»nn; 



[htsahlano : 



Tumth, i.e., "red paint for faces". 

Tumtls, i.e., "paint". 

Tumbth. 

"Two and one half miles north of Horse Shoe Bay. 
Supposed to be a red rock. A white house there 
now, near the gravelly beach, but I don't know 
where the red rock is now; perhaps once upon a 
time they got red paint there". 
It is south of a line drawn east and west 
through the southern point of Bowyer Island. 
Tumth is the mouth of a creek which runs through 
D.L. 2365; today there is one dwelling north, and 
one dwelling south of the mouth of the creek. 

Pahpk, i.e., Just a name. Significance: "A 
white head." A grey white, irregular, but 
generally triangular, bare spot high up on the 



423 



PAHPt - continued. 



56 



mountain aide, visible for miles from the see. 
It la approximately a mile north of a line drawn 
eaat and west acroas the north end of Bowyer Is- 
land. Trees cannot grow upon the triangular bare 
apot aa the alope la too ateep. There Is a rook, 
white-washed by engineer* or surTeyors— a surveyor's 
location nark or leTel— on the beach below Paphk. 
Just past Tumth, about due weat of 1ft. Strahan, a 
"white" rock about 1000 feet up the Mountain aide; 
big bare kind of rock, like a elide. I think it Is 
reached by going up Newman Creek. 

Ifahl t Means "It looks white"; swat be aoaething white 
on mountainside; I think word la derived from 
"white" which in Indian is "puck." 



.taahlano' 




•hid Tin 



hlano : Eul-ate-atun, not mi-*te-taun. 
Bulatsen. 
: KUt-ate-tsun. 



Khshtsahlano ; 



A bay with good camping beach, gravelly, and s 
creek; little ahaok there now. Alberta Bay Is 
south of Kul-ate-atun and north of Paphk. Bal- 
ate-etun la slightly aouth of about due west of 
1ft. Brunswick. A long, low, flatlsh mound of 
groan between forest and shore; the gravelly 
beach next, north of Alberta Bay; the low green 
mound of the point, Kulatestun, is Immediately 
north of the gravelly beech. It is on D.L.1B15, 
north of the point, but aouth of the aerosk. 
There is a cottage there. 

Moaning: "Soma times they fight", i.e., war, 
battleground; Indian fight. 



ffjMe 



JS©.: 



Kharl-kum-atauwk. Decks Creek. A creek, which 
comes down a ateop tunnel-like ravine, and 
reaches the sea on a narrow rocky shore. Nothing 
also there; a aolltary apot below a wild mountain- 
side. About three miles aouth of Porteau, about 
due east of Centre Island; a creek. 
Meaning: "They claim it la aoaething which is 
bad; everubody seared of it; sometimes s kind of 
big flsn come out of the water; word means some- 
thing people are aeared of." (and adds) "Andy 
Paul! is wrong; •Stahl-kum-etabwk" is not the 
woy to say it." 

Copt. Charles Warren Cstea, of C.E. Cates fc Sons, North Van- 
couver, came into the City Archives, searching for material 
about Indian place names up Howe Sound. Capt. Cates speaks the 
•quamlsh language, more or less proficiently. 



424 



KHABL-KUM-STAPTO continued 

Capt. Cates : n I was talking to old (an Indian 

at Squamiah) , and be was tailing me about tbat place (Kharl- 
kum-atauwk) . He said tbat tbere was an old Indian witch, 
and sbe bad a basket, made out of snake skins, and sbe used 
to catch Indian children, and put them in the basket, and 
afterwards eat them, and the people did not know where the 
whildren were going to, or disappearing to. Then one day, 
when she had a little boy in her basket, the sun got got, and 
the snake skins stretched, and the little boy in it, squeezed 
out and ran home and told the people. (I did not quite catch 
the connection, as Capt. Cates continued); there are seven 
rocks there; each one represents something bad, like devils; 
seven devils". 

Kharl-kua-atauwk, as August Jack Khahtsahlano tells in "Sarly 
Vancouver", must be something which is very bad indeed; no 
wonder people are scared of It. 



59 



SHDK-qK-SBH 

Khahtsahlano; 



Hill-Tout: 
itchetahl: 
ahtsahlano; 



Shuk-sen. A bare point of rock rising in huge 
steps or benches and a few scattered fir trees. 
There is a nice place at the foot, a little bay- 
not shown on small scale maps — "just large enough 
to fit a canoe, a little bay about thirty feet 
wide and a gravelly beach." 
Skutukaen, i.e., promontory, 
a promontory, but doss not know location. 
Half a mile north of Kharl-kum-stauwk. It is a 
point of land about due east of the south end of 
Anvil Island, and on the shore about the middle 
of D.L. 8937. 
Meaning: "A flat nose point", a nice place. 



WgAU^ 



sahlano ; 



Whau-oha-ha. Approximately Porteau (Schooner 
Harbor); a gravel pit and a gravel crusher there 
and a number of abandoned buildings. The exact 
location ia a oove heltered by a tongue of land, 
at the south west corner of D.L. 1748. 
Meaning: "Little Sturgeon". 



""'" gaSsa^ 



fr>ltchetshl: 



Un-witn-spat(or spaht)-kun. The flat place on 
the left or southern bank of the mouth of lurry 
Creak, a mile end one half mile north of Porteau. 
Viewed from the aea, this place eppeara as a 
few aersa, mora or lesa rising from the shore, 
and covered with alder and such trees. The 
southern shore of D.L. 1290. 

Meaning: "A little preirie," nioe little place. 
Un-with-apahthk-kun. (Khahtsahlano disagrees, 
and inaiata "spaht.") •Spahthk-kun" means a 
place where there ia grass when the tide spas 
out, but covered when the tide ia in; "un-with" 
meana "middle" or "centra". 



425 



3Y-ITS 

"Khahtsahlano ; 



KHUL-KALOS 

Khahtsahlano ; 



Hill-Tout t 

WOK-WtH-KPM 

Khahtaahlano: 



60 

Sy-its. Furry Creek between Uh-with-apat-kun 
and Khul-kalos, nothing there now other than 
a creek. Ho meaning, Juat a name. Sy-its 
is the mouth of Furry Creek. 

Khul-kaloa. A perpendicular flat face of bluff 
about 300 yards north of Furry Creek, a bare 
face of rock, about 30 feet above water; (Loa 
aa Sigliah 'dose'.) It ia Juat inalde the bay 
which facea couth and to the east of the point 
pointing south. It ia on D.L, 2018. 
Meaning: "Painted with streaks", aa of streaks 
of red paint on faoe, from noae across hori- 
zontally aa in Indian adornment. They claim 
that when the big tide came, some fellow painted 
the bluff to see if the tide was going to stop; 
the paint is there yet. When the tide was coming 
up the man painted horizontal bars across the 
rook so as to mark the place where it stopped. 
Paint marks are there yet. Viewed from a pass- 
ing passenger steamer this rock appear a as a 
perpendicular face of rock and the streaks ap- 
pear yellow and perpendicular rather than red 
and horizontal. It is conceivable that the 
waters of a tidal wave might have reached this 
rock. The Squamish have a legend of a "flood", 
qilketoa, i.e., painted. 



A lot of square blocks of rock on the shore; a 
white man would call them trunks or boxes. They 
are just outside the point which points south. 
Wuk-Wuk-Kum is due west of Khul-kalos and on 
D.L. 2018. 

Note by J-S.M. The blocks of stone are by no 
means exactly square; rather they are very 
angular and lie one upon another in a cluster 
on the water's edge north of a rock crevaaae 
in which a number of small fir trees grow, and 
a rock bluff above. There are two such collec- 
tions; Wuk-wuk-kum is the more southernly. 



THP-THDWT 

ijhtsahlano: 



Thu-thowt. A bluff near the edge of the water, 
about 100 yards or so north of Khulkalos. 
Meaning: "Herrings", i.e., the bluff looks 
like a lot of herring. To see the "Herrings" 
which are in the face of the rock a few feet 
above the water, it ia necessary to approach 
very close. From Brlttanla Beach dock, Thu- 
thout appears as a bold headland to the south. 
When passing in a passenger steamer it appears 
thus. (It is on (about) D.L. 2934). 



426 



Qoltchetahl: 



WHOL-UM-YOS 61 

Khahtaahlano : Whul-um-yos. North of Thu-thowt, a long rock 
about £4 feet long lying on top of the bluff 
about 90 feet above the water. "Tos" pron- 
ounced similar to "dose". 

Meaning: "He was a man looking down the bluff". 
Whwolumyose . 

Note bT J.3J. A rock; plainly Tisible, but 
bard to locate among many others on a rooky 
eminence If Its exact position Is unknown, ly- 
ing apparently balanced, beside a telegraph or 
electric power pole* It is on (about) D.L. 
2932. "He was a man, lying on his stomach, 
looking down orer the edge of the bluff". 

Note by jAM» Xnul-kalos, Wuk-wuk-kua, Thu- 
thowt, and Wnul-um-yos are all within a distance 
of one quarter of a mile. 
TAT-irnf 

Z large, Irregular rock, very Irregular, at the water's edge, 
three hundred ysrds north of Whulumyos. It is perhaps thirty 
feet long, ten feet high, flatish on top, and sits on the 
beach with its irregular sharp-looking edges overhanging. 
Pronounced as Tea", alternative for "Yes". Khahtaahlano says 
it means "something about sharpening (tools) right on the edge 
of the water". , (A huge stone). Location— believed to be (on 
shore) of D.L. 4011, but not yet verified. 



Huey-quah-lahun. A. good, sheltered ibay with 
gravel beach and creek, a mile south of Brit- 
annia Beach. A dozen or more small cottages— 
shacks— ranged in a row along the shore between 
an extensive grove of alders and the water. 
The exact location of Huey-qwah-lahun is where 
the creek empties Into the see. Immediately 
to the south is s small knoll. It is on D.L. 
2925. Meaning: "A lot of little trout". 



SWAfi- 



ahtsahlano: 



An enormous smooth surface boulder, or rock, 
light grey, large as a house, within a few feet 
of salt water beside a gravel pit, bunkers, and 
cottage— perhaps four hundred ysrds south of 
Britannia Beach Mill on D.L. 2001 
Meaning: "A loon* (species of wsterfowl). 

Legend (Khahtsahlano): "An Indian fellow 
(recluse) lived at Swah-ko. He have loon for 
pot. He don*t like peoples come too close his 
place; he wants people stay away; he hates 
peoples go close. So, when peoples come by in 
canoe, he lets pet loon go. The peoples see 
loon, snd go after it, they ohase the loon, but 
Its hard to oatch, they can't catch It. The 



427 



3WAB-K0 continued 



Khahtaahlano : 
CHB-SHT-P -fTAJ 

BBSBBam 

Hill-Tout ; 
Ihahtaahlano : 

Hill-Tout: 

LOCK-LOW-1 



taahlano : 



62 

loon goes too fast for any kind of canoe. By 
the time the peoples est tired and give up the 
ohaae, they have been drawn far away from Swah- 
ko; then the loon cornea home* 

It was a aubterfuge to get the peoples 
not to come and stay near his place. The 
who owned the pet loon lived at Swah-ko". 



Britannia Creak* 

It muat have a name. 



but I never heard it. 



Che-shy-u-hsi. A little island north of Brit- 
annia Beach, about three quarters of a mile, 
not shown on some maps but ahown on charts; 
about 150 feet long, and eighty feet wide. 
Meaning: "Where they keep the dead." English 
•Graveyard". 
Cicaioqpi. 



Salts-sa-ken. Watts Point — a point of bare 
rock and some fir trees. Meaning: "Tall bunch 
grass growing there in the water"* 
Cetsaken. 



Lock-low-kala. Hart point north of Watts Point. 
Three rooks ait there olose to the water. 
Meaning: "There waa Indian peoplea from Pen- 
barton sitting there". 

The legend la that the three rooks 'a it ting 
on the beach' at Lock-low-kala were three Indian 
parsons from Pemberton, wailing to get a ride in 
a canoe to Squamish. Khahtaahlano aaya; "They 
did not know if anyone was psasing in a canoe, 
so they were just waiting in the hope that aome 
one would come along and take them m Squamish. 



Whal-wha-layten . A point pointing north on map. 
▲ big round white rook, may be 14 feat high on 
beach, almost due south of Britannia Wast. 
Viewed from Squamish dook, this rook shows up, 
clear and distinct, as a bar*, grey-white rook 
lying one hundred and fifty yards along the 
shore against s green background of forest* 

Seanin/c : "That's where the schooner anchored 
ban the first whlteman come". That's why thay 
oall it that. In Squamish language Indian is 
"atal mough", and a whlteman Is "lha-layten" . 
Whayimten moans "one whlteman", "thal-wha-lay- 
ten" means "lots of whitemans". 
Kal-kaa-leith-ten. (A pronunciation vigorously 
dlaputed by Khahtaahlano; • 



428 



WHIN-NOS 

EEahtaahlano: 



QHsT-SAY-gBB-AlIK 
Khahtsahlano: 



63 



QWr-3ABT-30ATSW 
Ihahtsahlano: 



Whin-nos. A bay, no flat land there, looking 
north toward* Squamlah; they have been taking 
out aoffle gravel there. Meaning (roughly): 
•looking this way*, that ia, towards Squamlsh, 
or 'the bay which faces Squamlsh'. 

Qhat-aay-kee-awk. A aharp rock aitting on the 
beach cloae to the water, north of the bay of 
Whlnnos. 

Meaning: "It's a aharp top rock, aa if I were 
to Jab you; it's sharp". From Squamlah, it 
appear a aa the firat grey-white streak of bare 
rook lying along the water's edge, south of 
Qhut-saht-soat-s in . 



A little 



Whut-saat-soat-ain. At Shannon Bay. 
island connected with the mainland. 
Meaning: If it was an island it would be 
"Squtaaha", but it is connected wltm the land, 
hence Whut-saat-soat-sin. A grey-white bare 
rook with a few fir trees. 



Hill-Tout : 
3KDX-0W 



WHOH-NTJCg 



Koh-qwot-kum. A waterfall high on the mountain- 
side. Meaning: "Make noise like drum". "Koh- 
kwotkum ia not the great waterfall, but is 
near the beach; it's a big stone, and the water 
rushes down oyer it, runa up on it, and aa it 
goes oyer, makes a noise like rumelrumelrumel- 
rumel; Kohqwhotkum is between Qhut-saht-soat- 
sin and Skul-ow". 

Kukutwon; i.e., waterfall. 

The town of Squamlsh lies st the foot of a 
towering mountain of sandstone, thousands of feet 
high; nearer lies a lesser mountain similar in 
appearance, but very much smaller. The exact 
location of Skul-ow is at the foot of the cliff 
st the northern extremity of the smaller moun- 
tain, almost adjourning the south end of the 
Squamlsh Indian Reserve, and consists of little 
benches of rocks where the beaver used to con- 
gregate and eat their fish; i.e., flounder, etc., 
they caught nearby. 

On Squamlsh townsite. There, on the west aids 
of the north end of th* Squamlsh Book, on about 
the site of Galbrsith's store — the Indian war- 
riors displayed on poles the heads of their foes 
decapitated in warfare. The word signifies 
"whore they hang the heads of their enemies". 
In former Indian battle, the warriors cut off 
the heads of the fallen foe, brought th* heads 
back as trophies, beached their war canoss at 
Whoh-nuck. 



429 



WHOH-NUCk continued 
Khahtsahlano : 



64 



KWDM-KWUM 

Khah~taahlano: 



AT-SAYM-KWUM-KWOM 
Khahtaahlano: 



"There was no village there; It was just where 
they hung the heads. The village was scross 
the river". "They suspended the heads, one 
above the other, from a tall pole, like fruit 
on a vine. Then," says Khahtsahlano , "when 
the Squamiah people come along, they count them, 
and see whose the bravest man; whose got most 
heads on his pole." 



Kwum-Kwum. Defence Island, the largest of two 
islands. Meaning: "When you are in a canoe, 
you get off", i.e., "go ashore". It means, 
"Where you beach your canoe, and get out of it, 
and go ashore". They bury Indian dead there. 



The small and outside island of the two Defence 
Islands. 



THLA-HOOM 

Khahtsahlano: 



_jltchetahl : 

fill-Tout: 




Thla-hoom. Irby Point on Anvil Island; not 
Anvil Island itself. The island was a good 
hunting ground for deer, but I don't know its 
meaning, perhaps just a name. Indians mean the 
whole island when they say "Thla-hoom", but 
there's a point there". ( Note ;- He appears to 
contradict himself, but not when his meaning 
is understood. JSM) 

Tlah-hom is the best I can do in English. 
Tlaqom, i.e., Anvil Island. 



So-sah-latch. The most easternly cape or point 
on Anvil Island. A big blunt promontory on S.E. 
corner of Anvil Island. 

Meaning: In a general way, "shelter", "at on* 
time they had lots of Kliskis (mats) there; they 
keep lots kliskis there, give you shelter; keep 
you warm". 

Khahtsahlano narrates "when the Squamiah moved 
from place to place they took with them large 
mats, about ten feet wide, fifteen feet long, 
and then, erected a flimsy framework of four 
corner poles with connecting pole rafters, hung 
the mats around the sides and spread them over 
the top to provide a temporary rude shelter 
from wind and rains, etc. ffhen erected, the 
tent-like protection is a "sah-latch"; "so" 
means "lots", i.e., "so-sah-latch" - "lots of 
mats". 



K1A- 



sablano: Kwa-layt-kum. Centre Island. 

Meaning: "Where the sea-gulls hatch' 



qpltchetehl; "Where sea-gulls are to be found". 



430 



64A 



THE LEGEND 

STAH-HJ3.~or STAW-HJS . 
( Andy's gay. )~ 
Gambler Island 



Captain Charlea Warren Catea, of Messrs. C.H. Catea & Sona, 
tug boat owners, North Vancouver, la well versed on Indian 
lore, but It should be remembered that he la a "whiteman" tell- 
ing a Squamiah Indian legend according to what he recalla of 
what Squamiah Indiana have told him, and la ao liable to err. 

JSM 
• • . . 

Captain Catea to Major Mat thews i- 
June I9th l851 . 

"Staa-pus? Staa-pus? That's right in 
Andy's Bay; Gambler Ialand; west side. In Squamiah Indian myth- 
ology the wren waa called "Tha turn turn". That's long ago when 
Indian man and blrda ware interchangeable to suit. "Tha turn turn" 
was recognised aa a "great man". The mink waa "ky-ah". In Ind- 
ian times tha man who could 'throw' the biggeat potlatch waa tha 
biggest »ahot». The mink decided he would »throw« a potlatch 
at Stas-pus, which is a plaoe like the 'Malkin Bowl' in Stanley 
Park; music bowl; overhanging cliff. So the mink Ky-ah~hia 
name when in man form— deoided to invite all and sundry to hia 
potlatch, Including the whale, known aa "quinace". According 
to tha Squamiah Indian, the whale came in and began greedily 
eating the fiah, and plugged the hole, or mouth of the bowl. All 
the other guests ware inside. 

"As waa common at most potlatchea, moat 
of tha Indian chiefa boaated of their own importance, and "tha 
turn turn", the wren, got up and sang a aong, and the son waa 
"tun tun chin sea-ampt"; that is "turn turn la chief"; he sang it 
twice. "Man ho-ich-in see-ampt", that means "I am the greateat 
chief"; "alia whale ■rub.", that means, "of everybody". The mink 
"Ky-ah"; he knew this was true, and it made him jealoua. The 
mink was married to "Smum-aht-ain", who was a skunk, and she and 
her relations were in the hole with the other gueata. 

"When Ky-ah, the mink, could stand the 
■turn turn" no longer, Ky-ah started to alng, and he sang "ahowta 
kah; ahowta kah; kwun shwa tay-uk, tay-uk". That waa, apparent- 
ly, an obscene song about the skunk, and with that Ky-ah's wife, 
"Sanm-aht-sln", the skunk, and all her relations 'let go*. 

"The whale waa in the hole and could 
not swim backwards. The wren and the blue jay can fly straight 
up, and when they saw, and amelled what waa happening, they shot 
up through a hole in tha roof of tha bowl and got away. The 
remainder of the guests were suffocated, and the whale died, and 
turned into stone, and ia there yet at 3tah-pua; that'a Andy's 
Bsy". 

City Arohives, City Ball, 
Vancouver, 19th June, 1951. 
JSM 



431 



65 



t ashlano: 



llay-naych-kwa-layt-kum. White Book Island. 
Meaning: "Outside", "away from", "further"; 
Kwalaytkum (Centre Island) la "another island 
for the same purpose". (Sea-gulls). Haych 
means "away from", Hay-Naych means "beyond", 
"away out". 



tsahlsno: 



Khahtsahlano : 



3MI3MP3~3ULCH 

Khahtsanlano : 

Hill-Tout : 

PU3-PP3-K0-KB 

Khahtsahlano : 



Khahtsahlano : 
gJOI-TP-OPOI 



nwApfr-yngCH 



K*pul. A tiny islet, barely above the surface 
at high tide, straight south from White Book 
Island. The name refers to a fish, fifteen or 
eighteen inches long, something like a whiting; 
its scales are loose. I think its English name 
Is codfish. Lots of seal on top of K*pul. 



Thowk-Tioh. Bowyer Island. 
Meaning: "It*s all rock bluff". 

Smlsmus~suleh. Passage Island. 

Meaning: "The waves go over it all the time." 

Mitlmetleltc. i.e., Passage Island. 

Puspus Koee, Woolrldge Island. in island, steep 
rock all round, no flat land, northwest Gembier 
Island; east of Port Mellon. 



Many names on Gambler Island— cannot recall all, 
but here are one or two: 

QJJOI-TO-QPOI or KWB-TO-KWI 

Khahtsahlano: A bay on the north east corner of 

Gembier Island. 1 large bay, facing northeast 

of ELklns Point. ELkins Point forms the west 

horn of the crescent. Meaning: (approi.) "lots 

of second growth (balsam) there. 

Kha htsahlano % (Quol-yu-quoi) "I am not sure of 

the location; it may be the big bay Just south 

of Stahpus". 

Hill-Tout : Eoekoi. 

CHABL-KOHCH 

Khahtsahlano : Charl-kunch. Port Graves. 

Meaning: "Tlong) Deep bay." 

HlU-Tont : Tcalkunts, but gives location as 

■Gambler Island". (See similar confusion re 

Beep Cove, given as "Bo wen Island". Hill-Tout 

was not engaged on geographical work, but on 

work aa a linguist. He probably meant "at or 

on Gambler Island"* 



STAB-POS 



STAH-PUS 
Khahtsahlano : 



A cave, or overhanging rook above 



432 



66 

GAMBIER ISLAND continued 

a ledge which together form an open mouth 
"cave" on the west coast of Gambler Island. It 
is on a. point a short distance south of moun- 
tain marked on maps as "3176 Feet." There was 
a log shoot about quarter mile south of Stahpus. 
The Indian legend is that the skunks held a 
pot latch in the cage; the rikunks gathered the 
fish, and put them in the cave, so that they 
could have a big feast. The cave— not a real 
cave, but an overhanging rock roof with ledge 
below— is about eighty feet long, and fifteen 
feet above high water. 

Another legend is that a whale was jambed 
lengthwise along the mouth of the cave and 
thus jambed all the little fish In between 
the whale's body and the walls of the cave; the 
little fish could not get out, and the skunks 
gobbled them all up. 
Meaning: "An overhanging". 



HO-M^Hinf 



HO-MAHMK 

Khahtsahlano : Ho-mahmk. A bay on east shore of 
Gambler Island, opposite "White Rock" at Junc- 
tion of D.L. 1257 and 1259. "Bnphaaize "ho"; the 
"mahmk" is hardly heard. It is near middle of 
a bay on Gambler Island, slightly nortfc of due 
west of White Bock; there's a little creek 
there". 



3SL-TAAS 



QPHTLKA 



SEL-TAAS 

Khahtsahlano: "The north east point of Gambler 
Island on Lot 2979. Splnklam's Point. A point 
east of KLkins Point at the north end of Gambler 
Island; nothing there; Just a homestead; white 
peoples living there. No meaning, just a name. 
White mans call it Splnklam's Point. It is the 
north east point of Gambler Island. 

SMAAMPT 

irhwhtsahlano i "The head of West Bay, Gambler, B.C. 

gjAWLKJt 

Khahtsahlano: New Brighton. A little bay and 
creek on the west side of Gambler Island In D.L. 
847. An old Indian, Tom Cell or Sell, —his 
Indian name was Papqualk— lived there onoe; a 
white man lives there now. Tou cam go straight 
across from Quawklka to Gibsons. 
Meaning: I don't know. 



YPNO-qJJWKL-KA 



YUNG-OP AWKL-KA. 

TTh«hts ahlano t "There are two bays; one north 
and one south of the other. New Brighton la 
Quawkl-ka, and Tung-quawkl-ka la the bay south 
of It." 



433 



67 

GAMBIffl I3LAHD continued 

CHABL-SOM 

j^htsahlano: Charlsum, Halkett Bay, beside 

Meaning: "Some kind of little flab, always goes 
there*. (Whitebait). 



KWOM 



VA 



aahlano : Xwumch-nam. Hood Point. Sxtr 



north eaat 

point of Bowen Island. A bald lump, no tree*, 
which at high tide la an Island; at low tide 
connected to Bowen Island* 

Meaning: "Hoise as when stamping heal". It'a 
the wares that does that. 



MHfaMfll or S! 

bum* 

IMBaBMI 

Ilak 



Qwhel-hocaw Deep Core, where the Union 3,3. 

Co.'s dock is. Meaning: "Calm Bay". It's 

always calm there; no wind. 

Qwuail-hom. 

Qplelaqum, bat glTes it aa "Bowen Island*. 



tsahlanof 



Bill-Toat : 
ljtahtsa'hlsno : 



Wahk-woak. Htttt Island. 

Meaning: "Like as if he was adrift all the 

time". Water goes first one way, then another, 

all the time. That's water, too many islands 

for good canoeing* 

3auo.tite; but glrea location aa 'Hat Island'. 



Thuk-tayn-us. A long shallow bay (orescent 
form), facing south, at east half end of Heats 
Island; meaning: "Wide chest". That is, the 
shape of the bay is that of a wide chest on 
>'a body. 



tsahlano : Skwak-sas. Popham Island. 
-=="■ little islands". 



Meaning: "Many 



TAH-IWIH-ACI- 

*"t5 loir Swuspus-tah-kwin-ace. Worloombe Island. 

Meaning: "That's where they beach the whales", 
see "Qplnace", a whale. "Pus* means "beach". 



Bayoh-chair-kun. All the coast of Bowen Island 

facing south from Cowan Point to Roger Curtis 

Point* 

Meaning: "Outside of the island". 



PAI3LKT ISLAND 



l iflggp t«t..w3> 



434 




66 



roo t 



CHAI 



taahlano: 



(Difficult to put in English) Hoakpue, or 
Hoak-qhus. The moat southerly tip of Eeata 
Ialand. Don't know what it Means. 

On Eeata Ialand— directly eaat of Gihaona. 
A little gravel beach, no creek or other land 
Mark. The Indiana landed there to hunt deer, 
and the naae conveya or impliea the aenae that 
it la a place where you land, croaa oTer the 
ialand to the aea on the other aide of ialand, 
and return again to aeaa place. 

WEST SIDE - The Squamlah language stops at Gibaon'a Landing; to 

the north, the Seehelt, a different language commences. 



3TAW-EI- 

1 — -^*»^- ^ 



aahlano; 



"a place juat north weat of Qower Point, which 
waa the northern boundary of the Squamlah Indian 
territory** Ehahtaahlano aaya; "That* a aa far 
aa the Squamlah Indiana can go; auat be a little 
creek there; that's why they call it "atawk". 
Sobs pooplea go ashore there, but they aee lots 
wolf, but they turn back aoa not to dlaturb wolf; 
that's why they oall it "ki-yah", which means 
wolf; that is, "wolf creek". (perhaps KLphln- 
stone Creak). Ehahtaahlano: Sept. 21, 1936. 
There's a ereek oome down there at Staw-ki-yah. 
In olden days, Indians caatp there all the time, 
but north of that is Saohelt country. 



ht aahlano i 



Hill-Tout ; 



3c Junk. The bay of Gibaon'a Landing* 
Meaning: "A fellow la standing up and watching 
out;" leaning againat a big rock; the rock is 
on the shore about the middle of the bay. 
St o Ink. I.e., Gibson's. 



aahlano: 



A creek aouth of Witherby Point of D.L.1405. 
"A oreek on the weat ahore of Howe Sound, aaid 
to be one mile aouth of Wetherby Creak. "Ton 
see", says Ehahtaahlano, "the first creek, if 
they (the salmon) go up one creak, they juat go 
so far, and then they die. If they go up the 
other creek, them, alright* The Indiana aay the 
two creeks are Jealous of each other; that's why 
if the salmon go up the other ereek, they die"* 
"It* a really two creeks with one mouth"* 



"I never heard of a Squamlah name for Hopkins 
Landing, ao I asked Chief Jimmy Jimmy, oldest 
living Indian chief, and I aaked Chief Louis 
Miranda, chief of that district. Both say 
there* a no name". 



435 



Khahtaahlano : 



Bill-Tout : 
MpuSnt of 
Lands: 



MAH-HM I 



tayh1»nfit 



Khahtaahlano: 



Hill-Tout : 



69 

Khay-kul-hun. Port Mellon (kai-kalahun Indian 
Reaerve.) 

Meaning: a name difficult to Interpret. Khah- 
taahlano aaya: "Our language is getting differ- 
ent and la hard to convert this name into Eng- 
lish. There was once a village of about 40 
persona living there; they died out, but it la 
still an Indian Beserre. 
Kekelun. 

Kaikalshun Indian Beserre. 



Man-hum. Seaalde Park. A creek, a good fiahlng 
creek, about a quarter of a mile north of Port 
Mellon, directly north of Woolrldge Ialand. 
Meaning: Don't know meaning. 

Qutch-tlnlm. Big bay due north of Elklna Point, 

Gambler Ialand. "Mfflab Creek:- a creek in a big 

bay due north of Elklna Point. • 

Meaning: Where they cut fish open to clean them. 

Kwltotenen. 



THD M-qjS 

' taahlano: 



SI=Tor 
Kha 



htaahlano : 



Salts-so-sua. Potlach Creek, in big bay due 
north of Cornet Point. Cannot be aeen from Brit- 
tenia Beach. 

Meaning: "That' a where they had a big potlach". 
Andy Paull : "Taalta-so-sum"; where I waa born." 

"They aay *lt la looking outwards*, and get 
dirty face; face looks aa though it waa all 
dirty". "Pronounce "thum-thum" quickly; and 
"qua" slowly; dwell on "que". A bluff on the 
mainland due north of Defence Ialand. 
Means: "dirty face". 



"A creek south of Salt-up-aun; between Thum-thum- 
qus and Sait-up-aum. 



aahlano : 



Hill-Tout : 



hsk 



taahlano : 



Sait-up-sum. A point due weat from lurry Creak 
(the most aouthernly point of three). 
Meaning: A "narrow neck". An iathmus (narrow 
neck) Joins Sait-up-sum (the peninsula) to the 
mainland. last of D.L. 207T. 
Cetuksem or Cetuaum. 

Khaa-kow or Khsah-kow. 

Kba-Kbw. A point almost due southeast of tip of 
mount Jlleamere; it is the middle one of three 
points. (The middle point.) 



436 



KHA-KDW continued 



Khahtaahlano : 



70 

Meaning: "A big flat flab" — a skate. It Is a 
rock which looks like a great big flat fish. 
Cue west of D.L. 2925. 



The third and most northernly of three points 
(north of Kha-kow). It means "It Is a black fish 
or whale." It Is a rock on the shore, in the 
water, and is shaped like a black fish — the top 
half of the whale which comes out of the water 
when it plunges as it cruises about. Viewed 
from Brittania Beach, Quinace qppears about due 
west as a long flat light grey ledge lying along 
the water's edge beneath the massive bluff. It 
is said to be about fifty yards long. Salt-up- 
sum, Kha-kow, and Qjiinace can all be seen frost 
Brittania Beach. To the south, first cornea 
Kwum-Kwum, an island, then Salts-up-sum, a great 
ridge stretching from the aky to the sea; imposed 
on Saits-up-sum is another ridge; i.e., Kha-kow, 
and almost due west from Brittania Beach is Quinacc 
lying as a grey streak along the water's edge at 
the base of the mountain. See "Cwus-pus-tah- 
quin-ace. 



3WAMCH-1 



Tsahlano : 



"Just north of West Brittania". 
Deoember 9, 1938: "It Is next north along the 
coast from West Britannia, and due north of 
Whal-wha-layten. The shore comes down as a 
sloping rock, and goes on down into the water. 
If you run your canoe up to it; jump out fast, 
and< — if you have got good legs— run right up the 
rooky slope, you can get up the slope, but that 
is about the only way you can get up; if you 
slip you slip back into the water. "Swanchnim" 
means "to run". 



tsahlano: 



WWTAT 

Ihahtsohlan 



2} 



Hill-Tout: 



•A rook, sitting tilted, on the edge of the sea." 
Deo. 8, 1938: "It is a quarter of a mile north 
of Swanch-nim. There used to be a big round dome 
shaped rock sitting right on the edge of the 
water, and the Indiana claim that if there is a 
lot of fish around, this rock moves back, as he 
does not want himself to be all splashed with 
water by the fish Jumping around*. "Chee-aypk" 
means "right on the edge", something like if • 
was standing right on the edge of a cliff* 



Sc—yat is the creek at Woodflbre. 
Don't know, if any. 



8o~yat. 

Meaning; 

Swlat. 



437 



71 



ahtaahlano ; 



Hill-Tout ; 

SCTm-LAT 

"TEahtaahlano i 



Chay-whee. A high bluff, juat rock, no one 

Uvea there. 150 feet straight up, and goes 

right down Into the water, about four miles 

northward from Woodfibre. 

Meaning: "lift your paddle high up; away up". 

(When paddling, lift your arms high up). 

Teewas. 



About 100 yards north of Chay-whas is a bare 
bluff about forty feet high, i.e., Skwa-lat. 
Meaning: Khahtsahlano says just a name. 



SKWA-LAT : Khahtsahlano : 
more places". 



"After Skwalat, no 



Khahtaahlano: 

cm-woAt-aro 
an-mra 

WHy-ffryw 

yjT-low-KA 

m 

sno t 



sahohz or gawz 



"The Lions; "two mountains opposite Vancouver. 
Chee-Chee-Yoh-ee. Meaning: "Twins". 

The name of an Immense Indian lodge, the prin- 
cipal building of the village of Whoi-Whoi, in 
Stanley Park. 

Ladners Landing, B.C. 

New Westminster. See Roy. CM. Tate, "Early 
Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 151. 

Terra Nova Cannery, south end, Sea Island, see 
"laxly Vaneouwer," Vol. 2, p. 31. 

Steveston, B.C., see "Barly Vancouver", Vol. 2, p. 31. 



"White peoples say "Capilano", but proper name 
"li-ap-lan-ogh". Asked what meaning it had, he 
shrugged his shoulders, and said "Just name, 
same as white peoples names for places; don't 
mean "nothing"; just a name; not name of Homul- 
cheson Biver". 

Actually a rock, with a little tree growing on 
top, beside the lighthouse at the foot of Pros- 
pect Point, but, in a general way, also referring 
to the entrance of the "first Narrows", for which 
the Indians do not appear to have had an especial 
designation, as it was not particularly narrow 
for a canoe; nothing remarkable about its narrow- 
ness to an Indian. 



TH1 SPELLING OF fUPTT.two 
In a letter to the Colonial Government at 



438 



KLJOPLANMAH continued 

Victoria, ?ebruary, 1860, A.J. Juliua Voigt, 
pioneer, 1858, educated Pruaaian, spells it 
"CHIEF KLEOPLANHAH". Voight afterwsrda 
pre-empted land on Ifelse Creek at the foot of 
Mount Pleasant. 



71A 



P-iMrU-MO . 



Captain Rlcharda, R.N., of H.M.S. "Plumper", 
in a letter to Governor Douglas in 1859 apelli 
it "KI-AP-A-LA-NO". 



CHEAKAM03 . 



Major Matthews: 
August: 



Major Matthew*: 

August: 

Major Matthews: 

August: 

Major Matthews: 
August: 



(Station, lake, river, mountain, glacier) 
Conversation with August Jack Khahtaahlano . 
Capilano Indian Reaerve, at reception to 
Superintendent Laraen, R.C.M.P. at H.M.C.S. 
"Discovery", Wed. October 13th,ml954. 

"August! What does Cheakamus mean? 
"Basket; basket catch fiah. Put basket in 

ripple in river; fish go inside; cannot 

get out." 
"Bow long? Long as this motor car?" 
"Oh no; not that long. About ten feet." 
"How wide?" 
"Bout so high (holding hand level with middle 

of thigh. 'Bout three feet." 
"Draw me sketch." 
"Alright. I draw it." 



439 



72 



CHDL-' 



Khaht aaSTano ; 



TAT-TUM-SUN 
tCha 



htaahlano: 



TTM-TA-MA-ffl-TUM 
"KEahtaahlano: 



spu 



^SS, 



taahlano: 



SPCTCA-NAH-AH 

gh,a£ffftb4ano: 



CHUTK-THIPK-WJLT-TOH 
Kaahtsahlano: 



ST.ATT^WTT-'mTH 

Khaht aahTano : 



NORTH ABM. BPRRARD INLET 
INDIAN ARM 



Chul-whah-ul ch . 
Harbor. 



Bidwell Bay; same name as Coal 



Tay-tum-sun. Fort Moody. A good camping ground 
and creek formerly about Qieen Street. 



Tum-ta-maby-tun. Belcarra. The exact location 
la half a mile north of Belcarra; at the head 
of the large bay facing south, on D,L. £29. 
Meaning: "Good land". 



■Spucka-nay" is best. "Spucka" quick and short; 
"nay or nel" long drawn out. 



Spuka-nah-ah. Little White Rock on the point 
just where you pass mill (Dollar ton). 
Meaning: "Whiterock", same as whitemans call it. 
(White Rock Island in middle of channel). 



Thluk-thluk-way-tun. Bamet Mill. 

Meaning: "Where the bark gets pealed" in Spring. 



Slail-wit-tuth. 
Indian Reserve. 
Slail-wah-tuth. 



Indian Riv er, a lso see No. 3 

SLAIL-WAB-TOTH - Khaht sahlano:- 



HO. 3 IMDIAH RE3ERVB 
(West of Dollar ton) 



Khahtsahlano: 



"I don't know the name; we have always called 
it "No. 3", or "Slail-wit-tuth". Slail-wit-tuth 
is up Indian River, but No. 3 belongs to those 
people" (of Indian River). 



dLtMMsno.: 



Hill-Tout : 



"Never heard such a name, nor of place". 

(Note: Hill-Tout might be confused with lullaken, 

i.e., "a fence" at Point Grey). 

Els-ken. Mentioned this name, and gives its 

meaning as "palisade", i.e., a fenced village 



440 



72A 



KHA-NAH-MOOT 



See pp.72 ft 73 
for continuation 
of coast Una. 



A amall creek mouth, now at the foot of 
Windermere street, which formerly supplied 
the townsite settlement of Hastings, and of 
subsequent years known more particularly as 
the stream which ran through the "RAVINE" 
in Heatings Park. 

On Feb. 13th 1953, Captain Charles War- 
ren Catea, well known, told me that Joe Thom- 
as, 3quamish Indian, of "The Mission" Indian 
Reserve, North Vancouver,, who died in 1951 at 
the age of 90, told him aa follows: 

"At one time a small stream wended its way 
down through the woods from the direction 
of Burns by Lake, and emptied into the sea 
where Hastings Park is now. One day a man 
and a woman appeared from out the creek 
waters; it is supposed that the flowing 
water conceived them. The descendants of 
this man and woman lived there until the 
coming of the white man, and their village 
of oedar slab huts on the shore at the 
mouth was known as "KHA-NAH-MOOT" . Appar- 
ently the word interprets the story." 



See pp.46A t 
47 
78 



On Oct. 25th, 1951, Captain Charles V. Cates 
told me that old Joe Thomas, or pulk-way-lum, 
now dead, told him that the name of Ho. tore* 
Indian Reserve, between Second Harrows and 
Roche Point, was as shown, Xhahts-nloh. 



4-41 



73 



SASAMAT 

Query: 



Khaht aahlano : 



ha AH-Tim -NAB-MOOT 



What does Sasamat mean? The Spaniards who 
were here before Vancouver say that the Indians 
called Burrard Inlet Sasamat. 

That must be down towards Indian River. Don't 
know what it means; don't think it has anything 
to do with Tsa-atslum; that's out Point Grey, 
means (shrugging shoulders) 'chill place'. Tsa- 
tsa-slum out Point Grey, not Squamiah language; 
don't know what 'Sasamat' means; not same lang- 
uage, me never finished the place names up the 
Inlet. 

Reputed to be the name of Hastings Townslte. 
Capt. Charles Cates, North Vancouver, told that 
about midsummer, 1948, he spoke to Joe Thomas, 
who was born at Moodyviile, an old Indian who 
now lives on North Vancouver Indian Reserve. Joe 
told him that Indian legend was that at one time 
a small tribe lived there; that there was a 
spring of water, or small creek there, and that 
the word meant to be "born out of the waters of 
the stream". Joe Thomas told Capt. Cates that, 
after much enquiry, he had found an old Indian 
woman who gave him the name. 



442 



74 

HOWS SOUND 



NAME MEANING 

WEST 3IDB 

TCEWAS 
S WIAT 
C BTOKS ai 
CETOSUJI 

EEXJOON 

KDEKDI 

STCINK GIBSONS 



gjg SIDE 

KUKU'fWOM Waterfall 

CSTSAKEN Watti Point 

C1CAIOQOI. . Britannia 

ggggrg S - KHUL KALOS Painted 

SKUTUKSEN Promontory 

KD~l At3E N 
NPAPUK 

TUVTL3 Paint 

TGAXQU 
STOKTOKS 

3TCI UB Sling 

KBTLAISM Nipping grass 

SKKAWUrsUT Point Atkinson 



THT-Awna ra HOWS SOUND 

TLAQ QM Anvil Island 

TCAIKDNTS Gambler Island 

QOLEL1QOK Bowen Island 

SA.UQ3TTC Hat Island 

HITUafLSITC . , . . Passage Island 

( SOMEWHERE ON BUBRARD INLET ) 

KLAKBN Palisade— a fenced 

Tillage. 



443 



444 



s^^m 




, vT» 




i 





G9I 








is 



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CO H : 

LU U ! 

U _> i 

< Z I 

-J ; 

>5 

Z E 

58